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Dorina Papageorgiou, a neuroscientist who works on decoding speech from fMRI signals at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, says that the research is “cutting-edge work in the area of brain-computer interface speech output”. But brain signals for speech can also be decoded by electrodes positioned outside the brain, on the skull, or from fMRI, as in Papageorgiou’s work, and she believes that, for many patients, non-invasive methods would be a better bet than a brain electrode. Guenther and his colleagues say that they feel privileged to be involved in the project. “This was the first application where we see an individual improve his abilities based on something we theorized years ago,” he says. Their efforts are appreciated by the patient too. “When we first arrived to install this system he was obviously very excited ― you can tell from his involuntary movements, and he was trying to look at us the whole time,” Guenther says. As the man’s father told the team, “he really has a new lease on life”. The team’s next step is to train their computer decoder to recognize consonants so that patients can from whole words, and even sentences. They also hope that with developments in technology, they can implant more electrodes in their next patient to transmit a more detailed signal. よろしくお願いします^^;


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ドリーナ・パペイジャジョゥは、テキサス州ヒューストンのベイラー医科大学でfMRI信号からの言葉を解釈することに取り組む神経科学者ですが、その研究が「脳型コンピュータ・インターフェース音声出力における最先端の仕事」であると、言います。 しかし、言葉のための脳シグナルは、脳の外側の頭蓋骨に置かれた電極によって、あるいは、パペイジャジョゥの研究の場合のように、fMRIから、解読されることもできます、そして、彼女は、多くの患者にとっては、非侵襲的方法が、脳電極より良い方策であると信じています。 ガンサーと彼の同僚は、彼らがそのプロジェクトに従事することができて光栄に感じると言います。 「これは、我々が、数年前、理論化したことに基づいて、個人が彼の能力を向上させるのを我々が目にする最初の適用例でした」と、彼は言います。 彼らの努力は、患者からも感謝されています。 「我々が、初めて、このシステムを導入できるようになったとき、彼は明らかに、非常に興奮していました ― あなたは、彼の不随意運動から判断することができます、そして、彼は、ずっと、我々を見ようとしていました」と、ガンサーは言います。 その男性の父親が、チームに言ったように、「彼は、元気を取り戻したのです」。 チームの次のステップは、患者が全部の単語や文章でさえ作ることができる様に、彼らのコンピュータのデコーダー(解読器)を子音を認識するように訓練することです。 彼らは、また、テクノロジーの発達と共に、より詳細な信号を送るためにより多くの電極を次の患者に移植することができることを望んでいます。



ありがとうございます 助かりました^¥^


  • 英文和訳です

    Once the electrode was implanted, the team used a computer model of speech that Guenther had developed over the past 15 years to decode the signals coming from the man’s brain and discern which vowel sounds he was thinking about. Guenther presented the results at the Society for Neuroscience meeting in Washington DC on 19 November. So far, the patient has been able “to produce three vowel sounds with good accuracy”, says Guenther. This happens as quickly as normal speech, he says. “The long-term goal within five years is to have him use the speech brain-computer interface to produce words directly”, Guenther says. Most of the interfaces currently being developed transmit signals from the region of the brain that controls movement to either a prosthetic arm or even, as shown by a recent study in monkeys, the subject’s own arm. According to Guenther, this is the first brain-computer interface that has been tailored for speech. よろしくお願いします^^;

  • 英文和訳です

    Dr. Frank Guenther is a cognitive neuroscientist who studies speech production, speech perception, and sensory-motor control. He and his team helped a completely paralyzed but conscious patient communicate with the use of brain sensors. First, the researchers watched the patient’s brain activity by using functional MRI (fMRI) as he tried to say certain vowels. Next, they implanted an electrode into the part of the man’s brain that deals with speech production. The electrode can sense brain activity very quickly and transmit it instantaneously to a machine that can show which vowels the patient is thinking about. After more vowels and consonants are added to the list of understood letters, it is hoped that the patient will be able to communicate whole words to the researchers. Other projects have used electrodes to allow a paralyzed person to move a robotic arm, but this is the first project to have a specifically designed brain-computer interface for speech. A future patient may have additional electrodes implanted so that more information can be transmitted from the speech-production area of the brain to the researchers, leading to deeper communication. よろしくお願いします^^;

  • 和訳をお願いします

    The team’s next step is to train their computer decoder to recognize consonants so that patients can from whole words, and even sentences. They also hope that with developments in technology, they can implant more electrodes in their next patient to transmit a more detailed signal. また、1つ目の文のso that patients can ~のcanのかかる動詞はなんなんですか?

  • 和訳をお願いします

    The team’s next step is to train their computer decoder to recognize consonants so that patients can from whole words, and even sentences. They also hope that with developments in technology, they can implant more electrodes in their next patient to transmit a more detailed signal. また、1つ目の文のso that patients can ~のcanのかかる動詞はなんなんですか? よろしくお願いします^^;

  • 和訳をお願いします

    Guenther and his colleagues say that they feel privileged to be involved in the project. “This was the first application where we see an individual improve his abilities based on something we theorized years ago,” he says. また、2つ目の文のindividualは名詞なんですか? よろしくお願いします^^;

  • 英文和訳です

    An electrode implanted into the brain of a man who is unable to move or communicate has enabled him to use a speech synthesizer to produce vowel sounds as he thinks them. The work could one day help similar patients to produce whole sentences using signals from their brains, say the researchers. Frank Guenther of Boston University in Massachusetts and his colleagues worked with a patient who has locked-in syndrome, a condition in which patients are almost completely paralysed ― often able to move only their eyelids ― but still fully conscious. Guenther and his team first had to determine whether the man’s brain could produce the same speech signals as a healthy person’s. So they scanned his brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he attempted to say certain vowels. Once the researchers were happy that the signal were the same, they implanted an electrode ― designed by neuroscientist Philip Kennedy of the firm Neural Signals in Duluth, Georgia ― into the speech-production areas of the man’s brain. The electrode will remain there for the foreseeable future. The electrode is different to others used for brain-computer interfaces, most of which are fixed to the skull rather than within a specific part of the brain. This means that the electrodes can move around, making it difficult to record from the same neurons every time or to leave the electrode in place for more than a few months at a time. The electrode used by Guenther’s team is impregnated with neurotrophic factors, which encourage neurons to grow into and around the electrode, anchoring it in place and allowing it to be recorded from for a much longer time. 長文でスミマセンがよろしくお願いします^^;

  • 和訳をお願します

    Dr. Adrian Owen is a professor of neuroscience at Cambridge University. Dr. Owen’s team concentrates on the diagnosis and effect of brain injuries, and the development of treatments for such patients. He was not satisfied with the accepted methods of diagnosing comatose patients. Typically, when someone cannot respond to any questions or requests, they will be diagnosed as “vegetative.” However, a significant number of so-called vegetative patients are actually conscious, but completely unable to respond to questions. In a previous study, Dr. Owen put healthy volunteers into an fMRI scanner and asked them to imagine playing tennis. After mapping the area that becomes active when people imagine that activity, they put a vegetative patient into the scanner and asked her to imagine playing tennis. To the team’s great joy, the patient’s brain lit up just like that of the healthy volunteers. Since she could respond to their request to imagine playing tennis, she showed them that she was conscious ― all this despite being completely still, having her eyes closed and showing no signs of consciousness. Another patient was told to use a code to communicate with the research team. To signify “Yes,” he was to imagine playing tennis. To signify “No,” he was to imagine walking around in his house. He was asked yes-or-no questions about his personal history, and correctly answered, proving that despite his appearance he was conscious and could communicate. Next, the research team plans to ask unverifiable questions, in an attempt to communicate more deeply with these patients who can manipulate their brains, but not their bodies. よろしくお願いしますorz

  • 和訳お願いします

    You have already heard how from time to time he himself stupid each operation in the making of his lamp,and how thoroughly he worked out the process of carbonization.First he formed his filament from the raw material and then he carbonized them.Those that worked on the problem before Edison,took carbon already made from which to shape their light-giving elements.Some had their carbons made by Carre of Paris,an electric arc light carbon manufacturer;and these were in the shape of rods. Thus we see distinctive methods of operation,with Edison following a different course from all the others in procuring and making his carbon filament. When at last he had concluded his investigations into carbon-making and began to make lamps in quantities,he assigned Lawson,Van Cleve and others to the job, instructing them in all the details.From that time forth it was more of a routine process than an experimental one.Likewise the newcomers whom the new-found light and dynamo lured to Menlo Park,Clarke,Howell,Hammer,Acheson,Holzer and others,were assigned places in this new activity.And each of the so-colled 'departments'was given its own routine.

  • 和訳をお願いします

    和訳と( )に入る語句の選択を お願いします。長くてすみません(>_<) The ancient Greeks, who are credited with the idea of the Olympics, believed in the ( 1 ) development of both mind and body. This belief is still alive in our society. The athlete has the utmost respect for his body, as if it were an ( 2 )piece of expensive machinery. If he plays poorly, he may blame his unsatisfactory performance on one part of his body. The relationship between the outstanding athlete and his parents also can be a major determinant of his athletic ability and level of performance. One noted American psychologist has made the observation that outstanding athletes tend to have especially ( 3 ) relationships with their mothers and were encouraged from an early age by rewards of love and approval to perform challenging physical feats. The psychological pressures on an athlete in competition of the Olympic level are great. Not only does he suffer from the nervous ( 4 )of having to prove his own ability, but he carries the additional burden of representing his county. However, the superior athletes are able to cope with the high hopes ringing on them. They know that they have done their best to prepare. (1)1. harmonious 2.tedious 3.unnatural 4.immoral (2)1.irregular 2.enabled 3.intuitional 4.invaluable (3)1.fragile 2.liable 3.intense 4.profitable (4)1.attempt 2.tension 3.priority 4.complication

  • 和訳お願いします

    和訳お願いします Owen and his collaborators repeated their fMRI experiment on 54 patients who had previously been classified as either vegetative or minimally conscious(a consistently respond to commands, but cannot communicate interactively). They found that five of these 54 patients responded to commands to imagine playing tennis or navigating thought a familiar house. Four of those five patients had classified as vegetative, but when clinicians repeated their assessment following the fMRI study, they found evidence that two of those four should instead have been classified as minimally conscious. One of the responsive patients, a 22-year-old man who had been diagnosed as vegetative for five years after a traffic accident left him with a traumatic brain injury, was selected for further study. Because it is difficult-if not impossible-to determine whether someone is thinking yes or no, the reseachers instead asked the patient to imagine playing tennis when the answer to imagine playing tennis when the answer to a question was yes, and to imagine walking through a house when the answer was no. Visualizing these two activities stimulates different parts of the brain that are easily distinguished using fMRI. They asked the patient a series of simple yes-or-no question pertaining to his personal history, such as Is your father's name Alexander? He answered five out of six question correctly. No brain activity was observed in response to the sixth question. The results suggest that fMRI could be useful in diagnosing unresponsive patients, says Owen. There are things that are just not going to manifest themselves in outward behavior , says Owen. This method can tell us which patients are aware, and it can tell us what they are capable of. For Naccache, it is the patient's ability to respond using the code suggested by Owen and his team that indicates he is truly conscious. When you are conscious, you have the ability to use an arbitrary code to communicate with somebody, he says. Parashkev Nachev, a neuroscientist at University College London who was not affiliated with the work, cautions that it is important not to over-interpret the results. The patient only answered a series of very basic questions, he notes, and the results in his view do not necessarily suggest that the patient is fully conscious or has the potential for recovery. There is no doubt that it does merit further research, he says, but I could not see using it as a clinical tool at this stage. As a next step, Owen and his colleagues intend to ask the patient a series of questions with unverifiable answers. For example, the technique could be used to ask whether they are experiencing any pain-a question that frequently troubles family members and hospital staff. But should a vegetative patient be asked whether they want to live or die? I think there's an enormous problem with that, says Owen. Just because a patient is able to respond with yes or no doesn't tell you if they have the necessary level of competence to answer difficult, ethically challenging questions about their destiny.