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Dr. Frank Guenther is a cognitive neuroscientist who studies speech production, speech perception, and sensory-motor control. He and his team helped a completely paralyzed but conscious patient communicate with the use of brain sensors. First, the researchers watched the patient’s brain activity by using functional MRI (fMRI) as he tried to say certain vowels. Next, they implanted an electrode into the part of the man’s brain that deals with speech production. The electrode can sense brain activity very quickly and transmit it instantaneously to a machine that can show which vowels the patient is thinking about. After more vowels and consonants are added to the list of understood letters, it is hoped that the patient will be able to communicate whole words to the researchers. Other projects have used electrodes to allow a paralyzed person to move a robotic arm, but this is the first project to have a specifically designed brain-computer interface for speech. A future patient may have additional electrodes implanted so that more information can be transmitted from the speech-production area of the brain to the researchers, leading to deeper communication. よろしくお願いします^^;


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フランク・ギュンター博士は、音声生成、音声知覚、ならびに感覚運動制御を 研究する認知神経科学者である。 彼と彼のチームは、脳センサの利用により、完全に麻痺してはいるが意識のあ る患者が意思伝達することを可能にした。 まず、研究者らは、患者が特定の母音を発しようとする際の脳の活動を、機能 的 MRI (fMRI) を使用して観察した。 次に、脳の音声生成をつかさどる部分に電極を挿入した。 この電極は極めて迅速に脳の活動を感知し、その情報を、患者が思い浮かべた 母音が何であるかを表示できる機械に瞬時にして送信することができる。 理解可能な文字のリストにさらに多くの母音と子音が加われば、患者が単語単 位で研究者に意思を伝えることが可能になると期待される。 電極を使用することで麻痺患者がロボット・アームを動かせるようになるプロ ジェクトもこれまでにはあったが、特別に設計した脳-コンピュータ・インタ フェイスを擁するプロジェクトは、これがはじめてである。 将来的には、患者に挿入する電極を増やすことで、脳の音声発生野から研究者 により多くの情報を送ることができるようになり、意思の疎通が深まることも 考えられる。





  • 英文和訳です

    An electrode implanted into the brain of a man who is unable to move or communicate has enabled him to use a speech synthesizer to produce vowel sounds as he thinks them. The work could one day help similar patients to produce whole sentences using signals from their brains, say the researchers. Frank Guenther of Boston University in Massachusetts and his colleagues worked with a patient who has locked-in syndrome, a condition in which patients are almost completely paralysed ― often able to move only their eyelids ― but still fully conscious. Guenther and his team first had to determine whether the man’s brain could produce the same speech signals as a healthy person’s. So they scanned his brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he attempted to say certain vowels. Once the researchers were happy that the signal were the same, they implanted an electrode ― designed by neuroscientist Philip Kennedy of the firm Neural Signals in Duluth, Georgia ― into the speech-production areas of the man’s brain. The electrode will remain there for the foreseeable future. The electrode is different to others used for brain-computer interfaces, most of which are fixed to the skull rather than within a specific part of the brain. This means that the electrodes can move around, making it difficult to record from the same neurons every time or to leave the electrode in place for more than a few months at a time. The electrode used by Guenther’s team is impregnated with neurotrophic factors, which encourage neurons to grow into and around the electrode, anchoring it in place and allowing it to be recorded from for a much longer time. 長文でスミマセンがよろしくお願いします^^;

  • 英文和訳です

    Once the electrode was implanted, the team used a computer model of speech that Guenther had developed over the past 15 years to decode the signals coming from the man’s brain and discern which vowel sounds he was thinking about. Guenther presented the results at the Society for Neuroscience meeting in Washington DC on 19 November. So far, the patient has been able “to produce three vowel sounds with good accuracy”, says Guenther. This happens as quickly as normal speech, he says. “The long-term goal within five years is to have him use the speech brain-computer interface to produce words directly”, Guenther says. Most of the interfaces currently being developed transmit signals from the region of the brain that controls movement to either a prosthetic arm or even, as shown by a recent study in monkeys, the subject’s own arm. According to Guenther, this is the first brain-computer interface that has been tailored for speech. よろしくお願いします^^;

  • 和訳をお願いします

    Dorina Papageorgiou, a neuroscientist who works on decoding speech from fMRI signals at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, says that the research is “cutting-edge work in the area of brain-computer interface speech output”. But brain signals for speech can also be decoded by electrodes positioned outside the brain, on the skull, or from fMRI, as in Papageorgiou’s work, and she believes that, for many patients, non-invasive methods would be a better bet than a brain electrode. Guenther and his colleagues say that they feel privileged to be involved in the project. “This was the first application where we see an individual improve his abilities based on something we theorized years ago,” he says. Their efforts are appreciated by the patient too. “When we first arrived to install this system he was obviously very excited ― you can tell from his involuntary movements, and he was trying to look at us the whole time,” Guenther says. As the man’s father told the team, “he really has a new lease on life”. The team’s next step is to train their computer decoder to recognize consonants so that patients can from whole words, and even sentences. They also hope that with developments in technology, they can implant more electrodes in their next patient to transmit a more detailed signal. よろしくお願いします^^;

  • 英文の和訳です。

    全体的には長く大変でしたが、これといって一文が長いものはなかったので、まだ訳せました。 ただ、ところどころ知らない単語や忘れかけていた熟語が出てきたので、覚えておこうと思います。 スペルミスには気を付けましたが… お願いします。  Some of the world´s most famous persons have suffered from a similar disability. Albert Einstein, the physicist. Thomas Edison, the inventor. Auguste Rodin, the artist whose statues are in museums around the world. What disabled these three highly-intelligent men? Strange as it may seem, they all suffered from learning disabilities, the name given to a number of related learning disorders.  Persons with learning disabilities are of normal or higher intelligence. Yet they have great difficulty learning to read, write or use numbers.  Almost always, there is a problem with one of the mental processes needed to understand or use written signs or spoken language. A learning-disabled child sees and hears perfectly well. Yet he or she is unable to recognize differences in sizes, shapes or sounds that are easy for others to recognize.  Learning disabilities are very common. They affect perhaps 10 percent of all children. Four times as many boys as girls have learning disabilities.  Since about 1970, new research has helped brain scientists understand these problems better. Scientists now new there are many different kinds of learning disabilities and that they are caused by many different things. There is no longer any question that all learning disabilities result from differences in the way the brain is organized.  You cannot look at a child and tell if he or she has a learning disability. There is no outward sign of the disorder. So some researchers began looking at the brain itself to learn what might be wrong.  In one study, researchers examined the brain of a learning-disabled person who had died in an accident. They found two unusual things. One involved cells in the left side of the brain, which control language. These cells normally are white. In the learning-disabled person, however, these cells were gray. The researchers also found that many of the nerve cells were not in a line the way they should have been. The nerve cells were mixed together.  This study was carried out under the guidance of Norman Geschwind, an early expert on learning disabilities. Dr. Geschwind proposed that learning disabilities resulted mainly from problems in the left side of the brain. He believed the left side of the brain failed to develop normally. Probably, he said, nerve cells there did not connect as they should.  Researchers are continuing to investigate many possible influences on brain development and organization. They know that the two sides of the brain control opposite sides of the body. Usually, the left side of the brain is stronger than the right side. So most persons are right-handed. They use their right hand for most actions. Researchers long wondered why left-handed boys develop learning disabilities more often than right-handed boys. 以上です。

  • 次の英文を和訳してほしいです。

    There was one large difference between the animal study and the human research projects mentioned in the article: the researchers controlled what the animals in the earlier studies ate, while the humans reported their eating behavior. Thus, as Dr. Bartke mentions, there is a question about the quality of the data. As long as the researchers kept careful records on what was fed to the animal subjects and prevented the animals from getting food from other sources, they could be confident of the food intake measurement. Humans, however, are not lab rats. It is not ethical, or generally possible, to completely control the environment that a human experiences. In this case, it was likely not economically feasible to control the diet for the subjects in the “diet group.” As a result, the researchers relied on self-reported data from these subjects. It is very unlikely that all of the members who reported that they cut their caloric intake by 30% actually did so. If the control their diet and observe their action, then we might be able to accept that the members of the group actually reduced their calories by 30%. However, one would then worry that a group of people who could take three months to go to a lab environment might not be representative of the general population.

  • 英文和訳

    There are also diverse opinions on how great a role faith and religion play in happiness. Many researchers, however, agree that spirituality does play at least role. Fully rational people, they believe, are less likely to be happy. どなたかお願いしますm(__)m

  • 英語の分詞について

    Brain researchers using technology have shown that~ 訳 脳の研究者は技術をつかって~を示した 何ですが どうしてusingはhaving usedにならないのでしょうか? また分詞usingを分詞にする前の英文はどのようになりますか

  • 和訳してください

    単語を訳しても文章にならないので質問させていただきます。 They question authority instinctively. Theyは文章より young researchers で自分なりですが「彼らは直感的に権威を問う」と訳しました。訳し方はあっているでしょうか? また、 To get a preview of the unsettling truths science will be uncovering in this century,then,it makes sense to look at young researchers in the most creative phase of their careers, when formal education is complete but eminence still hovers indistinctlu in the future. ですが、「驚くべき真実の科学の未来を手に入れることは、この新世紀を明らかにするだろう・・・」 と訳してみましたが、自分で訳していても意味分からなくなってしまいました。unsettlingはどう訳せばよいでしょうか? よろしくお願いいたします。

  • この英文の訳を教えてください

    Ever since his death in 1955, scientists have asked what features of Albert Einstein’s brain contributed to his extraordinary insights into physical laws. Research on the anatomy of Einstein’s genius, which dates back decades, faltered because many of the postmortem images and slides of tissue were scattered and became unavailable to researchers. 以上の2文です。 よろしくお願いしますm(_ _;)m

  • この英文の訳について。

    The researchers found that the majority of parents who took their children out of school were white British, and that children tended to be removed between finishing primary and starting secondary school. この部分の訳ですが、後半部分で行き詰っています…。 どなたかわかる方いらっしゃいましたら教えてください><