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Dr. Frank Guenther is a cognitive neuroscientist who studies speech production, speech perception, and sensory-motor control. He and his team helped a completely paralyzed but conscious patient communicate with the use of brain sensors. First, the researchers watched the patient’s brain activity by using functional MRI (fMRI) as he tried to say certain vowels. Next, they implanted an electrode into the part of the man’s brain that deals with speech production. The electrode can sense brain activity very quickly and transmit it instantaneously to a machine that can show which vowels the patient is thinking about. After more vowels and consonants are added to the list of understood letters, it is hoped that the patient will be able to communicate whole words to the researchers. Other projects have used electrodes to allow a paralyzed person to move a robotic arm, but this is the first project to have a specifically designed brain-computer interface for speech. A future patient may have additional electrodes implanted so that more information can be transmitted from the speech-production area of the brain to the researchers, leading to deeper communication. よろしくお願いします^^;


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フランク・ギュンター博士は、音声生成、音声知覚、ならびに感覚運動制御を 研究する認知神経科学者である。 彼と彼のチームは、脳センサの利用により、完全に麻痺してはいるが意識のあ る患者が意思伝達することを可能にした。 まず、研究者らは、患者が特定の母音を発しようとする際の脳の活動を、機能 的 MRI (fMRI) を使用して観察した。 次に、脳の音声生成をつかさどる部分に電極を挿入した。 この電極は極めて迅速に脳の活動を感知し、その情報を、患者が思い浮かべた 母音が何であるかを表示できる機械に瞬時にして送信することができる。 理解可能な文字のリストにさらに多くの母音と子音が加われば、患者が単語単 位で研究者に意思を伝えることが可能になると期待される。 電極を使用することで麻痺患者がロボット・アームを動かせるようになるプロ ジェクトもこれまでにはあったが、特別に設計した脳-コンピュータ・インタ フェイスを擁するプロジェクトは、これがはじめてである。 将来的には、患者に挿入する電極を増やすことで、脳の音声発生野から研究者 により多くの情報を送ることができるようになり、意思の疎通が深まることも 考えられる。





  • 英文和訳です

    An electrode implanted into the brain of a man who is unable to move or communicate has enabled him to use a speech synthesizer to produce vowel sounds as he thinks them. The work could one day help similar patients to produce whole sentences using signals from their brains, say the researchers. Frank Guenther of Boston University in Massachusetts and his colleagues worked with a patient who has locked-in syndrome, a condition in which patients are almost completely paralysed ― often able to move only their eyelids ― but still fully conscious. Guenther and his team first had to determine whether the man’s brain could produce the same speech signals as a healthy person’s. So they scanned his brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he attempted to say certain vowels. Once the researchers were happy that the signal were the same, they implanted an electrode ― designed by neuroscientist Philip Kennedy of the firm Neural Signals in Duluth, Georgia ― into the speech-production areas of the man’s brain. The electrode will remain there for the foreseeable future. The electrode is different to others used for brain-computer interfaces, most of which are fixed to the skull rather than within a specific part of the brain. This means that the electrodes can move around, making it difficult to record from the same neurons every time or to leave the electrode in place for more than a few months at a time. The electrode used by Guenther’s team is impregnated with neurotrophic factors, which encourage neurons to grow into and around the electrode, anchoring it in place and allowing it to be recorded from for a much longer time. 長文でスミマセンがよろしくお願いします^^;

  • 英文和訳です

    Once the electrode was implanted, the team used a computer model of speech that Guenther had developed over the past 15 years to decode the signals coming from the man’s brain and discern which vowel sounds he was thinking about. Guenther presented the results at the Society for Neuroscience meeting in Washington DC on 19 November. So far, the patient has been able “to produce three vowel sounds with good accuracy”, says Guenther. This happens as quickly as normal speech, he says. “The long-term goal within five years is to have him use the speech brain-computer interface to produce words directly”, Guenther says. Most of the interfaces currently being developed transmit signals from the region of the brain that controls movement to either a prosthetic arm or even, as shown by a recent study in monkeys, the subject’s own arm. According to Guenther, this is the first brain-computer interface that has been tailored for speech. よろしくお願いします^^;

  • 和訳をお願いします

    Dorina Papageorgiou, a neuroscientist who works on decoding speech from fMRI signals at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, says that the research is “cutting-edge work in the area of brain-computer interface speech output”. But brain signals for speech can also be decoded by electrodes positioned outside the brain, on the skull, or from fMRI, as in Papageorgiou’s work, and she believes that, for many patients, non-invasive methods would be a better bet than a brain electrode. Guenther and his colleagues say that they feel privileged to be involved in the project. “This was the first application where we see an individual improve his abilities based on something we theorized years ago,” he says. Their efforts are appreciated by the patient too. “When we first arrived to install this system he was obviously very excited ― you can tell from his involuntary movements, and he was trying to look at us the whole time,” Guenther says. As the man’s father told the team, “he really has a new lease on life”. The team’s next step is to train their computer decoder to recognize consonants so that patients can from whole words, and even sentences. They also hope that with developments in technology, they can implant more electrodes in their next patient to transmit a more detailed signal. よろしくお願いします^^;

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします!!

    An AED is "automatic" because of the unit's ability to autonomously analyse the patient's condition. To assist this, the vast majority of units have spoken prompts, and some may also have visual displays to instruct the user. "External" refers to the fact that the operator applies the electrode pads to the bare chest of the victim (as opposed to internal defibrillators, which have electrodes surgically implanted inside the body of a patient). When turned on or opened, the AED will instruct the user to connect the electrodes (pads) to the patient. Once the pads are attached, everyone should avoid touching the patient so as to avoid false readings by the unit. The pads allow the AED to examine the electrical output from the heart and determine if the patient is in a shockable rhythm (either ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia). If the device determines that a shock is warranted, it will use the battery to charge its internal capacitor in preparation to deliver the shock. This system is not only safer (charging only when required), but also allows for a faster delivery of the electric current. When charged, the device instructs the user to ensure no one is touching the patient and then to press a button to deliver the shock; human intervention is usually required to deliver the shock to the patient in order to avoid the possibility of accidental injury to another person (which can result from a responder or bystander touching the patient at the time of the shock). Depending on the manufacturer and particular model, after the shock is delivered most devices will analyze the patient and either instruct CPR to be given, or administer another shock. Many AED units have an 'event memory' which store the ECG of the patient along with details of the time the unit was activated and the number and strength of any shocks delivered. Some units also have voice recording abilities[citation needed] to monitor the actions taken by the personnel in order to ascertain if these had any impact on the survival outcome. All this recorded data can be either downloaded to a computer or printed out so that the providing organisation or responsible body is able to see the effectiveness of both CPR and defibrillation. Some AED units even provide feedback on the quality of the compressions provided by the rescuer. The first commercially available AEDs were all of a monophasic type, which gave a high-energy shock, up to 360 to 400 joules depending on the model. This caused increased cardiac injury and in some cases second and third-degree burns around the shock pad sites. Newer AEDs (manufactured after late 2003) have tended to utilise biphasic algorithms which give two sequential lower-energy shocks of 120 - 200 joules, with each shock moving in an opposite polarity between the pads. This lower-energy waveform has proven more effective in clinical tests, as well as offering a reduced rate of complications and reduced recovery time.

  • 英文の和訳です。

    全体的には長く大変でしたが、これといって一文が長いものはなかったので、まだ訳せました。 ただ、ところどころ知らない単語や忘れかけていた熟語が出てきたので、覚えておこうと思います。 スペルミスには気を付けましたが… お願いします。  Some of the world´s most famous persons have suffered from a similar disability. Albert Einstein, the physicist. Thomas Edison, the inventor. Auguste Rodin, the artist whose statues are in museums around the world. What disabled these three highly-intelligent men? Strange as it may seem, they all suffered from learning disabilities, the name given to a number of related learning disorders.  Persons with learning disabilities are of normal or higher intelligence. Yet they have great difficulty learning to read, write or use numbers.  Almost always, there is a problem with one of the mental processes needed to understand or use written signs or spoken language. A learning-disabled child sees and hears perfectly well. Yet he or she is unable to recognize differences in sizes, shapes or sounds that are easy for others to recognize.  Learning disabilities are very common. They affect perhaps 10 percent of all children. Four times as many boys as girls have learning disabilities.  Since about 1970, new research has helped brain scientists understand these problems better. Scientists now new there are many different kinds of learning disabilities and that they are caused by many different things. There is no longer any question that all learning disabilities result from differences in the way the brain is organized.  You cannot look at a child and tell if he or she has a learning disability. There is no outward sign of the disorder. So some researchers began looking at the brain itself to learn what might be wrong.  In one study, researchers examined the brain of a learning-disabled person who had died in an accident. They found two unusual things. One involved cells in the left side of the brain, which control language. These cells normally are white. In the learning-disabled person, however, these cells were gray. The researchers also found that many of the nerve cells were not in a line the way they should have been. The nerve cells were mixed together.  This study was carried out under the guidance of Norman Geschwind, an early expert on learning disabilities. Dr. Geschwind proposed that learning disabilities resulted mainly from problems in the left side of the brain. He believed the left side of the brain failed to develop normally. Probably, he said, nerve cells there did not connect as they should.  Researchers are continuing to investigate many possible influences on brain development and organization. They know that the two sides of the brain control opposite sides of the body. Usually, the left side of the brain is stronger than the right side. So most persons are right-handed. They use their right hand for most actions. Researchers long wondered why left-handed boys develop learning disabilities more often than right-handed boys. 以上です。

  • 英文の和訳をお願いしますm(__)m

    以下の5文を訳してくださいm(__)m ▼Here in this area of overlap between the playing of the child and the Playing of the other person there is a chance to introduce enrichments. ▼The teacher aims at enrichment.By contrast,the therapist is concerned specifically with the child's own growth processes,and with the removal of blocks to development that may have become evident. ▼It is psychoanalytic theory that has made for an understanding of these blocks. ▼At the same time it would be a narrow view to suppose that psychoanalysis is the only way to make therapeutic use of the child's playing. ▼It is good to remember always that playing is itself a therapy.To arrange for children to be able to play is itself a psychotherapy that has immediate and universal application,and it includes the establishment of a positive social attitude towards playing.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    As scientists slowly but surely unlock the mysteries of the brain, they are helping us find solutions for many of our most serious behavioral and social problems. Here are a few recent examples of neuroscience in action. It happens to all of us. As we perform a monotonous task, our brains seem to slow down and we become increasingly prone to making mistakes. Well, it turns out that such tasks actually do numb the brain and make it easier for us to slip up. A recent Norwegian brain-imaging study has found that while we are doing dull, repetitive chores, blood flows into the part of the brain that is more active during states of rest, including sleep. The researchers also found that this usually happens about 30 seconds before we make a mistake. This raises the possibility that workers could somehow be alerted before they make a mistake, thereby improving workplace performance and safety. Another interesting brain-scan study using MRI technology was conducted at Baylor University in Texas. The results show that a baby`s smile actually activates the part of a mother`s brain associated with emotional reward and well-being.

  • 文法的に正しいのはどれ?

    文法的に正しいのは以下のうちどれでしょうか。何度も読んでいたら分からなくなってしまいました・・・。 言おうとしていること:The diameter of the source electrode is 0.8mm, and the diameter of the gate electrode is 0.4mm. この内容を一文にすると以下の(1)~(4)の内どれが正しいのでしょうか?: (1)The diameters of the source and gate electrodes are 0.8mm and 0.4mm, respectively. (2)The diameters of the source and gate electrodes is 0.8mm and 0.4mm, respectively. (3)The diameter of the source and gate electrodes is 0.8mm and 0.4mm, respectively. (4)The diameter of the source and gate electrodes are 0.8mm and 0.4mm, respectively. よろしくお願いいたします。

  • 和訳してください。

    The term spike refers to the shape of the peaks that are seen on the oscillograph records when the membrane potential is measured by a fine electrode placed in the vicinity, or in the interior of the neuron. (The more interpretable records of the membrane potential are obtained by means of one electrode inside the cell and one outside, which may be placed at some distance and is then called “indifferent electrode”.) この文章の和訳お願いします。

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いします!!

    In almost every TV show about an emergency room you probably see an ambulance screeching to a stop with its lights flashing , a gurney being rushed through the corridors and emergency staff racing against time to save a person's kife with only seconds to spare. This scene is possible and occasionally happends , but most of he cases that a typical emergency department sees aren't so dramatic. Let's look at how an ordinary case goes through the normal flow of an emergency room. When patients arrive at the Emergency Department , they go to triage first. In triage , each patient's condition is prioritized , typically by a nurse. She puts the patient into one of three general categories. The categories are: ・Immediately life-threatening ・Urgent , but not immediately life-threatening ・Less urgent Categorizing patients is necessary so that someone with a life-threatening condition doesn't have to wait to get care. The triage nurse records the vital sugns (temperature , pulse , respiratory rate , and blood pressure). She also takes a brief history of the patient's current medical complaints , past medical problems , medications and allergies. From this information , the nurse can decide which triage category is suitable. Registration is the next stage in the ER process. A TV show rarely lets us see this part. It's not exciting , but it is very important. This is where the hospital collexts the patient's personal details and insurance information. Registration is needed to create a clear medical record so that the patient's medical history , lab tests , X-rays , etc. , will all be put on his or her medical chart. That chart can then be checked by doctors , nurses and other medical staff when necessary. Also , this information will be important for creating the hospital bill. If the patient has a life-threatening situation or arrives by ambulance , the registration stage might be done later at the beside. Finally , the patient comes to the exam room. The nurse has the person put on a patient gown so that an examination can be done properly. She might also collect a urine specimen at this time. After the nurse's tasks are fished , the emergency-medicine physician meets with the patient. The physician asks questions t create a more detailed medical history about the present illness , past medical problems , family history , social history , and also takes a close look at all the patient's physical systems. The physician then formulates a list of possible causes of the patient's symptoms. This is called a differential diagnosis. The most likely diagnosis is then determined by th patient's symptoms and the physical examination. If this stage is not enough to create a clear diagnosis , then further diagnostic testa are done.