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Maxim didn't run to New York and give his opinion to a newspaper,but went to his laboratory and began trying to make a lamp after Edison's ideas.He had no success,however,and after a few weeks sent to Menlo Park an emissary who got in touch with Boehm.It was also said that the agent approached another of our men.The deportment of Boehm changed perceptibly and soon begame suspicious. Hw was changing his allegiance to that of Maxim.In fact,he soon departed Menlo Park and entered that electrician's employ.This as far I am aware was the only defection that ever occured at our laboratory in those early days.In a few months Boehm managed to place the Maxim laboratory incondition so that it was able to produce some incandescent lamps that had their light-giving element made of paper.While at Menlo Park Boehm had had the oppotunity of watching all the various processes by which Edison made a practical lamp,and that acquired knowledge he imparted to Maxim.With the compensation he received,he was enabled to return to Germany and study.After receiving the degree of Ph.D. from the University of Freiburg in 1886,he returned to America.

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マキシムは大急ぎでニューヨークに行って、新聞社に自分の意見を言うことはしなかった。かわりに彼は自分の実験室に行き、エジソンのアイデアを追い求めてランプを作り始めた。彼は成功しなかったが、数週間後ベームに連絡を取った使者をメンロパークに送った。特定の仲介者が我々のうちの別の者に接近しているとも言われていた。ベームの物腰は感覚的にかなり変化し、すぐいぶかり始めた。 彼はマキシムの使者に対して忠誠を示す態度へと変わっていった。事実、まもなく彼はメンロパークを去り、その電気技師に雇用されたのだ。これが私の知る限り、その当時の初期、研究所で起こった唯一の背信行為だった。数か月でベームは、光を出す紙製の成分をもついくつかの白熱電球を作ることが可能となるよう、マキシムの研究所を適切な条件下に配置した。メンロパークでエジソンが実用的なランプを作る為のすべてのさまざまな過程を見る機会を得ていた一方で、ベームはマキシムにその得られた知識を分け与えたのだ。彼は受け取った報酬で、ドイツに戻り研究することができた。1886年、フライブルグ大学から博士号を授与された後、彼はアメリカに戻ってきた。

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    Maxim,having thus studied Edison's ideas,announced in the Scientific American of October 23,1880,his new lamp,which in reality was but a bad imitation of the Edison paper lamp Instead of making a carbon in the shape of a horseshoe,Maxim made his at first in the form of a Maltese cross and later in the form of an M. His company,the United States Electric Light Company,made several installations during its struggling existence,and then passed away, as did also Maxim the electrician-through Maxim the gun maker survived in England where he found it more congenial to live than in America.The trouble with most of the early imitators of Edison's ideas was that they had no system,while Edison had worked out a fundamental one which embraced all the necessary accessories and of which the lamp was but one of principal parts. In those days spies were plentiful;it appeared that there existed a regular inaugurated system of espionage for years.Later we obtained conclusive evidence of the existence of printed confidential reports from private operators-of which I hope soon to tell you more.

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    Maxim,having thus studied Edison's ideas,announced in the Scientific American of October 23,1880,his new lamp,which in reality was but a bad imitation of the Edison paper lamp Instead of making a carbon in the shape of a horseshoe,Maxim made his at first in the form of a Maltese cross and later in the form of an M. His company,the United States Electric Light Company,made several installations during its struggling existence,and then passed away, as did also Maxim the electrician-through Maxim the gun maker survived in England where he found it more congenial to live than in America.The trouble with most of the early imitators of Edison's ideas was that they had no system,while Edison had worked out a fundamental one which embraced all the necessary accessories and of which the lamp was but one of principal parts. In those days spies were plentiful;it appeared that there existed a regular inaugurated system of espionage for years.Later we obtained conclusive evidence of the existence of printed confidential reports from private operators-of which I hope soon to tell you more.

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    Here I mention another visitor,well known at that time,who appeared at the laboratory one day.His name was Hiram S.Maxim.He had made an arc lamp and generator which he exploited and which was known as the Maxim arc light system. He,too as I already mentioned,dabbled about wity an incandescent lamp idea in 1878 and like others had no success.His lamp was of very low resistance and possessed many other defects-it was simply an abandoned experiment of no practical value. Maxim was very much interested in what Edison showed him and the two spent almost a day together.Edison explained to him how the paper filaments were made and carbonized and all about the glass-blowing part.In fact,Maxim spent nearly two hours with Edison in the glass house where Boehm,Holzer and Hipple were working.He,too,like the 'celebrated electrician of Cleveland' took leave with the most touching cordiality.

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    I have given all these details in order to show what privileges and protection an inventor enjoys when,like Edison,he conducts organized research for a strong company.He has everything at his disposal and can devote himself,without worry, his work.If he is successful,he gets his liberal share and has no expence.Edison had stuck to the stocks received from the Edison companies for his work he would, no doubt,have been the largest sharer in electric lighting interests in the country. But Edison wasn't after money solely.No! He considered it a means of exchange and in that spirit turned it into new activities,new endeavors and new lines of experiment.It was important that he should do so:otherwise history might have had a different course.He didn't wait in leisurely luxury until his electric light shares should grow fat with returns,but from the start took all the money he could raise to his place his great achievements upon a solid commercial foundation under his personal supervision.That was necessary considering the epoch.With him it was push,push,and push again,and with the help of loyal servants the gigantic results of his Menlo Park labors were soon safely set on a manufacturing foundation;in a few years they were fortitled to an impregnable strength.Then the time arrived for others to carry his work of expansion further-this,however,only after a decennium,In 1892 the General Electric Company took up his program of expansion and has been developing it ever since.

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    Our narrative is still in the midest of the brilliant that were exciting interest during the early part of 1880,when Edison,harnessed to his work,was making rapid progress in commercialy perfecting his lamp. At that time Brush,Thomson,Houston and Weston were busy with their arc light system and none had faith in the little lamp that Edison had given to the world. That their disbelief was in error how well we now know! For the little lamp of high resistance that began to cast its glow in that day has kept on glowing everywhere, as does also the spirit of Edison its inventor. Our busy activities during that development period were now and then interrupted by some merry interlude.Occasionally the 'boys'played jokes on each other.Sometimes one of them who had become tried would seek a nap on a near-by table.While no one objected to a peaceful slumber,if the delinquent began to snore or attempted to imitate the chords of rhapsodies such as we now and then hear on the radio, things happened.Somebody would crash a heavy weight on the table;that stopped the snoring.As an alternative the snorer was sometimes treated to a whiff of concentrared spirits of ammonia which,too,was effective.

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    I have never been able to find out who the parties were that employed this detective agency.If I may venture a guess,those interested in gas had something to do with it.It all shows the pitfalls that are laid for an inventor when paramount interests are at stake. It is thus no wonder that G.P.Lowrey counseled prudence in showing people round and at the same time took precautions without Edison's knowledge for the company's sake.Yes,Lowrey was ever on the watch,and as we approached the busy termination of work atMenlo Park,the Edison Electric Light Company knew perfectly well which men at the Park were loyal and which were not,even before Edison had any idea of it.It was one these gum-shoed gentleman whose report on Boehm caused the latter to leave Menlo Park with lightning rapidly.I remember one of this company's shadowers well;his name was Russell.He once got into a jam and was beaten so severely that he had to cover his whole back with a large porous plaster;his nickname after that was 'Porous-plaster Jim'.

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      Nevertheless,disregarding the 'worry hunters'' the Pearl Strret Central Station was started on September 4,1882,and the Edison system and underground conductors service for decades.  Another somewhat similar incident of a different character happened at the corner of Nassau and Ann streets.As is known,Edison placed cast-iron junction boxes at the intersection of the streets,in connection with his underground conductors.Late one night when he was still at the station,a policeman came running in and in an excited voice said that the iron box at the above-mentioned corner had exploded.Edison and one of the 'boys' went there to see what had happened.He found that the cover on the manhole,which weighed about a couple of hundred pounds,had vanished,but everything inside the manhole was in good order.Edison concluded that gas from a gas main might have got into the manhole, or it might have been the acid used in picking the casting that gave off hydrogen that mixed with the air leaking in to make the explosive mixture.   The incident worried him;there were many such manhole boxes in the system,and if one should explode in a crowded street and life a few oersons into the air the company might be compelled to pay damages.Edison got his thinker in action and soon solved the problem.He placed a little bottle of chloroform with a small hole in the cork each box.The chroloform evaporated and, being heavy,settled in the box,displacing the air that may have got in.Edison said afterward that he had never heard of an explotion in a box that had a bottle of chloroform in it.

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    You have already heard how from time to time he himself stupid each operation in the making of his lamp,and how thoroughly he worked out the process of carbonization.First he formed his filament from the raw material and then he carbonized them.Those that worked on the problem before Edison,took carbon already made from which to shape their light-giving elements.Some had their carbons made by Carre of Paris,an electric arc light carbon manufacturer;and these were in the shape of rods. Thus we see distinctive methods of operation,with Edison following a different course from all the others in procuring and making his carbon filament. When at last he had concluded his investigations into carbon-making and began to make lamps in quantities,he assigned Lawson,Van Cleve and others to the job, instructing them in all the details.From that time forth it was more of a routine process than an experimental one.Likewise the newcomers whom the new-found light and dynamo lured to Menlo Park,Clarke,Howell,Hammer,Acheson,Holzer and others,were assigned places in this new activity.And each of the so-colled 'departments'was given its own routine.

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    One day while making such a test, I made a very interesting discovery,described as follows in the words of Wilson S.Howell: 'Mr,Edison's judgement and prevision were generally so excellent,so accurate,that a miss was rather disturbing to him. After he had carefully thought out a plan,he wasn't always meekly patient if the test or demonstration upset his calcurations. He wouldn't hesitate to question a test and request its repitation,carefully going over the methods and conditions of the tests to find a flaw or error which would upset the conclusions. 'Mr.Jehl was asked one day to make a test for Mr.Edison, the results of which were very disappointing.The test was repeated but still the figures were nor pleasing.Each step in the test was questioned and carefully gone over by the great inventor, but its accuracy couldn't be shaken.As a last resort, Mr.Edison asked Mr,Jehl if he had made any allowance for the friction against the air of the light beam from the mirror of the Thomson Reflecting Galvanometer used in the tests. Jehl acknowledged he hadn't but would calculate it at once if Mr.Edison would give him the constant.' In such cases,when Edison joked he gave a broad smile, put his left hand behind his neck,scratched his right ear and marched away.

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    You may see the 'corpse revier'in the Edison laboratory at Dearborn.Even Edison when visiting his friend Henry Ford in 1929 smiled at sight of it.'There is nothing missing here,'said he.When the 'corpse revier'is operated before ladies that visit the laboratory,occasionaly one inquires where such a machine could be obtained,while their husbands look sheepishly on Without blinking. Visitors were many at that period and they came from all parts of the world. Edison was often annoyed by by the constant interruptions to his work when he had to do the honors by showing personages round.The callers were rated by their consequence and accordingly either Edison,Upton,Batchelor,or one else wes assigned them.In mentioning these visitors I must explain that were the extra and special ones not included in the crowds that came every evening to see the exhibition.