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Maxim didn't run to New York and give his opinion to a newspaper,but went to his laboratory and began trying to make a lamp after Edison's ideas.He had no success,however,and after a few weeks sent to Menlo Park an emissary who got in touch with Boehm.It was also said that the agent approached another of our men.The deportment of Boehm changed perceptibly and soon begame suspicious. Hw was changing his allegiance to that of Maxim.In fact,he soon departed Menlo Park and entered that electrician's employ.This as far I am aware was the only defection that ever occured at our laboratory in those early days.In a few months Boehm managed to place the Maxim laboratory incondition so that it was able to produce some incandescent lamps that had their light-giving element made of paper.While at Menlo Park Boehm had had the oppotunity of watching all the various processes by which Edison made a practical lamp,and that acquired knowledge he imparted to Maxim.With the compensation he received,he was enabled to return to Germany and study.After receiving the degree of Ph.D. from the University of Freiburg in 1886,he returned to America.

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マキシムは大急ぎでニューヨークに行って、新聞社に自分の意見を言うことはしなかった。かわりに彼は自分の実験室に行き、エジソンのアイデアを追い求めてランプを作り始めた。彼は成功しなかったが、数週間後ベームに連絡を取った使者をメンロパークに送った。特定の仲介者が我々のうちの別の者に接近しているとも言われていた。ベームの物腰は感覚的にかなり変化し、すぐいぶかり始めた。 彼はマキシムの使者に対して忠誠を示す態度へと変わっていった。事実、まもなく彼はメンロパークを去り、その電気技師に雇用されたのだ。これが私の知る限り、その当時の初期、研究所で起こった唯一の背信行為だった。数か月でベームは、光を出す紙製の成分をもついくつかの白熱電球を作ることが可能となるよう、マキシムの研究所を適切な条件下に配置した。メンロパークでエジソンが実用的なランプを作る為のすべてのさまざまな過程を見る機会を得ていた一方で、ベームはマキシムにその得られた知識を分け与えたのだ。彼は受け取った報酬で、ドイツに戻り研究することができた。1886年、フライブルグ大学から博士号を授与された後、彼はアメリカに戻ってきた。

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    Here I mention another visitor,well known at that time,who appeared at the laboratory one day.His name was Hiram S.Maxim.He had made an arc lamp and generator which he exploited and which was known as the Maxim arc light system. He,too as I already mentioned,dabbled about wity an incandescent lamp idea in 1878 and like others had no success.His lamp was of very low resistance and possessed many other defects-it was simply an abandoned experiment of no practical value. Maxim was very much interested in what Edison showed him and the two spent almost a day together.Edison explained to him how the paper filaments were made and carbonized and all about the glass-blowing part.In fact,Maxim spent nearly two hours with Edison in the glass house where Boehm,Holzer and Hipple were working.He,too,like the 'celebrated electrician of Cleveland' took leave with the most touching cordiality.

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    Maxim,having thus studied Edison's ideas,announced in the Scientific American of October 23,1880,his new lamp,which in reality was but a bad imitation of the Edison paper lamp Instead of making a carbon in the shape of a horseshoe,Maxim made his at first in the form of a Maltese cross and later in the form of an M. His company,the United States Electric Light Company,made several installations during its struggling existence,and then passed away, as did also Maxim the electrician-through Maxim the gun maker survived in England where he found it more congenial to live than in America.The trouble with most of the early imitators of Edison's ideas was that they had no system,while Edison had worked out a fundamental one which embraced all the necessary accessories and of which the lamp was but one of principal parts. In those days spies were plentiful;it appeared that there existed a regular inaugurated system of espionage for years.Later we obtained conclusive evidence of the existence of printed confidential reports from private operators-of which I hope soon to tell you more.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    Maxim,having thus studied Edison's ideas,announced in the Scientific American of October 23,1880,his new lamp,which in reality was but a bad imitation of the Edison paper lamp Instead of making a carbon in the shape of a horseshoe,Maxim made his at first in the form of a Maltese cross and later in the form of an M. His company,the United States Electric Light Company,made several installations during its struggling existence,and then passed away, as did also Maxim the electrician-through Maxim the gun maker survived in England where he found it more congenial to live than in America.The trouble with most of the early imitators of Edison's ideas was that they had no system,while Edison had worked out a fundamental one which embraced all the necessary accessories and of which the lamp was but one of principal parts. In those days spies were plentiful;it appeared that there existed a regular inaugurated system of espionage for years.Later we obtained conclusive evidence of the existence of printed confidential reports from private operators-of which I hope soon to tell you more.

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    You have already heard how from time to time he himself stupid each operation in the making of his lamp,and how thoroughly he worked out the process of carbonization.First he formed his filament from the raw material and then he carbonized them.Those that worked on the problem before Edison,took carbon already made from which to shape their light-giving elements.Some had their carbons made by Carre of Paris,an electric arc light carbon manufacturer;and these were in the shape of rods. Thus we see distinctive methods of operation,with Edison following a different course from all the others in procuring and making his carbon filament. When at last he had concluded his investigations into carbon-making and began to make lamps in quantities,he assigned Lawson,Van Cleve and others to the job, instructing them in all the details.From that time forth it was more of a routine process than an experimental one.Likewise the newcomers whom the new-found light and dynamo lured to Menlo Park,Clarke,Howell,Hammer,Acheson,Holzer and others,were assigned places in this new activity.And each of the so-colled 'departments'was given its own routine.

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    I remember an incident involving one of the group whose name must go unmentioned because it occupies an elevated place in the history of electric lighting.Well,he too one night became frozen in the arms of Morpheus and began to breathe pretty loudly in his sleep.The disturbance was like intermittent approaching thunder with crashes between,ending with a periodical gulping that shook the laboratory in the silence of night.'I'll fix him,'said one of the boys with a fiendish grin,'I have a machine that will do the business,and you don't need to waste any more ammonia.'He went away and returned with a contraption that he had been working on the day before.It was a soap box upon which was mounted an enormos rattle that was actuated by a crankshaft turned by hand.'Which it work,boys,'he whispered as he placed the infernal thing near the sleeper on the table and gave it a few vigorous turns. It produced a terrific noise.The poor victim fairly bounced into the air thinking that a tornado had struck Menlo Park! The boys laughed.Some of us dubbed the machine a 'corpse revier'and others called it the 'calmer.'

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    While the new lamp and its system were being exhibited at Menlo Park(and that continued for months),Edison made a final exhaustive search for a raw material that would be more dense and homogeneous.He said,'In God's almighty warehouse there must certainly be such a material -we have only to hunt for it.' Books on botany and catalogs were studied;Hughes,our purchasing agent,was sent to New York with a list of materials to purchase.Day by day he brought back packages of samples.He called on whosesale drug companies,agents of foreign firms,museums,colleges,and consuls of foreign nations in effort to get almost everything in the vegetable kingdom.He also brought samples from the animal world,such as hoofs,hides,horns,and hair.Botany professors sent in contributions when it leaked out that Edison was making a last search for a better raw material. It would be tedious to name the differnt kinds of woods,grasses,plants,and hair,human and animal,that were tried.Yes,we even plucked the red whiskers of a Scottish guest at Menlo Park and the black ones of a Swiss and made bets on which would prove the better filament.As the thousands of samples came to Menlo Park,Edison examined each under his old verdigris-covered microscope.Those found acceptable for further trials were laid aside,while others that didn't possess the qualities he desired were consigned to the stve.Carbonizing blowing the glass parts,exhausting the air,and,testing continued day and night.

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    I have never been able to find out who the parties were that employed this detective agency.If I may venture a guess,those interested in gas had something to do with it.It all shows the pitfalls that are laid for an inventor when paramount interests are at stake. It is thus no wonder that G.P.Lowrey counseled prudence in showing people round and at the same time took precautions without Edison's knowledge for the company's sake.Yes,Lowrey was ever on the watch,and as we approached the busy termination of work atMenlo Park,the Edison Electric Light Company knew perfectly well which men at the Park were loyal and which were not,even before Edison had any idea of it.It was one these gum-shoed gentleman whose report on Boehm caused the latter to leave Menlo Park with lightning rapidly.I remember one of this company's shadowers well;his name was Russell.He once got into a jam and was beaten so severely that he had to cover his whole back with a large porous plaster;his nickname after that was 'Porous-plaster Jim'.

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    Our narrative is still in the midest of the brilliant that were exciting interest during the early part of 1880,when Edison,harnessed to his work,was making rapid progress in commercialy perfecting his lamp. At that time Brush,Thomson,Houston and Weston were busy with their arc light system and none had faith in the little lamp that Edison had given to the world. That their disbelief was in error how well we now know! For the little lamp of high resistance that began to cast its glow in that day has kept on glowing everywhere, as does also the spirit of Edison its inventor. Our busy activities during that development period were now and then interrupted by some merry interlude.Occasionally the 'boys'played jokes on each other.Sometimes one of them who had become tried would seek a nap on a near-by table.While no one objected to a peaceful slumber,if the delinquent began to snore or attempted to imitate the chords of rhapsodies such as we now and then hear on the radio, things happened.Somebody would crash a heavy weight on the table;that stopped the snoring.As an alternative the snorer was sometimes treated to a whiff of concentrared spirits of ammonia which,too,was effective.