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One day while making such a test, I made a very interesting discovery,described as follows in the words of Wilson S.Howell: 'Mr,Edison's judgement and prevision were generally so excellent,so accurate,that a miss was rather disturbing to him. After he had carefully thought out a plan,he wasn't always meekly patient if the test or demonstration upset his calcurations. He wouldn't hesitate to question a test and request its repitation,carefully going over the methods and conditions of the tests to find a flaw or error which would upset the conclusions. 'Mr.Jehl was asked one day to make a test for Mr.Edison, the results of which were very disappointing.The test was repeated but still the figures were nor pleasing.Each step in the test was questioned and carefully gone over by the great inventor, but its accuracy couldn't be shaken.As a last resort, Mr.Edison asked Mr,Jehl if he had made any allowance for the friction against the air of the light beam from the mirror of the Thomson Reflecting Galvanometer used in the tests. Jehl acknowledged he hadn't but would calculate it at once if Mr.Edison would give him the constant.' In such cases,when Edison joked he gave a broad smile, put his left hand behind his neck,scratched his right ear and marched away.


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  • 回答No.2
  • ddeana
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ある日、そうしたテストをしながら私は、ウイルソン・S・ハウエルの言葉を借りると次のようになる、非常に興味深い発見をした。 「エジソン氏の判断と先見性は概ね、まったくもって素晴らしく正確であり、ひとつのミスが思った以上に彼を不安にさせていた。慎重に計画を考え抜いた後、テストや実験(※1)が自分の計算をダメにした場合、彼は素直に人のいう事を聞くような患者ではなかった(※2)。彼は迷うことなくテストを疑問視し、その評価を要求し、(自分の考えた)結論をひっくり返すであろう欠陥やエラーを見つける為に、注意深くテスト方法や条件を見直していた。 「ジール氏(※3)はある日、結果が非常にガッカリさせられるテストをエジソン氏から頼まれた。そのテストは何度も繰り返されたがいまだ数字も結果も満足するものではなかった。テストの各段階が疑われ、偉大な発明家によって慎重に見直されたが、その精度はほんのわずかも上がらなかった。最後の手段として、エジソン氏はジール氏に、テストで使用したトムソン式反射検流計の、鏡からの光の動きによる摩擦を考慮に入れたかどうか尋ねた。 ジールは、それをやってなかったが、もしエジソン氏が(テストに必要な)定数を与えてくれればすぐに計算しますと答えた。そうした場合、エジソンは冗談を言ってにっこりと笑い、左手を首の後ろに回して右耳を掻き、早足で歩き去るのだった。 ※1:demonstration 化学の世界では、「実験」を表す単語が二つあります。experimentとこれです。 demonstrationは、論理に基づいたり、仮説に基づいて「やってみること」に主眼を置いた実験のことです。つまり、結果はどうあれ、やることが大事なのです。他方、experimentは論理や仮説を「証明する為」にする実験のことです。ご質問の文章の中でのtestとは、できあがったものの起動確認や、検査といった意味、それに対してdemonstrationは結果がどうなるか不明なままでも行う実験という意味だと存じます。 ※2:patient 実際にエジソンが病気の患者だったという意味ではなく、患者は医師の話を聞いてから治療方法などを決めるものなので、彼がそういう態度を取らなかった=聞く耳をもたなかったという意味ではないかと考えます。 ※3:Mr.Jehl フランシス・ジールというエジソンのスタッフの一人です。 http://www.weblio.jp/content/%E3%82%B8%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB


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  • bakansky
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> One day while making such a test, I made a very interesting discovery, described as follows in the words of Wilson S. Howell:  ある日、そういう実験をしている時に、私はある非常に興味深い発見をした。それはウィルソン・S・ハウェルによって次のように語られている。 > 'Mr. Edison's judgement and prevision were generally so excellent, so accurate, that a miss was rather disturbing to him.   エジソン氏の判断力と予見する能力は頭抜けたもので、正確だった。そのため、1つの誤りでもあれば彼は納得しなかった。 > After he had carefully thought out a plan, he wasn't always meekly patient if the test or demonstration upset his calcurations.  しっかりと計画を練った後では、実験するなり実際に作動させるなりした結果が自分の計算どおりでなかった場合、彼はそれに我慢がならなかった。 > He wouldn't hesitate to question a test and request its repetition, carefully going over the methods and conditions of the tests to find a flaw or error which would upset the conclusions.  彼は実験に問題がなかったかと検討し、同じ実験を繰り返すのを厭わなかった。彼の見込みを誤らせた要因を見つけるまでは、方法や条件を変えて何度でも繰り返した。 > 'Mr. Jehl was asked one day to make a test for Mr. Edison, the results of which were very disappointing.  ある日、ジェール氏はエジソンからある実験するように頼まれたが、その結果は不本意なものだった。 > The test was repeated but still the figures were nor pleasing.  実験をくり返してみたが、結果は思わしくない。 > Each step in the test was questioned and carefully gone over by the great inventor, but its accuracy couldn't be shaken.  実験の手順のそれぞれを見直し、エジソン自身も調べたが、それでも結果は変らなかった。 > As a last resort, Mr. Edison asked Mr. Jehl if he had made any allowance for the friction against the air of the light beam from the mirror of the Thomson Reflecting Galvanometer used in the tests.  いよいよ困惑したエジソンはジェール氏に、実験で使ったトムソン反射検流計の鏡からの光線の空気抵抗を計算に入れたかどうかと問うた。 > Jehl acknowledged he hadn't but would calculate it at once if Mr.Edison would give him the constant.'  ジェール氏は計算に入れていなかったと答え、エジソンが定数を教えてくれればすぐに計算しましょうと言った。 > In such cases, when Edison joked he gave a broad smile, put his left hand behind his neck, scratched his right ear and marched away.  そのような場合、エジソンは冗談を言って大きな笑みを浮かべ、左手を首の後ろに回して右耳を掻いて、さっさとその場から離れてしまうのだった。



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    I have given all these details in order to show what privileges and protection an inventor enjoys when,like Edison,he conducts organized research for a strong company.He has everything at his disposal and can devote himself,without worry, his work.If he is successful,he gets his liberal share and has no expence.Edison had stuck to the stocks received from the Edison companies for his work he would, no doubt,have been the largest sharer in electric lighting interests in the country. But Edison wasn't after money solely.No! He considered it a means of exchange and in that spirit turned it into new activities,new endeavors and new lines of experiment.It was important that he should do so:otherwise history might have had a different course.He didn't wait in leisurely luxury until his electric light shares should grow fat with returns,but from the start took all the money he could raise to his place his great achievements upon a solid commercial foundation under his personal supervision.That was necessary considering the epoch.With him it was push,push,and push again,and with the help of loyal servants the gigantic results of his Menlo Park labors were soon safely set on a manufacturing foundation;in a few years they were fortitled to an impregnable strength.Then the time arrived for others to carry his work of expansion further-this,however,only after a decennium,In 1892 the General Electric Company took up his program of expansion and has been developing it ever since.

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    'Then he showed me the lamps burning in the shop.He said they were obliged to keep them burning eight months before they could do anything. 'We then went into the glss-blowing department,a separate building,out back. Two men were at work there.Edison had enlarged the bulb of his lamp about 33 per cent and they were at work blowing them,and parts of these vacuum pumps. Edison is working a vacumm pump of glass entirely .They were putting some of the carbon horseshoe into the lamps.There was only one man at work putting the carbon in(Batchelor). 'From there I went into a photo-lithographic concern that Edison has just got up,and they were at work pictures.There was one picture of Edison surrounded bu about thirty-five of his workmen taken by this process;and they had a man at work with chemicals,etc.Every now and then my conductor would point out a lamp with remark,''How nice that is burning!''ect.Then he would turn a little screw to turn the light off or on.He couldn't regurate it intermediately.It was eighter all off or all on.I asked him if they could regurate to any intermediate point and he said they couldn't.''These horseshoe burn very well,''he said. '''Some of them burn on an average about 800 hours continuously.''My conductor then took me where the dynamo machines were working and showed me the engine which he said was 80HP-150,I should think,judging from the size of it.He said they had a hundred lamps burning,but I am positive there weren't over 50,even if as many as that,everywhere,in the shop and out of it;and to run them he had 3 dynamo machines worked by this engine,those big upright machines of Edison's,that my conductor said had a capacity of 50 lightseach

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    The operative then sums up by saying that Edison seemed dissatisfied and looked as if he had been sick.He thought Edison was all right but was a tool for his bankers,who wanted to make money out of the company. That there was great excitement and speculation in the district about Wall Street at the time,the following clipping(one out of many)proves:THE EDISON BOOM.HOW LONG,HOWLONG!!(under the above heading,The New York World in one of its early issues of January,1880,runs the following comment): Kirkland&Milliken,of 47 Williams Street,reported yesterday that speculators are anxious to trade in Edison Electric Light Company stock,and that investors are picking up five and ten share lots.Mr.Laportas,of the firm,said to a World reporter that two shares were sold vesterdav at $3,500 each,but that lots of ten shares, which are more desirable,are in strong demand and are worth $5,000to $5,000 a share.Our of the largest shareholders,who was offered $700,000 last week for 200 shares,was bid $800,000 cash last night,and says that he won't sell under $1,000,000.

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    While the new lamp and its system were being exhibited at Menlo Park(and that continued for months),Edison made a final exhaustive search for a raw material that would be more dense and homogeneous.He said,'In God's almighty warehouse there must certainly be such a material -we have only to hunt for it.' Books on botany and catalogs were studied;Hughes,our purchasing agent,was sent to New York with a list of materials to purchase.Day by day he brought back packages of samples.He called on whosesale drug companies,agents of foreign firms,museums,colleges,and consuls of foreign nations in effort to get almost everything in the vegetable kingdom.He also brought samples from the animal world,such as hoofs,hides,horns,and hair.Botany professors sent in contributions when it leaked out that Edison was making a last search for a better raw material. It would be tedious to name the differnt kinds of woods,grasses,plants,and hair,human and animal,that were tried.Yes,we even plucked the red whiskers of a Scottish guest at Menlo Park and the black ones of a Swiss and made bets on which would prove the better filament.As the thousands of samples came to Menlo Park,Edison examined each under his old verdigris-covered microscope.Those found acceptable for further trials were laid aside,while others that didn't possess the qualities he desired were consigned to the stve.Carbonizing blowing the glass parts,exhausting the air,and,testing continued day and night.

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    Maxim didn't run to New York and give his opinion to a newspaper,but went to his laboratory and began trying to make a lamp after Edison's ideas.He had no success,however,and after a few weeks sent to Menlo Park an emissary who got in touch with Boehm.It was also said that the agent approached another of our men.The deportment of Boehm changed perceptibly and soon begame suspicious. Hw was changing his allegiance to that of Maxim.In fact,he soon departed Menlo Park and entered that electrician's employ.This as far I am aware was the only defection that ever occured at our laboratory in those early days.In a few months Boehm managed to place the Maxim laboratory incondition so that it was able to produce some incandescent lamps that had their light-giving element made of paper.While at Menlo Park Boehm had had the oppotunity of watching all the various processes by which Edison made a practical lamp,and that acquired knowledge he imparted to Maxim.With the compensation he received,he was enabled to return to Germany and study.After receiving the degree of Ph.D. from the University of Freiburg in 1886,he returned to America.

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    In the early summer of 1492, three ships left Spain. The crew were apprehansive because they didn't know where they were going. The captain didn't tell them where they would land.Columbus told his crew that they would be arriving in Asia in a few months. He had no idea he was going to land on another continent-a land that didn't appear on European maps. 少し長いですが、特にwould....,とwas going toの訳がいまいちわかりません。訳せる方よろしくお願いします。

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    Those days and nights were filled with critical and exciting moments.All tests were most thorough and complete.Even outside bridgebuilding exports were called in to try the iron structure upon which the six steam dynamo rested.Then Edison began to test his station electrically and many trials and experimrnts were made,furnishing valuable data of a commercial nature for the oeration of central stations.The tension indicator designed by Edison for controlling the electrical pressure at the feeder ends of his underground network was put into operation and found satisfactory.Its proper working and standardizing was one of the functions especially confided to Lieb.The underground network was tested by Herman Claudius,an Austrian veteran of the old school,and its insulation was found perfect.In the tests of a radically new system,of course,certain unexpected things will happen,and minor defects will appear from time tobtime;that was reason Edison conducted such careful trials before permanent operation of the plant began.

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    Here I mention another visitor,well known at that time,who appeared at the laboratory one day.His name was Hiram S.Maxim.He had made an arc lamp and generator which he exploited and which was known as the Maxim arc light system. He,too as I already mentioned,dabbled about wity an incandescent lamp idea in 1878 and like others had no success.His lamp was of very low resistance and possessed many other defects-it was simply an abandoned experiment of no practical value. Maxim was very much interested in what Edison showed him and the two spent almost a day together.Edison explained to him how the paper filaments were made and carbonized and all about the glass-blowing part.In fact,Maxim spent nearly two hours with Edison in the glass house where Boehm,Holzer and Hipple were working.He,too,like the 'celebrated electrician of Cleveland' took leave with the most touching cordiality.

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      Many things came to pass,and it was only Edison who could and had to ferret them out.It seemed that destiny hinted to him that he now had his system working on which he had labored some years,but it would have to pass through the infant period during which so many changes take place.   Edison was everywhere,for his occupations were multifarious;and all looked to him for advice when anything went wrong.The memorable day when the Pearl Street Central Station was started in regular operation happened to be September 4,1882.On that day John W.Lieb,the electrician of the station,was deputized by Edison to close the main switch,thereby permitting the current to flow into the underground conductors,and thus to start the regular operation of this novel enterprise.This act required that Lieb stand on his tiptoes,and finding that the catch of the switch didn't work properly,he had to hang on to its handle untill William D.MacQuesten,Lieb's assistant at the time,brought a bench and pushed the catch into the pawl that locked and held it.

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    You have already heard how from time to time he himself stupid each operation in the making of his lamp,and how thoroughly he worked out the process of carbonization.First he formed his filament from the raw material and then he carbonized them.Those that worked on the problem before Edison,took carbon already made from which to shape their light-giving elements.Some had their carbons made by Carre of Paris,an electric arc light carbon manufacturer;and these were in the shape of rods. Thus we see distinctive methods of operation,with Edison following a different course from all the others in procuring and making his carbon filament. When at last he had concluded his investigations into carbon-making and began to make lamps in quantities,he assigned Lawson,Van Cleve and others to the job, instructing them in all the details.From that time forth it was more of a routine process than an experimental one.Likewise the newcomers whom the new-found light and dynamo lured to Menlo Park,Clarke,Howell,Hammer,Acheson,Holzer and others,were assigned places in this new activity.And each of the so-colled 'departments'was given its own routine.