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While the new lamp and its system were being exhibited at Menlo Park(and that continued for months),Edison made a final exhaustive search for a raw material that would be more dense and homogeneous.He said,'In God's almighty warehouse there must certainly be such a material -we have only to hunt for it.' Books on botany and catalogs were studied;Hughes,our purchasing agent,was sent to New York with a list of materials to purchase.Day by day he brought back packages of samples.He called on whosesale drug companies,agents of foreign firms,museums,colleges,and consuls of foreign nations in effort to get almost everything in the vegetable kingdom.He also brought samples from the animal world,such as hoofs,hides,horns,and hair.Botany professors sent in contributions when it leaked out that Edison was making a last search for a better raw material. It would be tedious to name the differnt kinds of woods,grasses,plants,and hair,human and animal,that were tried.Yes,we even plucked the red whiskers of a Scottish guest at Menlo Park and the black ones of a Swiss and made bets on which would prove the better filament.As the thousands of samples came to Menlo Park,Edison examined each under his old verdigris-covered microscope.Those found acceptable for further trials were laid aside,while others that didn't possess the qualities he desired were consigned to the stve.Carbonizing blowing the glass parts,exhausting the air,and,testing continued day and night.

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  • ddeana
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新しい電球とその仕組みをメンロパーク研究所で披露(数ヶ月間続いた)している間、エジソンはより高密度で品質が一定な原料を探す、最後の徹底調査に入っていた。「神が与えたもう無限の可能性をもつこの世界で(※1)、その物は必ずある。我々はただそれを探すだけだ。」と彼は言っていた。 植物学の本や蔵書目録が詳しく調べられた。我々の購買担当者ヒューズは、購入用材料リストを携え、ニューヨークへと送られた。日々彼はサンプルの包みを持ち帰った。彼は植物界のほぼすべてを手にいれることを目指し、卸しの製薬会社、外資系企業、博物館、大学、そして外国の領事たちを訪ねた。また、動物の世界からも、ひづめ、皮、角、そして毛髪といったサンプルを持ってきた。エジソンが、より良い原料を求めて最後の探索をしているということが外部に漏れた際、植物学の教授らは寄付を送った。 違った種類の木々、草、植物体、毛、人間そして動物の名前をあげることは退屈だったが試みられた。そうなのだ、我々はメンロパークを訪れたスコットランド人ゲストの赤い頬髯やスイス人の黒い頬髯さえもむしり取って、より良いフィラメントであることを試す為の賭けに出た。何千ものサンプルがメンロパークに届けられた時、エジソンはそれぞれを自分の古い緑青で覆われた(※2)顕微鏡で調べた。更なる試験に向いているとされたものは残しておかれた一方、彼が望んだ品質を有さなかった他の物は、スティーブに引き渡された(※3)。炭素化し、ガラス部分を吹き上げ、排気しながらテストは昼夜問わずに続けられた。 ※1:God's almighty warehouse 直訳すると、「神の全能の倉庫」ですが、これではなんのこっちゃという感じです。で、自分なりに考えてみたのがこの訳です。エジソンは超自然的なことを信じていたという説もありますので、地球や世界をひとつの大きな倉庫に見立てたのではと考えました。 ※2:verdigris-covered 「緑青(りょくしょう)」とは銅が酸化して出来た錆のことです。19世紀はまだ金属銅が主流素材として使われていました。 ※3:consigned to the stve stveというのが何を指すのかわからなかったので、とりあえず人の名前かと思って訳してみましたが、原文を確認してお知らせいただけますか? それによって再度訳を直してみたいと存じます。

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stove でした。 いつもありがとうございます!

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    Maxim didn't run to New York and give his opinion to a newspaper,but went to his laboratory and began trying to make a lamp after Edison's ideas.He had no success,however,and after a few weeks sent to Menlo Park an emissary who got in touch with Boehm.It was also said that the agent approached another of our men.The deportment of Boehm changed perceptibly and soon begame suspicious. Hw was changing his allegiance to that of Maxim.In fact,he soon departed Menlo Park and entered that electrician's employ.This as far I am aware was the only defection that ever occured at our laboratory in those early days.In a few months Boehm managed to place the Maxim laboratory incondition so that it was able to produce some incandescent lamps that had their light-giving element made of paper.While at Menlo Park Boehm had had the oppotunity of watching all the various processes by which Edison made a practical lamp,and that acquired knowledge he imparted to Maxim.With the compensation he received,he was enabled to return to Germany and study.After receiving the degree of Ph.D. from the University of Freiburg in 1886,he returned to America.

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    You have already heard how from time to time he himself stupid each operation in the making of his lamp,and how thoroughly he worked out the process of carbonization.First he formed his filament from the raw material and then he carbonized them.Those that worked on the problem before Edison,took carbon already made from which to shape their light-giving elements.Some had their carbons made by Carre of Paris,an electric arc light carbon manufacturer;and these were in the shape of rods. Thus we see distinctive methods of operation,with Edison following a different course from all the others in procuring and making his carbon filament. When at last he had concluded his investigations into carbon-making and began to make lamps in quantities,he assigned Lawson,Van Cleve and others to the job, instructing them in all the details.From that time forth it was more of a routine process than an experimental one.Likewise the newcomers whom the new-found light and dynamo lured to Menlo Park,Clarke,Howell,Hammer,Acheson,Holzer and others,were assigned places in this new activity.And each of the so-colled 'departments'was given its own routine.

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    One day while making such a test, I made a very interesting discovery,described as follows in the words of Wilson S.Howell: 'Mr,Edison's judgement and prevision were generally so excellent,so accurate,that a miss was rather disturbing to him. After he had carefully thought out a plan,he wasn't always meekly patient if the test or demonstration upset his calcurations. He wouldn't hesitate to question a test and request its repitation,carefully going over the methods and conditions of the tests to find a flaw or error which would upset the conclusions. 'Mr.Jehl was asked one day to make a test for Mr.Edison, the results of which were very disappointing.The test was repeated but still the figures were nor pleasing.Each step in the test was questioned and carefully gone over by the great inventor, but its accuracy couldn't be shaken.As a last resort, Mr.Edison asked Mr,Jehl if he had made any allowance for the friction against the air of the light beam from the mirror of the Thomson Reflecting Galvanometer used in the tests. Jehl acknowledged he hadn't but would calculate it at once if Mr.Edison would give him the constant.' In such cases,when Edison joked he gave a broad smile, put his left hand behind his neck,scratched his right ear and marched away.

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  • ddeana
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ddeanaです。ふと思ったのですが、もし >consigned to the stve のstveが、stoveであったならば、「彼が望んだ品質を有さなかった他の物は、ストーブの燃料に回された」という訳になりますので、お知らせします。

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    I have never been able to find out who the parties were that employed this detective agency.If I may venture a guess,those interested in gas had something to do with it.It all shows the pitfalls that are laid for an inventor when paramount interests are at stake. It is thus no wonder that G.P.Lowrey counseled prudence in showing people round and at the same time took precautions without Edison's knowledge for the company's sake.Yes,Lowrey was ever on the watch,and as we approached the busy termination of work atMenlo Park,the Edison Electric Light Company knew perfectly well which men at the Park were loyal and which were not,even before Edison had any idea of it.It was one these gum-shoed gentleman whose report on Boehm caused the latter to leave Menlo Park with lightning rapidly.I remember one of this company's shadowers well;his name was Russell.He once got into a jam and was beaten so severely that he had to cover his whole back with a large porous plaster;his nickname after that was 'Porous-plaster Jim'.

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    I have given all these details in order to show what privileges and protection an inventor enjoys when,like Edison,he conducts organized research for a strong company.He has everything at his disposal and can devote himself,without worry, his work.If he is successful,he gets his liberal share and has no expence.Edison had stuck to the stocks received from the Edison companies for his work he would, no doubt,have been the largest sharer in electric lighting interests in the country. But Edison wasn't after money solely.No! He considered it a means of exchange and in that spirit turned it into new activities,new endeavors and new lines of experiment.It was important that he should do so:otherwise history might have had a different course.He didn't wait in leisurely luxury until his electric light shares should grow fat with returns,but from the start took all the money he could raise to his place his great achievements upon a solid commercial foundation under his personal supervision.That was necessary considering the epoch.With him it was push,push,and push again,and with the help of loyal servants the gigantic results of his Menlo Park labors were soon safely set on a manufacturing foundation;in a few years they were fortitled to an impregnable strength.Then the time arrived for others to carry his work of expansion further-this,however,only after a decennium,In 1892 the General Electric Company took up his program of expansion and has been developing it ever since.

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      Many things came to pass,and it was only Edison who could and had to ferret them out.It seemed that destiny hinted to him that he now had his system working on which he had labored some years,but it would have to pass through the infant period during which so many changes take place.   Edison was everywhere,for his occupations were multifarious;and all looked to him for advice when anything went wrong.The memorable day when the Pearl Street Central Station was started in regular operation happened to be September 4,1882.On that day John W.Lieb,the electrician of the station,was deputized by Edison to close the main switch,thereby permitting the current to flow into the underground conductors,and thus to start the regular operation of this novel enterprise.This act required that Lieb stand on his tiptoes,and finding that the catch of the switch didn't work properly,he had to hang on to its handle untill William D.MacQuesten,Lieb's assistant at the time,brought a bench and pushed the catch into the pawl that locked and held it.

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    Our narrative is still in the midest of the brilliant that were exciting interest during the early part of 1880,when Edison,harnessed to his work,was making rapid progress in commercialy perfecting his lamp. At that time Brush,Thomson,Houston and Weston were busy with their arc light system and none had faith in the little lamp that Edison had given to the world. That their disbelief was in error how well we now know! For the little lamp of high resistance that began to cast its glow in that day has kept on glowing everywhere, as does also the spirit of Edison its inventor. Our busy activities during that development period were now and then interrupted by some merry interlude.Occasionally the 'boys'played jokes on each other.Sometimes one of them who had become tried would seek a nap on a near-by table.While no one objected to a peaceful slumber,if the delinquent began to snore or attempted to imitate the chords of rhapsodies such as we now and then hear on the radio, things happened.Somebody would crash a heavy weight on the table;that stopped the snoring.As an alternative the snorer was sometimes treated to a whiff of concentrared spirits of ammonia which,too,was effective.

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    The operative then sums up by saying that Edison seemed dissatisfied and looked as if he had been sick.He thought Edison was all right but was a tool for his bankers,who wanted to make money out of the company. That there was great excitement and speculation in the district about Wall Street at the time,the following clipping(one out of many)proves:THE EDISON BOOM.HOW LONG,HOWLONG!!(under the above heading,The New York World in one of its early issues of January,1880,runs the following comment): Kirkland&Milliken,of 47 Williams Street,reported yesterday that speculators are anxious to trade in Edison Electric Light Company stock,and that investors are picking up five and ten share lots.Mr.Laportas,of the firm,said to a World reporter that two shares were sold vesterdav at $3,500 each,but that lots of ten shares, which are more desirable,are in strong demand and are worth $5,000to $5,000 a share.Our of the largest shareholders,who was offered $700,000 last week for 200 shares,was bid $800,000 cash last night,and says that he won't sell under $1,000,000.

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    A certain distinguished electrical engineer from Cleveland,Ohio,who came to Menlo Park was taken in charge by Edison himself,who explained everything to him;the whole visit seemed one of collegiate accord.They parted like the best of friends after complimenting each other on their work.Imagine the surprise when the New York Times a few days later printed this gentleman's contrary opinion on Edison's light and system.I give a few extracts from that article as it appeared later in an English elecrical journal. On February 28,1880,the Electrician reprinted a long article from the pen of a well-known electrician from Clevenland,Ohio,which appeared in the New York Times.The electrician visited Edison's laboratory at Menlo Park,where he was accorded the attention of an honored visitor.These he rapaid by indulging in some severe criticism of the inventor and his work.'He asserts that Edison has simply resurrected a lot of scientific lumber with the design of dazzling the public.He attacks the carbon horseshoe lamp and disparages its importance.''In this one point of durability which has wrecked all previous experiments during the last thirty-four years,he appears to have made no advance whatever.It has been assumed by Edison that if this lamp could be made a success by way of durability,the problem of economical electric lighting by the incandescent plan would be solved.This is far from being the case.Success would be as hopelessly far off as ever.It is doubtful if he (Edison) can get more than two,or possibly three,of these small lights per horsepower under the best management.The absurdity of the claims for the so-called Edison generator reveals the fact that it is rather a poor form of the well-known Siemens machine.''

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    Step by step the station was getting in shape and the time soon came for testing. Edison never for a moment imagined that everything would run smoothly at first; on the other hand,he never thought that his station wouldn't be a success. Many things happened,but the master soon found ways and meas of setting them right,Sometimes comical effects came up that mirth for the newspapers.For instance,on June 29,1882,the first fires were started under the boilers in the first electric power station at 257 Pearl Street,New York City.Tests were undertaken to try out the individual parts under regular working conditions.The steampipes were given pressure tests,and the auxiliary steam engine which operated the coal conveyors and the blowers that were to prevent the accumulation of heat in the armatures,was subjected to time trials.On July 5,the first steam dynamo was started,and the others followed from that time on,during which tests were made with the 1,000-lamp bank installed on the upper floor of the station to give to each steam dynamo a working load before it was switched on to the feeders.The field regulating apparatus was tried and necessary adjustments made.

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    General Lefferts ,whom we have already mentioned,was extremely interested in the new motor and decided to go to Newmark to see it.Thinking it would be well to have Edison with him,he made arrangements to meet him Paine's shop. Here, then, at the appointed time Edison found the General Morse,Governor Cornell and others who had been invited.When the show was to begin Paine connected a battery wire with what were supposed to be the terminals of the motor. The motor began to spin and one of Paine's men began to saw large logs.Though old Professor Morse was so excited that he exclaimed:'Iam thankful to live to see this day,' Edison was incredulous.He began to examine the motor as best he could, since one part was boarded up.Holding his hand on the iron frame,he noticed a sort of throbbing that was in unison with the exhaust from a steam engine.He called this to the attention of the General, who then tried the same experiment. Paine simply used the baterry to signal to a confederate below the floor to switch a belt from a steam engine on or off the motor.

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    You may see the 'corpse revier'in the Edison laboratory at Dearborn.Even Edison when visiting his friend Henry Ford in 1929 smiled at sight of it.'There is nothing missing here,'said he.When the 'corpse revier'is operated before ladies that visit the laboratory,occasionaly one inquires where such a machine could be obtained,while their husbands look sheepishly on Without blinking. Visitors were many at that period and they came from all parts of the world. Edison was often annoyed by by the constant interruptions to his work when he had to do the honors by showing personages round.The callers were rated by their consequence and accordingly either Edison,Upton,Batchelor,or one else wes assigned them.In mentioning these visitors I must explain that were the extra and special ones not included in the crowds that came every evening to see the exhibition.

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    Electrical history in 1870 opens to a new chapter.Men were encouraged to strive for practical invention before useful tangible results seemed more possible than ever before. At this time Edison was seeing for the first time the fulfillment of one of his early dreams.He had a shop and laboratory of his own in Newark and could now work as he wished.He was independant. Experience has taught us that whenever a period of hope and simultaneously to take advantage of the unsuspecting.In the same town of Newark such a mushroom appeared in the person of H.M.Paine.In 1871,papers everywhere were full of Paine's new electric motor! The Journal of the Telegraph,organ of the Western Union Telegraph Company,contained a wildly enthusiastic editorial about it .In the Scientific American Paine himself wrote;'The forces developed by the action of a single Bunsen quart cell,if utilized and converted into power would drive the largest ship afloat with a velocity only limited by the strength of the ship's frame'.