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Our narrative is still in the midest of the brilliant that were exciting interest during the early part of 1880,when Edison,harnessed to his work,was making rapid progress in commercialy perfecting his lamp. At that time Brush,Thomson,Houston and Weston were busy with their arc light system and none had faith in the little lamp that Edison had given to the world. That their disbelief was in error how well we now know! For the little lamp of high resistance that began to cast its glow in that day has kept on glowing everywhere, as does also the spirit of Edison its inventor. Our busy activities during that development period were now and then interrupted by some merry interlude.Occasionally the 'boys'played jokes on each other.Sometimes one of them who had become tried would seek a nap on a near-by table.While no one objected to a peaceful slumber,if the delinquent began to snore or attempted to imitate the chords of rhapsodies such as we now and then hear on the radio, things happened.Somebody would crash a heavy weight on the table;that stopped the snoring.As an alternative the snorer was sometimes treated to a whiff of concentrared spirits of ammonia which,too,was effective.

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我々の物語は、エジソンが自分の仕事を用いて、商業的なランプの完成に向かって急速に進展していた1880年初期、人々を大興奮させる輝かしい宝石のようになるにはまだ半分だ(※1)。 その当時、ブラッシュ、トムソン、ヒューストン、ウエストンはアーク灯システムに忙しく、誰もエジソンが世界に贈った小さなランプを信じていなかった。彼らの懐疑心が間違っていたことを今の我々はよーく知っている!あの日、光を発しだした高抵抗の小さなランプは、エジソンがもっていた発明家としての精神がまたそうであったように、あらゆるところで輝き続けている。 開発期間中我々の忙しい作業は、時々、いくつかの浮かれた出来事で中断させられた。時折、「小僧ども」(※2)は、互いに悪ふざけをしあった。たまに疲れてしまった者はすぐそばにあるテーブルで仮眠をしようとした。誰もおだやかなまどろみに意義を唱えなかった一方、職務怠慢者がいびきをかきはじめたり、時々ラジオから流れてくるラプソディのコードをまねしたりすると、事が起きた。誰かがテーブルの上で重たいものを壊した。そのことでいびきは止まった。別のやり方として、いびきをかくものは時々、濃厚なアンモニア水のひと吹きをお見舞いされた。これもまたよく効いた。 ※1:the brilliant that were exciting interest brilliantを名詞として訳してみましたが、brilliantの後に別の名詞が入っているようでしたらお知らせください。訳を見直してみますので。 ※2:boys エジソンの弟子たちを悪ふざけをする子供のようだという意味でこのように表現したのではと考えます。

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    Here I mention another visitor,well known at that time,who appeared at the laboratory one day.His name was Hiram S.Maxim.He had made an arc lamp and generator which he exploited and which was known as the Maxim arc light system. He,too as I already mentioned,dabbled about wity an incandescent lamp idea in 1878 and like others had no success.His lamp was of very low resistance and possessed many other defects-it was simply an abandoned experiment of no practical value. Maxim was very much interested in what Edison showed him and the two spent almost a day together.Edison explained to him how the paper filaments were made and carbonized and all about the glass-blowing part.In fact,Maxim spent nearly two hours with Edison in the glass house where Boehm,Holzer and Hipple were working.He,too,like the 'celebrated electrician of Cleveland' took leave with the most touching cordiality.

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    Maxim,having thus studied Edison's ideas,announced in the Scientific American of October 23,1880,his new lamp,which in reality was but a bad imitation of the Edison paper lamp Instead of making a carbon in the shape of a horseshoe,Maxim made his at first in the form of a Maltese cross and later in the form of an M. His company,the United States Electric Light Company,made several installations during its struggling existence,and then passed away, as did also Maxim the electrician-through Maxim the gun maker survived in England where he found it more congenial to live than in America.The trouble with most of the early imitators of Edison's ideas was that they had no system,while Edison had worked out a fundamental one which embraced all the necessary accessories and of which the lamp was but one of principal parts. In those days spies were plentiful;it appeared that there existed a regular inaugurated system of espionage for years.Later we obtained conclusive evidence of the existence of printed confidential reports from private operators-of which I hope soon to tell you more.

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    Maxim,having thus studied Edison's ideas,announced in the Scientific American of October 23,1880,his new lamp,which in reality was but a bad imitation of the Edison paper lamp Instead of making a carbon in the shape of a horseshoe,Maxim made his at first in the form of a Maltese cross and later in the form of an M. His company,the United States Electric Light Company,made several installations during its struggling existence,and then passed away, as did also Maxim the electrician-through Maxim the gun maker survived in England where he found it more congenial to live than in America.The trouble with most of the early imitators of Edison's ideas was that they had no system,while Edison had worked out a fundamental one which embraced all the necessary accessories and of which the lamp was but one of principal parts. In those days spies were plentiful;it appeared that there existed a regular inaugurated system of espionage for years.Later we obtained conclusive evidence of the existence of printed confidential reports from private operators-of which I hope soon to tell you more.

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    Again we are in October.Suddenly our kaleidoscape seems to have failed because of the bright light that dazzles our vision:the twenty-first of October brings a new lamp.Thus Edison has accomplished all that he promised to accomplish a year earlier;and the labors of his predecessors are laid on shelves of historical memories. As I have already written,the thread filament lamp was followed immediately by one whose light-giving element consisted of a piese of paper,known in history as the 'carbonized paper horseshoe lamp.' With those paper lamps Edison gave his first demonstration-it was the first in the history of electricity.It embraced all the fundamentals of distribution as practiced today.I have already told you how long these first paper lamps lasted and may add that when we began to make them in quantities,their average normal life reached three hundred hours;indeed some reached a thousand and more.Edison was actually at that time December,1879-a manufacturer of incandescent lamps,the only one,and you can imagine how much excitement he created.

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    'Then he showed me the lamps burning in the shop.He said they were obliged to keep them burning eight months before they could do anything. 'We then went into the glss-blowing department,a separate building,out back. Two men were at work there.Edison had enlarged the bulb of his lamp about 33 per cent and they were at work blowing them,and parts of these vacuum pumps. Edison is working a vacumm pump of glass entirely .They were putting some of the carbon horseshoe into the lamps.There was only one man at work putting the carbon in(Batchelor). 'From there I went into a photo-lithographic concern that Edison has just got up,and they were at work pictures.There was one picture of Edison surrounded bu about thirty-five of his workmen taken by this process;and they had a man at work with chemicals,etc.Every now and then my conductor would point out a lamp with remark,''How nice that is burning!''ect.Then he would turn a little screw to turn the light off or on.He couldn't regurate it intermediately.It was eighter all off or all on.I asked him if they could regurate to any intermediate point and he said they couldn't.''These horseshoe burn very well,''he said. '''Some of them burn on an average about 800 hours continuously.''My conductor then took me where the dynamo machines were working and showed me the engine which he said was 80HP-150,I should think,judging from the size of it.He said they had a hundred lamps burning,but I am positive there weren't over 50,even if as many as that,everywhere,in the shop and out of it;and to run them he had 3 dynamo machines worked by this engine,those big upright machines of Edison's,that my conductor said had a capacity of 50 lightseach

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      Many things came to pass,and it was only Edison who could and had to ferret them out.It seemed that destiny hinted to him that he now had his system working on which he had labored some years,but it would have to pass through the infant period during which so many changes take place.   Edison was everywhere,for his occupations were multifarious;and all looked to him for advice when anything went wrong.The memorable day when the Pearl Street Central Station was started in regular operation happened to be September 4,1882.On that day John W.Lieb,the electrician of the station,was deputized by Edison to close the main switch,thereby permitting the current to flow into the underground conductors,and thus to start the regular operation of this novel enterprise.This act required that Lieb stand on his tiptoes,and finding that the catch of the switch didn't work properly,he had to hang on to its handle untill William D.MacQuesten,Lieb's assistant at the time,brought a bench and pushed the catch into the pawl that locked and held it.

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    The operative then sums up by saying that Edison seemed dissatisfied and looked as if he had been sick.He thought Edison was all right but was a tool for his bankers,who wanted to make money out of the company. That there was great excitement and speculation in the district about Wall Street at the time,the following clipping(one out of many)proves:THE EDISON BOOM.HOW LONG,HOWLONG!!(under the above heading,The New York World in one of its early issues of January,1880,runs the following comment): Kirkland&Milliken,of 47 Williams Street,reported yesterday that speculators are anxious to trade in Edison Electric Light Company stock,and that investors are picking up five and ten share lots.Mr.Laportas,of the firm,said to a World reporter that two shares were sold vesterdav at $3,500 each,but that lots of ten shares, which are more desirable,are in strong demand and are worth $5,000to $5,000 a share.Our of the largest shareholders,who was offered $700,000 last week for 200 shares,was bid $800,000 cash last night,and says that he won't sell under $1,000,000.

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      Nevertheless,disregarding the 'worry hunters'' the Pearl Strret Central Station was started on September 4,1882,and the Edison system and underground conductors service for decades.  Another somewhat similar incident of a different character happened at the corner of Nassau and Ann streets.As is known,Edison placed cast-iron junction boxes at the intersection of the streets,in connection with his underground conductors.Late one night when he was still at the station,a policeman came running in and in an excited voice said that the iron box at the above-mentioned corner had exploded.Edison and one of the 'boys' went there to see what had happened.He found that the cover on the manhole,which weighed about a couple of hundred pounds,had vanished,but everything inside the manhole was in good order.Edison concluded that gas from a gas main might have got into the manhole, or it might have been the acid used in picking the casting that gave off hydrogen that mixed with the air leaking in to make the explosive mixture.   The incident worried him;there were many such manhole boxes in the system,and if one should explode in a crowded street and life a few oersons into the air the company might be compelled to pay damages.Edison got his thinker in action and soon solved the problem.He placed a little bottle of chloroform with a small hole in the cork each box.The chroloform evaporated and, being heavy,settled in the box,displacing the air that may have got in.Edison said afterward that he had never heard of an explotion in a box that had a bottle of chloroform in it.

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    That was too tall a story for those early day scientists. They considered it an insolent intrusion on their prerogatives;for they knew that Edison had never attended a college nor been 'trained' to unravel a problem of such intricacy.In fact, the idea of using electricity in public service as light,heat or power,hadn't been dreamed of.Only one man in their opinion conceive such a wild fancy-Jules Verne. Ahead of Edison was a year of arduous toil.As we turn our kaleidoscope back to that year we see him working first on the low resistance platinum lamp and then on the high resistance one.We see him try rare or high fusion metals,which, moreover,he discovers are packed with occulaged gases,and he find a means of overcoming the gases.We see a new generator of electricity that returns 90 percent of the power applied to it;we see many lamps made of carbon filament.

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    Maxim didn't run to New York and give his opinion to a newspaper,but went to his laboratory and began trying to make a lamp after Edison's ideas.He had no success,however,and after a few weeks sent to Menlo Park an emissary who got in touch with Boehm.It was also said that the agent approached another of our men.The deportment of Boehm changed perceptibly and soon begame suspicious. Hw was changing his allegiance to that of Maxim.In fact,he soon departed Menlo Park and entered that electrician's employ.This as far I am aware was the only defection that ever occured at our laboratory in those early days.In a few months Boehm managed to place the Maxim laboratory incondition so that it was able to produce some incandescent lamps that had their light-giving element made of paper.While at Menlo Park Boehm had had the oppotunity of watching all the various processes by which Edison made a practical lamp,and that acquired knowledge he imparted to Maxim.With the compensation he received,he was enabled to return to Germany and study.After receiving the degree of Ph.D. from the University of Freiburg in 1886,he returned to America.