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You have already heard how from time to time he himself stupid each operation in the making of his lamp,and how thoroughly he worked out the process of carbonization.First he formed his filament from the raw material and then he carbonized them.Those that worked on the problem before Edison,took carbon already made from which to shape their light-giving elements.Some had their carbons made by Carre of Paris,an electric arc light carbon manufacturer;and these were in the shape of rods. Thus we see distinctive methods of operation,with Edison following a different course from all the others in procuring and making his carbon filament. When at last he had concluded his investigations into carbon-making and began to make lamps in quantities,he assigned Lawson,Van Cleve and others to the job, instructing them in all the details.From that time forth it was more of a routine process than an experimental one.Likewise the newcomers whom the new-found light and dynamo lured to Menlo Park,Clarke,Howell,Hammer,Acheson,Holzer and others,were assigned places in this new activity.And each of the so-colled 'departments'was given its own routine.


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  • ddeana
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ランプを作る中で、彼自身が個別の工程でいかに間違いを犯したか、また、いかにとことん、炭素方法に取り組んだかについてはすでに皆さん耳にしている。まず彼は原料からフィラメントをつくり、それから炭素化した。エジソン以前にこの問題に取り組んだ人達は、光をもたらす要素(※1)を仕上げる為のものから作られた炭素を使った。何人かはパリのアーク灯炭素メーカー、カレによって作られた炭素を用い、これらは棒状のものだった。 よってエジソンの炭素フィラメントの調達および作成における他のすべての事から違う道筋をたどることによって、彼とともに独特の作業方法がわかる。 ついに炭素作成の追及を終え、大量にランプを作り始めた時、彼は詳細をすべて教えながらその仕事をローソン、ヴァン・クレーブ他に割り振った。その時以降ランプ作成は、実験的な事よりもより、日常的な行為であった。同様に、新発見の灯りとメンロパーク(※2)に魅了された、クラーク、ハウエル、ハンマー、アチソン、ホルザーその他、新しく加わった者達が、この新規活動の場に割り降られた。そして「部門」と呼ばれたもののひとつひとつに、独自の工程が与えられた。 ※1:light giving elements 要素とは、「伝導体」ではないかと考えます。 ※2:Menlo Park メンロパーク・エジソン研究所のことです。





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    Again we are in October.Suddenly our kaleidoscape seems to have failed because of the bright light that dazzles our vision:the twenty-first of October brings a new lamp.Thus Edison has accomplished all that he promised to accomplish a year earlier;and the labors of his predecessors are laid on shelves of historical memories. As I have already written,the thread filament lamp was followed immediately by one whose light-giving element consisted of a piese of paper,known in history as the 'carbonized paper horseshoe lamp.' With those paper lamps Edison gave his first demonstration-it was the first in the history of electricity.It embraced all the fundamentals of distribution as practiced today.I have already told you how long these first paper lamps lasted and may add that when we began to make them in quantities,their average normal life reached three hundred hours;indeed some reached a thousand and more.Edison was actually at that time December,1879-a manufacturer of incandescent lamps,the only one,and you can imagine how much excitement he created.

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    Here I mention another visitor,well known at that time,who appeared at the laboratory one day.His name was Hiram S.Maxim.He had made an arc lamp and generator which he exploited and which was known as the Maxim arc light system. He,too as I already mentioned,dabbled about wity an incandescent lamp idea in 1878 and like others had no success.His lamp was of very low resistance and possessed many other defects-it was simply an abandoned experiment of no practical value. Maxim was very much interested in what Edison showed him and the two spent almost a day together.Edison explained to him how the paper filaments were made and carbonized and all about the glass-blowing part.In fact,Maxim spent nearly two hours with Edison in the glass house where Boehm,Holzer and Hipple were working.He,too,like the 'celebrated electrician of Cleveland' took leave with the most touching cordiality.

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    After Scott's stepbrother Craig was hit by a car and died in California, his biological father became detached from him, and the summer visits became less frequent. Weiland and his family later moved to Huntington Beach, California when he was 14 years old and he began attending Edison High School. During his time at Edison he initially played a lot of sports but he was a hard partier and never quite felt like he fit in, his partying eventually led his parents to put him in a psych ward for three months and have him carted off from school.

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    While the new lamp and its system were being exhibited at Menlo Park(and that continued for months),Edison made a final exhaustive search for a raw material that would be more dense and homogeneous.He said,'In God's almighty warehouse there must certainly be such a material -we have only to hunt for it.' Books on botany and catalogs were studied;Hughes,our purchasing agent,was sent to New York with a list of materials to purchase.Day by day he brought back packages of samples.He called on whosesale drug companies,agents of foreign firms,museums,colleges,and consuls of foreign nations in effort to get almost everything in the vegetable kingdom.He also brought samples from the animal world,such as hoofs,hides,horns,and hair.Botany professors sent in contributions when it leaked out that Edison was making a last search for a better raw material. It would be tedious to name the differnt kinds of woods,grasses,plants,and hair,human and animal,that were tried.Yes,we even plucked the red whiskers of a Scottish guest at Menlo Park and the black ones of a Swiss and made bets on which would prove the better filament.As the thousands of samples came to Menlo Park,Edison examined each under his old verdigris-covered microscope.Those found acceptable for further trials were laid aside,while others that didn't possess the qualities he desired were consigned to the stve.Carbonizing blowing the glass parts,exhausting the air,and,testing continued day and night.

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    I have given all these details in order to show what privileges and protection an inventor enjoys when,like Edison,he conducts organized research for a strong company.He has everything at his disposal and can devote himself,without worry, his work.If he is successful,he gets his liberal share and has no expence.Edison had stuck to the stocks received from the Edison companies for his work he would, no doubt,have been the largest sharer in electric lighting interests in the country. But Edison wasn't after money solely.No! He considered it a means of exchange and in that spirit turned it into new activities,new endeavors and new lines of experiment.It was important that he should do so:otherwise history might have had a different course.He didn't wait in leisurely luxury until his electric light shares should grow fat with returns,but from the start took all the money he could raise to his place his great achievements upon a solid commercial foundation under his personal supervision.That was necessary considering the epoch.With him it was push,push,and push again,and with the help of loyal servants the gigantic results of his Menlo Park labors were soon safely set on a manufacturing foundation;in a few years they were fortitled to an impregnable strength.Then the time arrived for others to carry his work of expansion further-this,however,only after a decennium,In 1892 the General Electric Company took up his program of expansion and has been developing it ever since.

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    1. they use energy from light to combine carbon dioxide and water to make food. 2. its energy causes water drawn from the soil to split into atoms of hydrogen and oxygen.

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    One day while making such a test, I made a very interesting discovery,described as follows in the words of Wilson S.Howell: 'Mr,Edison's judgement and prevision were generally so excellent,so accurate,that a miss was rather disturbing to him. After he had carefully thought out a plan,he wasn't always meekly patient if the test or demonstration upset his calcurations. He wouldn't hesitate to question a test and request its repitation,carefully going over the methods and conditions of the tests to find a flaw or error which would upset the conclusions. 'Mr.Jehl was asked one day to make a test for Mr.Edison, the results of which were very disappointing.The test was repeated but still the figures were nor pleasing.Each step in the test was questioned and carefully gone over by the great inventor, but its accuracy couldn't be shaken.As a last resort, Mr.Edison asked Mr,Jehl if he had made any allowance for the friction against the air of the light beam from the mirror of the Thomson Reflecting Galvanometer used in the tests. Jehl acknowledged he hadn't but would calculate it at once if Mr.Edison would give him the constant.' In such cases,when Edison joked he gave a broad smile, put his left hand behind his neck,scratched his right ear and marched away.

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    I remember once when Kruesi brought in a thermopile whose alloy contained much sulphur;it was polished so brightly that it resembled gold. Edison, Upton,Batchelor and several others were seated about my testing table when Kruesi brought it.Edison took the bar from Kruesi weighed it up and down in his hand,and said to Upton,'We have it this who understood at once that a joke was coming. Kruesi appeared perplexed and inquisitive;before he could utter a word, Edison said,'I suppose the best thing to do now is to close up the whole ''shop and laboratory.'

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    Maxim didn't run to New York and give his opinion to a newspaper,but went to his laboratory and began trying to make a lamp after Edison's ideas.He had no success,however,and after a few weeks sent to Menlo Park an emissary who got in touch with Boehm.It was also said that the agent approached another of our men.The deportment of Boehm changed perceptibly and soon begame suspicious. Hw was changing his allegiance to that of Maxim.In fact,he soon departed Menlo Park and entered that electrician's employ.This as far I am aware was the only defection that ever occured at our laboratory in those early days.In a few months Boehm managed to place the Maxim laboratory incondition so that it was able to produce some incandescent lamps that had their light-giving element made of paper.While at Menlo Park Boehm had had the oppotunity of watching all the various processes by which Edison made a practical lamp,and that acquired knowledge he imparted to Maxim.With the compensation he received,he was enabled to return to Germany and study.After receiving the degree of Ph.D. from the University of Freiburg in 1886,he returned to America.

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    以下の英文を和訳していただけるかたに。 お願いできますでしょうか。 3文節の構成です。 ちょっと内容がリンクしていないかもしれません。 よろしくお願いいたします。 The individual chart resembles a book with many volumes,, when we read it we turn the pages of through the mists of time and in each detail given to you, you see the reflections of his life, his thoughts, the past and the future. The third celestial house is about faith and faithfulness places far away from him, and time spent apart from you. The environment you will share together in the future. This house is also how you communicate. He gains from long journeys and relatives. Or money comes to him from distant places But if ever he is entangled in law suits, it will become costly. Your soul mate will live his life in public. He will become well known in his field of work gain personal or individual authority over the general public who he will deal with in the course of his occupation.