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While Edison was activety engaged on the different kinds of carbon filaments and fillings his first commercial order for the installation of his system on the S.S.Columbia,he was still able to find time to go into the problem of electrical transportation.The idea of an electric railway wasn't a new one;for experimenters had worked on it ever since the wet cell and the simple electromagnet became known. In fact from the start men had dreamed of employing electricity to supply power, but the time wasn't yet ripe-the practical generator and motor didn't yet exist. As we know today,an electric motor is usually operated by current received from a generator-yet in electrical history the motor came first.


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  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.3
  • ddeana
  • ベストアンサー率74% (2977/4020)

エジソンが、自身初の商売用注文として、SSコロンビア号に自分の発電装置取り付け用の複数の違った種類の炭素フィラメント(※1)と導入線(※2)に主体的に取り組んでいた間、彼はまだ、電気を使った輸送手段の問題点に取り組む時間をみつけることが出来ていた。電気鉄道という考えは新らしいものではなかった。研究者にとっては、湿電池と単純電磁波が知られるようになってからずっと取り組んできたからだ。 事実、当初から人々は電気をエネルギー供給の為に使う事を夢見ていたが、時はまだ熟していなかった~実用的な発電機もモーターもいまだ存在していなかったのだ。今やご存知の通り、電気モーターは普通に発電機から出された電流によって動く~だが電気の歴史においてモーターは一番最初に出来たものだ。 ※1:carbon filament 白熱電球の発光部として熱放射を起こす部分のこと。ぐるぐると渦を巻いたような外見です。画像でご確認ください。 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ja/0/08/Filament.jpg ※2:filling フィラメントを固定するのに必要な部品です。


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  • 回答No.2
  • Nakay702
  • ベストアンサー率81% (8991/11073)

エジソンが、いろいろな種類の炭素フィラメントや、S.S.コロンビア号(*)のシステム設置という初めての商業注文への対応に積極的に取り組んでいる間でも、電力輸送の問題を検討する時間を見つけることはできました。電気鉄道に関するアイデアは新しいものではありませんでした。なぜなら、湿電池や簡単な電磁石が知られるようになって以来、実験者らがすでにその作業に関わっていたからです。 事実、人々は当初から電気の使用によるパワー供給を夢見ていましたが、時期はまだ熟していませんでした。― 実用的な発電機やモーターはまだ存在していませんでした。今日私たちの知るように、電動モーターは通常発電機からの電流を受けて駆動します。― それなのに、電気の歴史ではモーターが最初に現れたのでした。 (*) Steam Ship Columbia(蒸気船コロンビア号)の略。詳しくは下記をご参照ください。http://conpetti.com/TDR/?p=1730


  • 回答No.1
  • SPS700
  • ベストアンサー率46% (15293/33009)

 色々な種類の炭素フィラメントや、彼の方式を汽船コロンビア号に備え付ける、初めての商業的注文に応じるのに多忙だった間も、エディソンは、電気的輸送問題に取り組む余暇があった。  湿電池や簡単な電磁力が知られて以来、ずっと実験が続けられて来たため、電化鉄道の考えは新しくはなかった。  実際、最初から、人類は電気で力を供給することを夢見て来た、しかし実用に堪える発電機とモーターがまだ存在しなかったので、時は熟していなかった。  今日我々が知っているように、電気モーターは発電機からの電流によって動くのが普通であるが、電気の歴史では、モーターの方が先に出来たのである。



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    It was Dr.Werner Siemens' initiativeness that brought electric traction definitely before the world,for he was the first to employ grnerated by a series dynamo used as a motor.His apparatus,at that period considered modern,convinced everyone that at last the problem had been switched onto the right track.The little railway proved how futile all work on the motor had been before 1879. Siemons'`series machines'were also used for series arc lighting.Now,examining the picture of his motor,the electrical engineer will see at a glance how inadequately that motor was provided with iron for the poles and cores.Notice also that it used the least effective magnet core winding,which was long and of hardly any breadth.What was modern in 1878-79 was antiquated in1880,for Edison's regeneration of the dynamo worked a revolution in the art.After a look at Edison's electric locomotive of 1880,we aren't surprised that his machine had an efficiency which was more than double that of any dynamo or motor previouslybuilt.The Edison constant potential system also fulfilled the demands of electric traction.

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    I have given all these details in order to show what privileges and protection an inventor enjoys when,like Edison,he conducts organized research for a strong company.He has everything at his disposal and can devote himself,without worry, his work.If he is successful,he gets his liberal share and has no expence.Edison had stuck to the stocks received from the Edison companies for his work he would, no doubt,have been the largest sharer in electric lighting interests in the country. But Edison wasn't after money solely.No! He considered it a means of exchange and in that spirit turned it into new activities,new endeavors and new lines of experiment.It was important that he should do so:otherwise history might have had a different course.He didn't wait in leisurely luxury until his electric light shares should grow fat with returns,but from the start took all the money he could raise to his place his great achievements upon a solid commercial foundation under his personal supervision.That was necessary considering the epoch.With him it was push,push,and push again,and with the help of loyal servants the gigantic results of his Menlo Park labors were soon safely set on a manufacturing foundation;in a few years they were fortitled to an impregnable strength.Then the time arrived for others to carry his work of expansion further-this,however,only after a decennium,In 1892 the General Electric Company took up his program of expansion and has been developing it ever since.

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    以下の英文を和訳していただけるかたのみで。 お願いできますでしょうか? 内容的にまだ続いてる感じだと思います。 どうぞよろしくお願いいたします。 Yet he had a fairly happy family life and childhood. Background and family history are important to him. He may have had a strong attachment or respect for his father, who was affluent and a sense of family pride. He may have missed out on parental love in his childhood. He would have grown reserved and cautious. May have had some health weakness or weakens of constitution. His interest would have centered on the family. He wanted to shine out. Make his family proud of him, and he would have helped other family members out and taken an interest in their lives and affairs.

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    An illustration of the Paine electric motor taken from his patents, Nos.103,228and 103,230, maybe seen in the Scientific American of June,1871. Patents, of course, seem necessary when such schemes are foisted on the pubric,for they tend to boost the credulity of the victim. Paine was soon exposed, but many others bobbed up with wild-cat notions.The musty newspapers and jornals of those days reveal how suprisingly many were working on this alluring problem,all trying to use electricity for propelling boats and carriages, as well as for all other possible purposes. At this same time Dr.Werner Siemens,the veteran electrician of the pioneer firm of Siemens and Halske,of Berlin,Germany,made the first successful experiment in electrin traction.Visitors at the Industrial Exhibition that was opened at Berlin in 1879 were treated to an amazing exhibit--the Siemens electric railway running on a closed oval track athousand feet long and carrying about eighteen passengers and the driver.

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    You have already heard how from time to time he himself stupid each operation in the making of his lamp,and how thoroughly he worked out the process of carbonization.First he formed his filament from the raw material and then he carbonized them.Those that worked on the problem before Edison,took carbon already made from which to shape their light-giving elements.Some had their carbons made by Carre of Paris,an electric arc light carbon manufacturer;and these were in the shape of rods. Thus we see distinctive methods of operation,with Edison following a different course from all the others in procuring and making his carbon filament. When at last he had concluded his investigations into carbon-making and began to make lamps in quantities,he assigned Lawson,Van Cleve and others to the job, instructing them in all the details.From that time forth it was more of a routine process than an experimental one.Likewise the newcomers whom the new-found light and dynamo lured to Menlo Park,Clarke,Howell,Hammer,Acheson,Holzer and others,were assigned places in this new activity.And each of the so-colled 'departments'was given its own routine.

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    An English physicist, J.J.Thomson, used a cathode ray tube and his knowledge of electromagnetic theory to determine the ratio of electric charge to the mass of an individual electron. この英文を和訳してほしいです。

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    翻訳サイトではわかりづらかったので質問しました。 almoner? がこちらのプリントのミスなのか辞書でもでてきませんでした。 誤字はないと思います。 For most of his life he had worked as a commercial artist. "I did a bit of tickling" delicate lettering and design for advertising blocks. In his late sixties he experienced long spells of illness. When he was able to work he went as bottlewasher to a dairy. He was obliged to gibe up work finally because of ill-health and growing infirmity at the age of seventy-two. Since the death of his wife his social activities had contracted. He did not get up for long and rarely went out, except at week-ends for his pension and his shopping. Even his visits to an infirm brother living some miles away had fallen off. "I used to go over and see him every Tuesday night last year up to that fog we had in November. Then I just lay on my bed coughing my and coughing. Coughing all day and night, thinking my time had come. But it wasn't to be." He regretted not having children, especially a daughter, who "might have stood by me when I got old", and he had no nephews or nieces living in London. The neighbours saw little of him. Next door was "Mrs Lipstick and Powder, that's what I calls her, always going out." On the other side was "Mrs Fly-by-night. She rushes past me on the stairs now, like some of the others, without asking how I am. Not that I mind. But they used to do it and since I came out of hospital and go around just like a decrepit old man decrepit, yes - I suppose they don't like to ask how I am in case they feel they should do something. But there - life's like that, isn't it?" He had lost touch with all his friends and did not approve of old people's clubs. "They're all clicks of decrepit old people." His opinion of national assistance officials, doctors, almoners, and nurses was favourable, except that sometimes they "kept you in the dark" or "treated you like a little child". He had refused offers of a home help, mainly, it appeared, from a sense of privacy, shame of his home, misunderstanding about payment, and suspicion of the sort of woman who would come. His memories of contacts with doctors and hospitals were extremely vivid and he recalled at length some of his experiences. He talked about an almoner who was "a lovely looking party", about his new dentures, "I don't wear the top, it's more comfortable', and with pride about his one perfect faculty, his eyesight. On occasions when he could scarcely walk it never occurred to him to ask his doctor to visit him; he preferred to make painful journeys to the surgery.

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    Three battalions of the 1st South African Brigade were to attack Delville Wood, while the 1st Battalion continued as a reinforcement of the 26th and 27th brigades in Longueval. The attack at 5:00 p.m. was postponed to 7:00 p.m. and then to 5:00 a.m. on 15 July, due to the slow progress in Longueval. Brigadier-General Henry Lukin was ordered to take the wood at all costs and that his advance was to proceed, even if the 26th and 27th Brigades had not captured the north end of the village.

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    Electrical history in 1870 opens to a new chapter.Men were encouraged to strive for practical invention before useful tangible results seemed more possible than ever before. At this time Edison was seeing for the first time the fulfillment of one of his early dreams.He had a shop and laboratory of his own in Newark and could now work as he wished.He was independant. Experience has taught us that whenever a period of hope and simultaneously to take advantage of the unsuspecting.In the same town of Newark such a mushroom appeared in the person of H.M.Paine.In 1871,papers everywhere were full of Paine's new electric motor! The Journal of the Telegraph,organ of the Western Union Telegraph Company,contained a wildly enthusiastic editorial about it .In the Scientific American Paine himself wrote;'The forces developed by the action of a single Bunsen quart cell,if utilized and converted into power would drive the largest ship afloat with a velocity only limited by the strength of the ship's frame'.

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    At the power station a reporter began to shoot inquiries at Clarke,who took off his glasses and slowly started to clean them with his handkerchief in order to consider his replies.He then cautiously began:''The explanation of any trouble of that kind is very difficult.In fact,we haven't given it consideration yet,and we have no evidence that the shocks,if there were any,came from ourstation.' 'You have wires laid at that point.' 'Yes sir.' ''The question is then,would it not be possible for a horse to be affected by the electricity from your wiers?' 'We can say,generally speaking,that if you should connect two poles of any electric battery or dynamo to two pieces of damp ground ,while a current was prevented from passing over the strip of dry ground,if it were narrow enough, could make contact between two poles,and could receive a shock.' Then Clarke drew a sketch that explained the Nassau Street mystery without confirming it.Later on in the day,Edison told Clarke that the leak occured because some men who had dug there had spiked one of the electric tubes. Well-known electricians of that period began to discuss this little and unimportant occurrence seriously,and one of the sages said:''The electrical world in general,and Mr.Edison in paticular have been confronted with a new problem which no amount of forethought unaccompanied by practical experiments could have guarded against.It is evident to me that Mr.Edisonwill have to devise another system of underground conductors that will meet the requirements of the conditions which we now see are imposed upon him before he can ever hope to reach a practical and commercial success in his enterprise.'