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At the power station a reporter began to shoot inquiries at Clarke,who took off his glasses and slowly started to clean them with his handkerchief in order to consider his replies.He then cautiously began:''The explanation of any trouble of that kind is very difficult.In fact,we haven't given it consideration yet,and we have no evidence that the shocks,if there were any,came from ourstation.' 'You have wires laid at that point.' 'Yes sir.' ''The question is then,would it not be possible for a horse to be affected by the electricity from your wiers?' 'We can say,generally speaking,that if you should connect two poles of any electric battery or dynamo to two pieces of damp ground ,while a current was prevented from passing over the strip of dry ground,if it were narrow enough, could make contact between two poles,and could receive a shock.' Then Clarke drew a sketch that explained the Nassau Street mystery without confirming it.Later on in the day,Edison told Clarke that the leak occured because some men who had dug there had spiked one of the electric tubes. Well-known electricians of that period began to discuss this little and unimportant occurrence seriously,and one of the sages said:''The electrical world in general,and Mr.Edison in paticular have been confronted with a new problem which no amount of forethought unaccompanied by practical experiments could have guarded against.It is evident to me that Mr.Edisonwill have to devise another system of underground conductors that will meet the requirements of the conditions which we now see are imposed upon him before he can ever hope to reach a practical and commercial success in his enterprise.'


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発電所では一人のレポーターが、どういう返事をするか熟慮する為に眼鏡をはずして、ゆっくりとハンカチーフでふき出したクラーク(※1)に質問を浴びせかけ始めていた。それからクラークは慎重に語り始めた。「こういった種類のいかなるトラブルでも説明はとても難しいものなのです。実際のところ、私どもはいまだそれについて検討しておりませんし、何かあったとしても、その感電が私どもの発電所によるものだとの証拠をもっておりません。」 「あなた方はあそこの地点にケーブルを配置しましたよね。」 「はい、その通りです。」 「だったら、おたくのケーブルから出た電気で馬が影響をうけることはないでしょってことを聞いてるんですよ?」 「一般的なこととして、電流が細長く乾いた土地の上を通るのを防いでいる間に湿った土地の二区画に、電池や発電機の正極と負極を接続せねばなりません。もし区画がとても狭ければ、二つの極の間に接触が起こり電気ショックを受ける可能性があるということはできます。」 それからクラークは事実を確かめないまま、ナッソー通りで起こった不思議なことを説明するスケッチを描いた。その日のもっと後、エジソンはクラークにそこを掘っていた何人かが電束管の一つを打ち付けた為に漏電が起こったと語った。 当時の著名な電気技師たちはこの取るに足りないささいな出来事を真剣に議論し始めた。そして物知り達の一人はこう言った。「概して電気の世界、とりわけエジソン氏は、トラブルを防げる実践的研究を伴わず、将来に対する考慮がまったくなしで新しい問題に直面してきたのです。 そもそもエジソン氏は、彼の企業の実用的かつ商業的な成功を望む前に、私達が今わかっている、彼に課せられたこの状況に対する要求に答える別の地中ケーブルシステムを考案すべきだということを投げかけないといけないのです。」 ※1:Clarke=Charles Lorenzo Clarke アメリカの電気工学者。エジソン研究所の主任技師。





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    Again we are in October.Suddenly our kaleidoscape seems to have failed because of the bright light that dazzles our vision:the twenty-first of October brings a new lamp.Thus Edison has accomplished all that he promised to accomplish a year earlier;and the labors of his predecessors are laid on shelves of historical memories. As I have already written,the thread filament lamp was followed immediately by one whose light-giving element consisted of a piese of paper,known in history as the 'carbonized paper horseshoe lamp.' With those paper lamps Edison gave his first demonstration-it was the first in the history of electricity.It embraced all the fundamentals of distribution as practiced today.I have already told you how long these first paper lamps lasted and may add that when we began to make them in quantities,their average normal life reached three hundred hours;indeed some reached a thousand and more.Edison was actually at that time December,1879-a manufacturer of incandescent lamps,the only one,and you can imagine how much excitement he created.

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    I have given all these details in order to show what privileges and protection an inventor enjoys when,like Edison,he conducts organized research for a strong company.He has everything at his disposal and can devote himself,without worry, his work.If he is successful,he gets his liberal share and has no expence.Edison had stuck to the stocks received from the Edison companies for his work he would, no doubt,have been the largest sharer in electric lighting interests in the country. But Edison wasn't after money solely.No! He considered it a means of exchange and in that spirit turned it into new activities,new endeavors and new lines of experiment.It was important that he should do so:otherwise history might have had a different course.He didn't wait in leisurely luxury until his electric light shares should grow fat with returns,but from the start took all the money he could raise to his place his great achievements upon a solid commercial foundation under his personal supervision.That was necessary considering the epoch.With him it was push,push,and push again,and with the help of loyal servants the gigantic results of his Menlo Park labors were soon safely set on a manufacturing foundation;in a few years they were fortitled to an impregnable strength.Then the time arrived for others to carry his work of expansion further-this,however,only after a decennium,In 1892 the General Electric Company took up his program of expansion and has been developing it ever since.

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    You have already heard how from time to time he himself stupid each operation in the making of his lamp,and how thoroughly he worked out the process of carbonization.First he formed his filament from the raw material and then he carbonized them.Those that worked on the problem before Edison,took carbon already made from which to shape their light-giving elements.Some had their carbons made by Carre of Paris,an electric arc light carbon manufacturer;and these were in the shape of rods. Thus we see distinctive methods of operation,with Edison following a different course from all the others in procuring and making his carbon filament. When at last he had concluded his investigations into carbon-making and began to make lamps in quantities,he assigned Lawson,Van Cleve and others to the job, instructing them in all the details.From that time forth it was more of a routine process than an experimental one.Likewise the newcomers whom the new-found light and dynamo lured to Menlo Park,Clarke,Howell,Hammer,Acheson,Holzer and others,were assigned places in this new activity.And each of the so-colled 'departments'was given its own routine.

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    I remember once when Kruesi brought in a thermopile whose alloy contained much sulphur;it was polished so brightly that it resembled gold. Edison, Upton,Batchelor and several others were seated about my testing table when Kruesi brought it.Edison took the bar from Kruesi weighed it up and down in his hand,and said to Upton,'We have it this who understood at once that a joke was coming. Kruesi appeared perplexed and inquisitive;before he could utter a word, Edison said,'I suppose the best thing to do now is to close up the whole ''shop and laboratory.'

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      Many things came to pass,and it was only Edison who could and had to ferret them out.It seemed that destiny hinted to him that he now had his system working on which he had labored some years,but it would have to pass through the infant period during which so many changes take place.   Edison was everywhere,for his occupations were multifarious;and all looked to him for advice when anything went wrong.The memorable day when the Pearl Street Central Station was started in regular operation happened to be September 4,1882.On that day John W.Lieb,the electrician of the station,was deputized by Edison to close the main switch,thereby permitting the current to flow into the underground conductors,and thus to start the regular operation of this novel enterprise.This act required that Lieb stand on his tiptoes,and finding that the catch of the switch didn't work properly,he had to hang on to its handle untill William D.MacQuesten,Lieb's assistant at the time,brought a bench and pushed the catch into the pawl that locked and held it.

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    It was Dr.Werner Siemens' initiativeness that brought electric traction definitely before the world,for he was the first to employ grnerated by a series dynamo used as a motor.His apparatus,at that period considered modern,convinced everyone that at last the problem had been switched onto the right track.The little railway proved how futile all work on the motor had been before 1879. Siemons'`series machines'were also used for series arc lighting.Now,examining the picture of his motor,the electrical engineer will see at a glance how inadequately that motor was provided with iron for the poles and cores.Notice also that it used the least effective magnet core winding,which was long and of hardly any breadth.What was modern in 1878-79 was antiquated in1880,for Edison's regeneration of the dynamo worked a revolution in the art.After a look at Edison's electric locomotive of 1880,we aren't surprised that his machine had an efficiency which was more than double that of any dynamo or motor previouslybuilt.The Edison constant potential system also fulfilled the demands of electric traction.

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    That was too tall a story for those early day scientists. They considered it an insolent intrusion on their prerogatives;for they knew that Edison had never attended a college nor been 'trained' to unravel a problem of such intricacy.In fact, the idea of using electricity in public service as light,heat or power,hadn't been dreamed of.Only one man in their opinion conceive such a wild fancy-Jules Verne. Ahead of Edison was a year of arduous toil.As we turn our kaleidoscope back to that year we see him working first on the low resistance platinum lamp and then on the high resistance one.We see him try rare or high fusion metals,which, moreover,he discovers are packed with occulaged gases,and he find a means of overcoming the gases.We see a new generator of electricity that returns 90 percent of the power applied to it;we see many lamps made of carbon filament.

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    Our narrative is still in the midest of the brilliant that were exciting interest during the early part of 1880,when Edison,harnessed to his work,was making rapid progress in commercialy perfecting his lamp. At that time Brush,Thomson,Houston and Weston were busy with their arc light system and none had faith in the little lamp that Edison had given to the world. That their disbelief was in error how well we now know! For the little lamp of high resistance that began to cast its glow in that day has kept on glowing everywhere, as does also the spirit of Edison its inventor. Our busy activities during that development period were now and then interrupted by some merry interlude.Occasionally the 'boys'played jokes on each other.Sometimes one of them who had become tried would seek a nap on a near-by table.While no one objected to a peaceful slumber,if the delinquent began to snore or attempted to imitate the chords of rhapsodies such as we now and then hear on the radio, things happened.Somebody would crash a heavy weight on the table;that stopped the snoring.As an alternative the snorer was sometimes treated to a whiff of concentrared spirits of ammonia which,too,was effective.

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    Those days and nights were filled with critical and exciting moments.All tests were most thorough and complete.Even outside bridgebuilding exports were called in to try the iron structure upon which the six steam dynamo rested.Then Edison began to test his station electrically and many trials and experimrnts were made,furnishing valuable data of a commercial nature for the oeration of central stations.The tension indicator designed by Edison for controlling the electrical pressure at the feeder ends of his underground network was put into operation and found satisfactory.Its proper working and standardizing was one of the functions especially confided to Lieb.The underground network was tested by Herman Claudius,an Austrian veteran of the old school,and its insulation was found perfect.In the tests of a radically new system,of course,certain unexpected things will happen,and minor defects will appear from time tobtime;that was reason Edison conducted such careful trials before permanent operation of the plant began.

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    We pass to the account of the creation contained in the Hebrew record. And it must be observed that in reality two distinct accounts are given us in the book of Genesis, one being comprised in the first chapter and the first three verses of the second, the other commencing at the fourth verse of the second chapter and continuing till the end. This is so philologically certain that it were useless to ignore it. But even those who may be inclined to contest the fact that we have here the productions of two different writers, will admit that the account beginning at the first verse of the first chapter, and ending at the third verse of the second, is a complete whole in itself. And to this narrative, in order not to complicate the subject unnecessarily, we intend to confine ourselves. It will sufficient for our purpose to enquire, whether this account can be shown to be in accordance with our astronomical and geological knowledge. And for the right understanding of it the whole must be set out, so that the various parts may be taken in connexion with one another.