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Maxim,having thus studied Edison's ideas,announced in the Scientific American of October 23,1880,his new lamp,which in reality was but a bad imitation of the Edison paper lamp Instead of making a carbon in the shape of a horseshoe,Maxim made his at first in the form of a Maltese cross and later in the form of an M. His company,the United States Electric Light Company,made several installations during its struggling existence,and then passed away, as did also Maxim the electrician-through Maxim the gun maker survived in England where he found it more congenial to live than in America.The trouble with most of the early imitators of Edison's ideas was that they had no system,while Edison had worked out a fundamental one which embraced all the necessary accessories and of which the lamp was but one of principal parts. In those days spies were plentiful;it appeared that there existed a regular inaugurated system of espionage for years.Later we obtained conclusive evidence of the existence of printed confidential reports from private operators-of which I hope soon to tell you more.

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こんな風に、エジソンのアイデアを勉強したマキシムは、1880年10月23日、サイエンティフィック・アメリカン(※1)で、U字形で炭素を作る代わりに、最初はマルタ十字(※2)の形で、のちにM字型で作った、実際にはエジソンの紙製ランプの粗悪な模造品である自身の新型ランプを発表した。彼の会社である、アメリカ合衆国電気会社は、会社の存続の為に悪戦苦闘しながらいくつかの設備を作り、電気技師としてのマキシムがまたそうであったように、やがて消えていった~が、マキシムはアメリカよりもずっと住み心地が良いイギリスで、機関銃メーカーとして生き残った(※3)。エジソンのアイデアを早期に模倣した者たちの問題は、彼らがきちんとしたシステムを持っていなかったことだ。一方でエジソンは、その中で、ランプが主たる部品のひとつでしかない、すべての必要な付属品を含む基礎的なものを実現させていた。当時(産業)スパイが山ほどいた。何年にもわたって、規則的に発足するスパイ行為のシステムが存在していたようにも見えた。そう遠くないうちに詳しく話せることを願っているが、後に我々は民間事業者から、印刷された機密報告書の存在を示す決定的証拠を手に入れた。 ※1:Scientific American 1845年創刊の一般読者向け科学雑誌 ※2:Maltese cross Geneva drive(ジェノバ機構)とも言われる爪状の送り機構のことですが、その形がキリスト教の騎士修道会である聖ヨハネ騎士団(マルタ騎士団とも)の象徴である十字に似ているのでこのように呼ばれます。 ※3:gun maker マキシムの名前は電気技師よりも、世界初の全自動式機関銃(マキシム機関銃として有名)を発明した人としての方がよく知られています。

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  • d-y
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Maxim, having thus studied Edison's ideas, announced in the Scientific American of October 23, 1880, his new lamp, which in reality was but a bad imitation of the Edison paper lamp  マキシムは、そのようにしてエジソンのアイデアを研究した上で、1880年10月23日のサイエンティフィックアメリカン誌において彼の新しいランプを発表したが、それはエジソンのペーパーランプの出来の悪いの模造品に過ぎなかった。 Instead of making a carbon in the shape of a horseshoe, Maxim made his at first in the form of a Maltese cross and later in the form of an M. カーボンを馬蹄形に作るかわりに、マキシムは彼のカーボンを、最初はマルタ十字の形に、後にはM字型にした。 His company, the United States Electric Light Company, made several installations during its struggling existence, and then passed away,  彼の会社、ユナイテッドステイツエレクトリックライトカンパニーは、苦難の連続だったその歴史の中で、いくつかの施設を作り、そして消えていった。 as did also Maxim the electrician 同じように、電気技師マキシムも消えていった。 though Maxim the gun maker survived in England where he found it more congenial to live than in America. しかし、銃製造者マキシムは、彼にとってアメリカよりも住みやすかったイギリスで、生き延びた。 The trouble with most of the early imitators of Edison's ideas was that they had no system,  エジソンのアイデアの初期の模倣者のほとんどが抱えた問題は、体系がないという事だった while Edison had worked out a fundamental one which embraced all the necessary accessories and of which the lamp was but one of principal parts. 一方、エジソンは、必要な付属物をすべて包含し、ランプはその主要部分のひとつに過ぎないような、基本体系を作り上げていた。 In those days spies were plentiful; 当時、スパイはたくさんいた。 it appeared that there existed a regular inaugurated system of espionage for years. 何年もの間、定常的な組織的諜報システムが存在していたように思われる。 Later we obtained conclusive evidence of the existence of printed confidential reports from private operators 後に、我々は、民間事業者による印刷された秘密レポートが存在するという確定的証拠を入手した。 of which I hope soon to tell you more  これについては、すぐに、もっと詳しくお話ししたい。

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  • 和訳をお願いします。

    Maxim,having thus studied Edison's ideas,announced in the Scientific American of October 23,1880,his new lamp,which in reality was but a bad imitation of the Edison paper lamp Instead of making a carbon in the shape of a horseshoe,Maxim made his at first in the form of a Maltese cross and later in the form of an M. His company,the United States Electric Light Company,made several installations during its struggling existence,and then passed away, as did also Maxim the electrician-through Maxim the gun maker survived in England where he found it more congenial to live than in America.The trouble with most of the early imitators of Edison's ideas was that they had no system,while Edison had worked out a fundamental one which embraced all the necessary accessories and of which the lamp was but one of principal parts. In those days spies were plentiful;it appeared that there existed a regular inaugurated system of espionage for years.Later we obtained conclusive evidence of the existence of printed confidential reports from private operators-of which I hope soon to tell you more.

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    Here I mention another visitor,well known at that time,who appeared at the laboratory one day.His name was Hiram S.Maxim.He had made an arc lamp and generator which he exploited and which was known as the Maxim arc light system. He,too as I already mentioned,dabbled about wity an incandescent lamp idea in 1878 and like others had no success.His lamp was of very low resistance and possessed many other defects-it was simply an abandoned experiment of no practical value. Maxim was very much interested in what Edison showed him and the two spent almost a day together.Edison explained to him how the paper filaments were made and carbonized and all about the glass-blowing part.In fact,Maxim spent nearly two hours with Edison in the glass house where Boehm,Holzer and Hipple were working.He,too,like the 'celebrated electrician of Cleveland' took leave with the most touching cordiality.

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    Maxim didn't run to New York and give his opinion to a newspaper,but went to his laboratory and began trying to make a lamp after Edison's ideas.He had no success,however,and after a few weeks sent to Menlo Park an emissary who got in touch with Boehm.It was also said that the agent approached another of our men.The deportment of Boehm changed perceptibly and soon begame suspicious. Hw was changing his allegiance to that of Maxim.In fact,he soon departed Menlo Park and entered that electrician's employ.This as far I am aware was the only defection that ever occured at our laboratory in those early days.In a few months Boehm managed to place the Maxim laboratory incondition so that it was able to produce some incandescent lamps that had their light-giving element made of paper.While at Menlo Park Boehm had had the oppotunity of watching all the various processes by which Edison made a practical lamp,and that acquired knowledge he imparted to Maxim.With the compensation he received,he was enabled to return to Germany and study.After receiving the degree of Ph.D. from the University of Freiburg in 1886,he returned to America.

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    It was Dr.Werner Siemens' initiativeness that brought electric traction definitely before the world,for he was the first to employ grnerated by a series dynamo used as a motor.His apparatus,at that period considered modern,convinced everyone that at last the problem had been switched onto the right track.The little railway proved how futile all work on the motor had been before 1879. Siemons'`series machines'were also used for series arc lighting.Now,examining the picture of his motor,the electrical engineer will see at a glance how inadequately that motor was provided with iron for the poles and cores.Notice also that it used the least effective magnet core winding,which was long and of hardly any breadth.What was modern in 1878-79 was antiquated in1880,for Edison's regeneration of the dynamo worked a revolution in the art.After a look at Edison's electric locomotive of 1880,we aren't surprised that his machine had an efficiency which was more than double that of any dynamo or motor previouslybuilt.The Edison constant potential system also fulfilled the demands of electric traction.

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    A certain distinguished electrical engineer from Cleveland,Ohio,who came to Menlo Park was taken in charge by Edison himself,who explained everything to him;the whole visit seemed one of collegiate accord.They parted like the best of friends after complimenting each other on their work.Imagine the surprise when the New York Times a few days later printed this gentleman's contrary opinion on Edison's light and system.I give a few extracts from that article as it appeared later in an English elecrical journal. On February 28,1880,the Electrician reprinted a long article from the pen of a well-known electrician from Clevenland,Ohio,which appeared in the New York Times.The electrician visited Edison's laboratory at Menlo Park,where he was accorded the attention of an honored visitor.These he rapaid by indulging in some severe criticism of the inventor and his work.'He asserts that Edison has simply resurrected a lot of scientific lumber with the design of dazzling the public.He attacks the carbon horseshoe lamp and disparages its importance.''In this one point of durability which has wrecked all previous experiments during the last thirty-four years,he appears to have made no advance whatever.It has been assumed by Edison that if this lamp could be made a success by way of durability,the problem of economical electric lighting by the incandescent plan would be solved.This is far from being the case.Success would be as hopelessly far off as ever.It is doubtful if he (Edison) can get more than two,or possibly three,of these small lights per horsepower under the best management.The absurdity of the claims for the so-called Edison generator reveals the fact that it is rather a poor form of the well-known Siemens machine.''

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     While the world was still in a furor over Edison's success in the early part of 1880,it became necessary to take certain precautions in the visitors allowed at Menlo Park.Many of these came in good faith,while some we found later,came for purposes not honorable.  I have already told of the note Edison sent to all employees on February 19,1880,and I might now say that its purpose wasn't solely that of a reprimand for the more garrulous boys:its main object was to prevent the imparting of certain information to strangers.That many spies came there wasn't doubt;well-known men came with the desire to spy out all they could and then to copy Edison's lamp,giving it a changed form.I shall come back to the case of one or two later.

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    I have given all these details in order to show what privileges and protection an inventor enjoys when,like Edison,he conducts organized research for a strong company.He has everything at his disposal and can devote himself,without worry, his work.If he is successful,he gets his liberal share and has no expence.Edison had stuck to the stocks received from the Edison companies for his work he would, no doubt,have been the largest sharer in electric lighting interests in the country. But Edison wasn't after money solely.No! He considered it a means of exchange and in that spirit turned it into new activities,new endeavors and new lines of experiment.It was important that he should do so:otherwise history might have had a different course.He didn't wait in leisurely luxury until his electric light shares should grow fat with returns,but from the start took all the money he could raise to his place his great achievements upon a solid commercial foundation under his personal supervision.That was necessary considering the epoch.With him it was push,push,and push again,and with the help of loyal servants the gigantic results of his Menlo Park labors were soon safely set on a manufacturing foundation;in a few years they were fortitled to an impregnable strength.Then the time arrived for others to carry his work of expansion further-this,however,only after a decennium,In 1892 the General Electric Company took up his program of expansion and has been developing it ever since.

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    Again we are in October.Suddenly our kaleidoscape seems to have failed because of the bright light that dazzles our vision:the twenty-first of October brings a new lamp.Thus Edison has accomplished all that he promised to accomplish a year earlier;and the labors of his predecessors are laid on shelves of historical memories. As I have already written,the thread filament lamp was followed immediately by one whose light-giving element consisted of a piese of paper,known in history as the 'carbonized paper horseshoe lamp.' With those paper lamps Edison gave his first demonstration-it was the first in the history of electricity.It embraced all the fundamentals of distribution as practiced today.I have already told you how long these first paper lamps lasted and may add that when we began to make them in quantities,their average normal life reached three hundred hours;indeed some reached a thousand and more.Edison was actually at that time December,1879-a manufacturer of incandescent lamps,the only one,and you can imagine how much excitement he created.

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    Those days and nights were filled with critical and exciting moments.All tests were most thorough and complete.Even outside bridgebuilding exports were called in to try the iron structure upon which the six steam dynamo rested.Then Edison began to test his station electrically and many trials and experimrnts were made,furnishing valuable data of a commercial nature for the oeration of central stations.The tension indicator designed by Edison for controlling the electrical pressure at the feeder ends of his underground network was put into operation and found satisfactory.Its proper working and standardizing was one of the functions especially confided to Lieb.The underground network was tested by Herman Claudius,an Austrian veteran of the old school,and its insulation was found perfect.In the tests of a radically new system,of course,certain unexpected things will happen,and minor defects will appear from time tobtime;that was reason Edison conducted such careful trials before permanent operation of the plant began.

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    I have never been able to find out who the parties were that employed this detective agency.If I may venture a guess,those interested in gas had something to do with it.It all shows the pitfalls that are laid for an inventor when paramount interests are at stake. It is thus no wonder that G.P.Lowrey counseled prudence in showing people round and at the same time took precautions without Edison's knowledge for the company's sake.Yes,Lowrey was ever on the watch,and as we approached the busy termination of work atMenlo Park,the Edison Electric Light Company knew perfectly well which men at the Park were loyal and which were not,even before Edison had any idea of it.It was one these gum-shoed gentleman whose report on Boehm caused the latter to leave Menlo Park with lightning rapidly.I remember one of this company's shadowers well;his name was Russell.He once got into a jam and was beaten so severely that he had to cover his whole back with a large porous plaster;his nickname after that was 'Porous-plaster Jim'.