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Here I mention another visitor,well known at that time,who appeared at the laboratory one day.His name was Hiram S.Maxim.He had made an arc lamp and generator which he exploited and which was known as the Maxim arc light system. He,too as I already mentioned,dabbled about wity an incandescent lamp idea in 1878 and like others had no success.His lamp was of very low resistance and possessed many other defects-it was simply an abandoned experiment of no practical value. Maxim was very much interested in what Edison showed him and the two spent almost a day together.Edison explained to him how the paper filaments were made and carbonized and all about the glass-blowing part.In fact,Maxim spent nearly two hours with Edison in the glass house where Boehm,Holzer and Hipple were working.He,too,like the 'celebrated electrician of Cleveland' took leave with the most touching cordiality.

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ここで私は、ある日研究所に現れた当時よく知られていた、もう一人の訪問者について述べる。彼の名前はハイラム・エス・マキシム(※1)と言った。彼は自身が開発したアーク灯と発電機を作り、マキシムアーク灯システムとして知られていた。 彼もまた、私がすでに述べた通り、1878年に白熱灯のアイデアに手をだし、他の人同様、うまく行ってなかった。彼のランプは非常に電気抵抗が低く、他に多くの欠陥があった~それは単に実用価値のない、見捨てられた実験だったのだ。 マキシムはエジソンが彼に示したことにものすごく興味を持ち、二人は一緒にほぼまる1日を過ごした。エジソンはどうやって紙のフィラメントが作られ、どうやって炭素化したか、そしてガラス吹きつけ部分のすべてを彼に説明した。実際マキシムは、ベーム、ホルツァー、そしてヒップルが働いていたガラス工房でエジソンと一緒に、ほぼ2時間を過ごした。彼もまた、「クリーブランドの著名な電気技術者」同様、この上ない感動的な真心のこもった言葉と共に別れを告げた。 ※1:Hiram S.Maxim アメリカの電気技師兼発明家。

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    Maxim,having thus studied Edison's ideas,announced in the Scientific American of October 23,1880,his new lamp,which in reality was but a bad imitation of the Edison paper lamp Instead of making a carbon in the shape of a horseshoe,Maxim made his at first in the form of a Maltese cross and later in the form of an M. His company,the United States Electric Light Company,made several installations during its struggling existence,and then passed away, as did also Maxim the electrician-through Maxim the gun maker survived in England where he found it more congenial to live than in America.The trouble with most of the early imitators of Edison's ideas was that they had no system,while Edison had worked out a fundamental one which embraced all the necessary accessories and of which the lamp was but one of principal parts. In those days spies were plentiful;it appeared that there existed a regular inaugurated system of espionage for years.Later we obtained conclusive evidence of the existence of printed confidential reports from private operators-of which I hope soon to tell you more.

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    Maxim,having thus studied Edison's ideas,announced in the Scientific American of October 23,1880,his new lamp,which in reality was but a bad imitation of the Edison paper lamp Instead of making a carbon in the shape of a horseshoe,Maxim made his at first in the form of a Maltese cross and later in the form of an M. His company,the United States Electric Light Company,made several installations during its struggling existence,and then passed away, as did also Maxim the electrician-through Maxim the gun maker survived in England where he found it more congenial to live than in America.The trouble with most of the early imitators of Edison's ideas was that they had no system,while Edison had worked out a fundamental one which embraced all the necessary accessories and of which the lamp was but one of principal parts. In those days spies were plentiful;it appeared that there existed a regular inaugurated system of espionage for years.Later we obtained conclusive evidence of the existence of printed confidential reports from private operators-of which I hope soon to tell you more.

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    Maxim didn't run to New York and give his opinion to a newspaper,but went to his laboratory and began trying to make a lamp after Edison's ideas.He had no success,however,and after a few weeks sent to Menlo Park an emissary who got in touch with Boehm.It was also said that the agent approached another of our men.The deportment of Boehm changed perceptibly and soon begame suspicious. Hw was changing his allegiance to that of Maxim.In fact,he soon departed Menlo Park and entered that electrician's employ.This as far I am aware was the only defection that ever occured at our laboratory in those early days.In a few months Boehm managed to place the Maxim laboratory incondition so that it was able to produce some incandescent lamps that had their light-giving element made of paper.While at Menlo Park Boehm had had the oppotunity of watching all the various processes by which Edison made a practical lamp,and that acquired knowledge he imparted to Maxim.With the compensation he received,he was enabled to return to Germany and study.After receiving the degree of Ph.D. from the University of Freiburg in 1886,he returned to America.

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    That was too tall a story for those early day scientists. They considered it an insolent intrusion on their prerogatives;for they knew that Edison had never attended a college nor been 'trained' to unravel a problem of such intricacy.In fact, the idea of using electricity in public service as light,heat or power,hadn't been dreamed of.Only one man in their opinion conceive such a wild fancy-Jules Verne. Ahead of Edison was a year of arduous toil.As we turn our kaleidoscope back to that year we see him working first on the low resistance platinum lamp and then on the high resistance one.We see him try rare or high fusion metals,which, moreover,he discovers are packed with occulaged gases,and he find a means of overcoming the gases.We see a new generator of electricity that returns 90 percent of the power applied to it;we see many lamps made of carbon filament.

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    Again we are in October.Suddenly our kaleidoscape seems to have failed because of the bright light that dazzles our vision:the twenty-first of October brings a new lamp.Thus Edison has accomplished all that he promised to accomplish a year earlier;and the labors of his predecessors are laid on shelves of historical memories. As I have already written,the thread filament lamp was followed immediately by one whose light-giving element consisted of a piese of paper,known in history as the 'carbonized paper horseshoe lamp.' With those paper lamps Edison gave his first demonstration-it was the first in the history of electricity.It embraced all the fundamentals of distribution as practiced today.I have already told you how long these first paper lamps lasted and may add that when we began to make them in quantities,their average normal life reached three hundred hours;indeed some reached a thousand and more.Edison was actually at that time December,1879-a manufacturer of incandescent lamps,the only one,and you can imagine how much excitement he created.

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    You have already heard how from time to time he himself stupid each operation in the making of his lamp,and how thoroughly he worked out the process of carbonization.First he formed his filament from the raw material and then he carbonized them.Those that worked on the problem before Edison,took carbon already made from which to shape their light-giving elements.Some had their carbons made by Carre of Paris,an electric arc light carbon manufacturer;and these were in the shape of rods. Thus we see distinctive methods of operation,with Edison following a different course from all the others in procuring and making his carbon filament. When at last he had concluded his investigations into carbon-making and began to make lamps in quantities,he assigned Lawson,Van Cleve and others to the job, instructing them in all the details.From that time forth it was more of a routine process than an experimental one.Likewise the newcomers whom the new-found light and dynamo lured to Menlo Park,Clarke,Howell,Hammer,Acheson,Holzer and others,were assigned places in this new activity.And each of the so-colled 'departments'was given its own routine.

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    Our narrative is still in the midest of the brilliant that were exciting interest during the early part of 1880,when Edison,harnessed to his work,was making rapid progress in commercialy perfecting his lamp. At that time Brush,Thomson,Houston and Weston were busy with their arc light system and none had faith in the little lamp that Edison had given to the world. That their disbelief was in error how well we now know! For the little lamp of high resistance that began to cast its glow in that day has kept on glowing everywhere, as does also the spirit of Edison its inventor. Our busy activities during that development period were now and then interrupted by some merry interlude.Occasionally the 'boys'played jokes on each other.Sometimes one of them who had become tried would seek a nap on a near-by table.While no one objected to a peaceful slumber,if the delinquent began to snore or attempted to imitate the chords of rhapsodies such as we now and then hear on the radio, things happened.Somebody would crash a heavy weight on the table;that stopped the snoring.As an alternative the snorer was sometimes treated to a whiff of concentrared spirits of ammonia which,too,was effective.

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      Nevertheless,disregarding the 'worry hunters'' the Pearl Strret Central Station was started on September 4,1882,and the Edison system and underground conductors service for decades.  Another somewhat similar incident of a different character happened at the corner of Nassau and Ann streets.As is known,Edison placed cast-iron junction boxes at the intersection of the streets,in connection with his underground conductors.Late one night when he was still at the station,a policeman came running in and in an excited voice said that the iron box at the above-mentioned corner had exploded.Edison and one of the 'boys' went there to see what had happened.He found that the cover on the manhole,which weighed about a couple of hundred pounds,had vanished,but everything inside the manhole was in good order.Edison concluded that gas from a gas main might have got into the manhole, or it might have been the acid used in picking the casting that gave off hydrogen that mixed with the air leaking in to make the explosive mixture.   The incident worried him;there were many such manhole boxes in the system,and if one should explode in a crowded street and life a few oersons into the air the company might be compelled to pay damages.Edison got his thinker in action and soon solved the problem.He placed a little bottle of chloroform with a small hole in the cork each box.The chroloform evaporated and, being heavy,settled in the box,displacing the air that may have got in.Edison said afterward that he had never heard of an explotion in a box that had a bottle of chloroform in it.

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    A certain distinguished electrical engineer from Cleveland,Ohio,who came to Menlo Park was taken in charge by Edison himself,who explained everything to him;the whole visit seemed one of collegiate accord.They parted like the best of friends after complimenting each other on their work.Imagine the surprise when the New York Times a few days later printed this gentleman's contrary opinion on Edison's light and system.I give a few extracts from that article as it appeared later in an English elecrical journal. On February 28,1880,the Electrician reprinted a long article from the pen of a well-known electrician from Clevenland,Ohio,which appeared in the New York Times.The electrician visited Edison's laboratory at Menlo Park,where he was accorded the attention of an honored visitor.These he rapaid by indulging in some severe criticism of the inventor and his work.'He asserts that Edison has simply resurrected a lot of scientific lumber with the design of dazzling the public.He attacks the carbon horseshoe lamp and disparages its importance.''In this one point of durability which has wrecked all previous experiments during the last thirty-four years,he appears to have made no advance whatever.It has been assumed by Edison that if this lamp could be made a success by way of durability,the problem of economical electric lighting by the incandescent plan would be solved.This is far from being the case.Success would be as hopelessly far off as ever.It is doubtful if he (Edison) can get more than two,or possibly three,of these small lights per horsepower under the best management.The absurdity of the claims for the so-called Edison generator reveals the fact that it is rather a poor form of the well-known Siemens machine.''

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    'Then he showed me the lamps burning in the shop.He said they were obliged to keep them burning eight months before they could do anything. 'We then went into the glss-blowing department,a separate building,out back. Two men were at work there.Edison had enlarged the bulb of his lamp about 33 per cent and they were at work blowing them,and parts of these vacuum pumps. Edison is working a vacumm pump of glass entirely .They were putting some of the carbon horseshoe into the lamps.There was only one man at work putting the carbon in(Batchelor). 'From there I went into a photo-lithographic concern that Edison has just got up,and they were at work pictures.There was one picture of Edison surrounded bu about thirty-five of his workmen taken by this process;and they had a man at work with chemicals,etc.Every now and then my conductor would point out a lamp with remark,''How nice that is burning!''ect.Then he would turn a little screw to turn the light off or on.He couldn't regurate it intermediately.It was eighter all off or all on.I asked him if they could regurate to any intermediate point and he said they couldn't.''These horseshoe burn very well,''he said. '''Some of them burn on an average about 800 hours continuously.''My conductor then took me where the dynamo machines were working and showed me the engine which he said was 80HP-150,I should think,judging from the size of it.He said they had a hundred lamps burning,but I am positive there weren't over 50,even if as many as that,everywhere,in the shop and out of it;and to run them he had 3 dynamo machines worked by this engine,those big upright machines of Edison's,that my conductor said had a capacity of 50 lightseach