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The research offers a clear warning that efforts to eradicate malaria should be accelerated, says Sanjeev Krishna from St George's University of London, who studies the biochemical origins of artemisinin resistance. He says that he expected resistance to occur eventually — but not as soon as this. "I thought we would have had longer," he says. More intensive drug-development programmes are needed, he adds, to find new drugs based on artemisinin, as well as alternatives. An eradication programme combining continued treatment and use of mosquito nets is under way in this area of Cambodia, Day says. "It's going to need considerable political willpower, scientific research and financial resources to achieve," he cautions. But without it, there is a danger that the resistant parasite could reach the world's malaria heartland — Africa. "That," says Day, "would be a major disaster." よろしくお願いします^^;


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  • ddeana
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この調査は、マラリア根絶の為一層の努力をすべきだという明瞭な警告を提示しているのです。とアルテミシニン耐性の生化学起源を研究しているロンドン、セント・ジョージス大学のサンジーヴ・クリシュナは言います。 彼によると、これほど早くではなくとも、菌の耐性が最終的に起ることは予想されていたとのことです。 「もうすこし時間がかかるものと思っていたのです。」と。 代替療法もあわせた、アルテミシニンベースの新薬を発見する更なる徹底的医薬品開発プログラムが急務なのですと彼は付け加えます。 継続的治療と蚊帳の使用を併用した根絶プログラムが、カンボジアのこの地域で進行中です、とデイは述べています。 「成功させるにはかなりの政治的意志(※1)、科学的研究、そして財源が必要となるでしょう。」と彼は注意を促します。 しかしそれがなければ、耐性をもった原虫が世界におけるマラリア中心地、つまりアフリカに及ぶ危険性があるのです。 「それは」「最悪の事態となります。」とデイは言います。 ※1:ここでは強い政治的サポートという意味かと存じます。



訳完成しましたo(*^▽^*)o ありがとうございます^^


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    Malaria parasites in Cambodia are becoming increasingly resistant to the drug hailed as the world's best chance to eradicate the disease. Artemisinin-based drugs are currently the best weapon against malaria, a disease which kills around a million people every year and is spread by mosquitoes carrying malaria parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum. These parasites have already developed resistance to drugs such as chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, once the front line against the disease, so hopes have been pinned on artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs). The parasites have become far less easy to treat with ACTs, however, in the Cambodian city of Pailin, close to the country's western border with Thailand. The finding was made by researchers from the Wellcome Trust–Mahidol University Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Programme, based in Bangkok, Thailand. In particular, the parasites are becoming more resistant to a combined therapy of artesunate, derived from artemisinin, and mefloquine, a quinine analogue. This combination is used to treat malaria worldwide. Rumours about artemisinin resistance in Cambodia have been circulating for a number of years, and a relatively small study by Harald Noedl at the Medical University of Vienna and his colleagues, published late last year, suggested that resistance was emerging. よろしくお願いしますm(。・ω・。)m

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    The latest study involved 40 patients infected with P. falciparum in Pailin, and another 40 in Wang Pha, in northwest Thailand2. Half of each group were given just artesunate, and the other half the dual artesunate–mefloquine therapy. The Cambodian group took almost twice as long to clear the parasite from their body as the Thai group: 84 hours compared with 48 hours. Usually artemisinin drugs clear the parasite within three days, says Nick Day, director of the Mahidol Oxford research unit in Bangkok and co-author of the study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Infection broke out again for six of the twenty patients taking just artesunate in Cambodia, compared with two patients in Thailand. With the combined therapy, it recurred in only one of the twenty cases in each group. The World Health Organization recommends that artemisinin-based drugs be given only in combination, to delay the onset of resistance. But Day explains that the single-dose groups were crucial in their controlled study to show that there was growing resistance to artesunate, and not to mefloquine alone. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria in Cambodia is especially worrying, because previous drug-resistant strains of malaria have sprung from there. "This is a wake-up call," says Day. "We have got reduced susceptibility to the drugs in an area where we've seen resistance emerge before." Given time, the parasite will only become more resistant to the drugs, he adds. よろしくお願いしますorz

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    和訳お願いします‼︎ He said that he didn't have a frog with him , but that , if Smily would be so kind as to get him one , he would be quiet willing to bet. お願いします‼︎

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    Dr. Nicholas Day is a professor of global health at Oxford University, and he coordinates research on infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever in rural Southeast Asia. There is hope that malaria can someday be eradicated, but the disease is still very common. Unfortunately, it seems that malaria parasites in Cambodia are becoming resistant to the drug that was once thought to be the best chance of eradicating the disease. Two groups of malaria patients were used in a study directed by Dr. Day. One group was from Cambodia, and the other was located in Thailand. Each group was divided into two subgroups. One subgroup took artesunate; the other took an artesunate-mefloquine combination. The Cambodian subjects took longer to clear the parasite. In other words, the parasite found in the Cambodian subjects was able to resist both treatments better than the parasite that was present in the Thai subjects. Furthermore, six of the Cambodian subjects in the artesunate sub-group contracted the disease again, while only two of the Thai artesunate sub-group subjects fell ill with malaria after the first clearance of the parasite. The combined therapy was much more effective, with only one case of re-infection in each group. The largest lesson from the study is that eradication efforts ― developing improved drugs, controlling mosquito populations, and protecting people by using mosquito nets, among other actions ― must be accelerated, or the malaria parasites will become too strong to eliminate. よろしくお願いします^^;

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    Too many of us take as facts what are actually just the opinions of the news writers. We should remember,too,that the facts themselves can be so chosen and arranged as to suit the opinions of the writer who wants others to think as he does. This of course may be done unintentionally,as well as deliberately. Recent dream research has shown that a person deprived of dreaming,even though not deprived of sleep,is nevertheless impaired in his ability to manage reality. He becomes emotionally disturbed because of being unable to work out in dreams the unconscious problems that confuse him.

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    入院と自動車学校で勉強できませんでした。 テストが間近です。お手伝いお願いします。 They told him to tell Lawrence and the Arabs that if help did not come in two days they would surrender.This was not good enough for Lawrence.The Arabs were impatient for victory and Lawrence was certain that they would not wait.They would storm Akaba and in the fighting some of them would be killed.So this time he went with the naked soldier to see the Turks.Lawrence asked to see an officer.He explained the situation to him.He said he would not be able to control the Arabs’ temper much longer.If the Turks surrendered now,they would not be killed but would be sent as prisoners to Egypt.The officer soon brought a reply. The Turks would surrender at dawn.They did.Lawrence and the Arabs rode into Akaba in triumph.They had won a great victory.But now they were all threatened with starvation.Every day there were four thousand mouths to feed.They had to start killing the camels for meat. Lawrence was exhausted.His head still ached from the fall from his camel.But he knew that he had to get food for everyone as quickly as he could.So he set off on his camel to ride across the Sinai desert to the Suez Canal.This was a journey of 250 miles,but Lawrence did it without stopping.It was a remarkable feat.For two days and two nights he ate and slept on his camel’s back.At Ismailia,on the banks of the great canal,he reported the capture of Akaba to a Royal Navy admiral he met on the railway station.The admiral,delighted with Lawrence’s success,agreed immediately to send a warship to Akaba with food and ammunition.News of the victory soon spread.People in Cairo began to ask who was this man Lawrence,who spent all his time with the Arabs.Even the French,who knew that Lawrence did not like them,gave him a medal for his bravery.And the new British general,Edmund Allenby,say that Lawrence and the Arabs might be more important than anyone realized.He called Lawrence to see him and gave him £200,00 in gold sovereigns to pay more Arab recruits.

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    Also,he found it difficult to get enough financial support because people did not think that the purpose of his research would be realized. But in the end people began to understand the possibilities of his research. 長文すいません泣 ご回答お願いします。

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    Many previous studies have assumed that the impact of aircraft emissions was the same everywhere. But the new analysis reveals that aircraft emissions increased the fraction of cirrus clouds where vapour trails were most abundant, and actually decreased the cirrus fraction in several locations by increasing the temperatures in the lower atmosphere, reducing the relative humidity in such locations. If black-carbon emissions from aircraft could be reduced 20-fold, warming would be halted and a slight cooling would occur from plane-created vapour trails, Jacobson says. The team’s study is being peer reviewed and is expected to be published soon, Jacobson added. David Fahey, of the Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado ― part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ― says that studies such as Jacobson’s are important to fill the gaps in aircraft-emissions data following the nation’s previously “muddled” research course. Fahey says that how European leaders are calling for carbon taxes to be levied on each commercial airline flight, the United States is being driven to catch up on aircraft-emissions research. Some of the EU proposals suggest taxing a flight for emissions along its entire route. This is “absurd”, says Fahey. For a more realistic levy, high-quality research is needed on the actual impact of such emissions, he adds. よろしくお願いします^^;

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    和訳をお願いします。 1.He said to me , "I have not heard anything about this news." =He told me that he had not heard anything acout that news. 2.He said to me ,"I fell asleep during the lesson today."="He told me that he had fallen asleep during the lesson that day. 3.Arnold Schwarzenegger told a Toronto newspaper that his Catholic faith does not impact his decisions as governor of California.

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    He could have borne to live an ordinary life, but not to be forgotten in the grave. His great desire had changed to hope. and hope had at last become a certainty that, althought he now journeyed unnoticed, a glory would shine on his pathway-though not, perhaps,while he was travelling it.but the day would come when people would realize that a gifted one had passed through this life with none to recognize him.