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“The ocean is a dig missing part” of the mercury cycle, says Pirrone, who also headed the United Nations Environment Programme’s scientific assessment last year for future mercury policy making. Robie Macdonald, an Arctic mercury specialist at Canada’s department of oceans and fisheries, says that although mercury in the atmosphere has increased by about 400%in the past 100-150 years, concentrations seem to have risen by only about 30% in the oceans. “We’ve been so busy looking at the atmosphere, not really looking at the oceans,” he says. “Both papers are really important in terms of changing community attention to what mercury does and its risks.” Any control measures on methlmercury, however, must take into account how much comes, unavoidably, from natural sources and how much is from anthropogenic sources such as the combustion of fossil fuels, points out Pirrone. And controversy continues on that score. A lack of data on changes in methylmercury levels in fish, and on natural or anthropogenic origins of the compound, led to a California court decision in March 2009 that allowed tuna-canning companies to avoid labeling methylmercury levels in their fish products. The US Food and Drug Administration is currently evaluating its guidelines on the risks of consuming methylmercury in fish. よろしくお願いします^^;


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水銀循環において「海は丹念な調査が大きく欠けている部分です。」と、将来の水銀ポリシー作成の為、昨年の国連環境計画科学的アセスメントの座長も務めたピローネは言います。 カナダ水産海洋省の北極における水銀のスペシャリスト、ロビー・マクドナルドによると、大気中の水銀量は過去100年~150年で約400%増加したものの、海の濃度はわずか30%の上昇と思えるとのことです。 「我々は大気圏にばかり注目していて、あまり海に目を向けていなかったのです。」と彼はいいます。 「どちらの論文も、水銀が何をどうするのかやそのリスクに対する社会の関心を変化させるという観点からとても重要なのです。」 しかしながらメチル水銀のいかなる適切な措置も、どのぐらいの量が自然環境から不可避で放出され、どのぐらいが例えば化石燃料の燃焼といった人為的汚染源からなのかを考慮しなければなりません、とピローネは指摘します。 そして、その点に関しては議論が続いています。 魚に含まれるメチル水銀濃度の変化に関するデータ、および、化合物が自然起源か人為起源かに関するデータの不足は、マグロの缶詰会社が自社製品におけるメチル水銀濃度を非表示にすることを許可するという2009年3月のカリフォルニア州裁判所の決定につながりました。 現在、アメリカ食品医薬局は魚に含まれるメチル水銀の摂取によるリスクについてのガイドライン評価を行っているところです。





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    Sunderland’s team also found a relationship between levels of methylated mercury and organic carbon. Particles of organic carbon from phytoplankton or other sources may provide surfaces on which microbes could methylate mercury in the ocean, the researchers suggest. That methylated mercury could then be released back into the water. “We don’t have a causal mechanism yet, but it does seem to be linked to the biological pump in the ocean,” says Sunderland. Previous findings in the southern and equatorial Pacific, she adds, observed similar high methylmercury concentrations where biological activity was highest. That connection has implications for climate change and the mercury cycle: warmer, more productive oceans, with more phytoplankton and more fish, might increase the amount of methylated mercury that ends up on human plates. The researchers also hypothesize that waters in the western Pacific could be picking up mercury deposited from increasing atmospheric emissions in Asia, and then moving to the northeast Pacific. The ocean may only how be responding to higher mercury loads from past atmospheric deposition, Sunderland says. Daniel Cossa of the French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER) in LA Seyne-sur-Mer and his colleagues have gathered another set of mercury data, this time from the Mediterranean, to be published in the May issue of Limnology and Oceanography. Both papers indicate that not all methylated mercury comes direct from coastal or river sources, and confirm that methylation occurs at moderate depth in oceans, says Cossa’s co-author Nicola Pirrone, director of Italy’s National Research Council Institute for Atmospheric Pollution in Rende. よろしくお願いしますorz

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    Mercury levels in the Pacific Ocean are rising, a new study suggests. The increase may mean that more methylmercury, a human neurotoxin formed when mercury is methylated by microbes, accumulates in marine fish such as tuna. The research comes as researchers and policymakers, who have tended to focus on atmospheric concentrations of the element, are looking for a fuller picture of the mercury cycle. US guidelines on methylmercury in fish are currently under review. It remains unclear exactly how atmospheric mercury ― whether dumped directly into oceans or carried there through rivers or coastal deposits ― is methylated and eventually taken up by fish, which are a major source of human exposure to methylmercury. But the new data, collected by Elsie Sunderland of Harvard University and colleagues, also provide a possible mechanism for mercury methylation within the ocean. The researchers collected samples from the eastern North Pacific, an area also monitored by research cruises in 1987 and 2002. They estimate that methylated mercury accounts for as much as 29% of all mercury in subsurface ocean waters, with lower concentrations occurring in deeper water masses. The group’s modeling indicates that atmospheric deposition of the total ocean mercury concentrations recorded in the mid-1990s by 2050. よろしくお願いします( ´_ゝ`)

  • 文法的解釈をお願いします。

    2文あるのですが、 (1)without notice being provided to the investigator. なぜ、without notice provided to the investigator.では、いけないのでしょうか? (2)So are large areas of the atmosphere and the oceans, both of which are at work all the time, cooling and warming, drying and moistening the land surfaces of the earth. So are の部分が文法的にわかりません。 よろしくお願いいたします。

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    Methylation is a chemical process in which a methyl(CH3)group is added to an atom or molecule. The resulting compound does not usually dissolve in water and is more easily absorbed into organisms such as plankton. Methylmercury is very dangerous because it enters the food chain as soon as it is absorbed into plankton. Next, it ends up in a fish that eats the contaminated plankton. After the contaminated fish is eaten by another fish, the methylmercury stays in the surviving fish's flesh, and the cycle may be repeated over and over. Once the mercury reaches the top of the food chain, for example in a 300-kilogram tuna, it will stay there for the rest of the fish's life. As a result, people are very worried about the effect of eating fish that are high on the food chain or very old. These fish may have very high accumulations of mercury, and thus may be dangerous to eat. Fish that are lower on the food chain, or younger, are seen as safer. As the article makes clear, an important first step is to discover the exact nature of the ocean's mercury methylation process. After the process is understood, it may be possible to control it. Until we can reduce the amount of mercury that accumulates in the ocean, it would be advisable to avoid fish that may be high on mercury, wouldn't it?

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    和訳をお願いします(>_<) The ocean contains many strange and surprising creatures. One such creature is the puffer fish. This very strange fish is probably the most poisonous creature in the ocean. The poison that this fish produces is 275 times more poisonous than the chemical which is usually used to kill rats. The puffer fish gets its name from the way the fish protects itself from enemies. Whenever it is attacked,the fish blows up its body to three times its normal size! Another strange thing about this fish is the fact that it cannot swim like other fish. Because it dose not have bones like other fish,the puffer fish can only move slowly through the water as it is carried by waves. The puffer fish also has funny teeth. These teeth stick out of the fish's mouth and are used by the fish to open the shells of the creatures that live on the ocean floor. This strange,ugly,and very poisonous fish is actually a very expensive kind of food in Japan.

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    A secure labeling system is in place for wine and in some countrious for beef. A similar certification system of tracking fish from the ocean to the consumer could reduce the demand for, and therefore the price of endangered, uncertified products. 1文目はis以降が上手くつかめなくて、2文目は ,and&#65374;endangered,の挿入でめちゃくちゃになって上手く訳せません。 お時間がある方、どうかよろしくお願いします!

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    On the morning of November 15/28, unusually fierce fighting took place at the edge of Prunaru involving the vanguard of the 43rd mixed brigade and the occupying forces. The fog lifted, and taking advantage of this, the Germans began a manoeuvre to surround the 43rd brigade using units situated outside the village. At that moment, General Referandru ordered the 2nd Ro&#351;iori regiment to enter the battle. Thus began the Prunaru Charge. Constantin Kiri&#355;escu described it as follows: "Behind fences, in brambles, in the windows of the houses and on the bridges, the enemy hid tens of machine-guns, and threw a hail of bullets onto the mighty regiment.

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    My father and mother go to the rail of the boardwalk and look down I the beach where a good many bathers are casually walking about. A few s in the surf. A peanut whistle pierces the air with its pleasant and active whine, and my father goes to buy peanuts. My mother remains at the rail and stares at the ocean. The ocean seems merry to her; it pointedly sparkles and again and again the pony waves are released. She notices the children digging in the wet sand, and the bathing costumes of the girls who are her own age. My father returns with the peanuts. Overhead the sun's lightnil strikes and strikes, but neither of them are at all aware of it. The boardwalk is full of people dressed in their Sunday clothes and casually strolling. The tide does not reach as far as the boardwalk, and the strollers would feel no danger if it did. My father and mother lean on the rail of the boardwalk and absently stare at the ocean. The ocean is becoming rough; the waves come in slowly, tugging strength from far back. The moment before they somersault, the moment when they arch their backs so beautifully, showing white veins in the green and black, that moment is intolerable. They finally crack, dashing fiercely upon the sand, actually driving, full force downward, against it, bouncing upward and forward, and at last petering out into a small stream of bubbles which slides up the beach and then is recalled. The sun overhead does not disturb my father and my mother. They gaze idly at the ocean, scarcely interested in its harshness. But I stare at the terrible sun which breaks up sight, and the fatal merciless passionate ocean. I forget my parents. I stare fascinated, and finally, shocked by their indifference, I burst out weeping once more. The old lady next to me pats my shoulder and says "There, there, young man, all of this is only a movie, only a movie," but I look up once more at the terrifying sun and the terrifying ocean, and being unable to control my tears I get up and go to the men's room, stumbling over the feet of the other people seated in my row.

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    Andrew Jackson, deputy head of security at Novartis in Basel, Switzerland, says that industry is also being affected. On 9 February, Novartis’s offices in Barcelona were vandalized during a protest, and Jackson says that there has been an overall increase in both legal demonstrations and illegal acts. “We’ve had to increase the security of some of our facilities in Europe,” he says. Novartis says that incidents outside the United States and United Kingdom rose by nearly 50% last year to 97. There have been 15 events so far this year. Jackson believes that the protests and criminal acts are being fuelled in part by British activists travelling abroad. “There is a perception that EU law enforcement has something of a soft touch,” he says. Jackson says that he has noticed a correlation between availability of budget flights to Basel and extremist activity. “It makes for a fun weekend,” he notes wryly. But not everyone agrees that the British crackdown is behind increased activity elsewhere in Europe. Activists do occasionally go abroad to protest, says Amanda Richards, a spokesperson for SPEAK, an animal-rights group based in Northampton, UK, which has led a campaign against a primate laboratory at Oxford University (see Nature 438, 716; 2005). But she believes that the rise in Europe is due primarily to rising awareness on the continent. “It’s mainly people is the countries themselves,” she says. SPEAK has been contacted by several individuals and groups in Europe who want to organize events against animal testing, she adds. Janseen says that in the Netherlands at least, the government now appears to be taking animal-rights extremism more seriously. On 12 February, the Dutch parliament passed a motion to support the use of animal testing and condemning extremist acts. Janseen says that he hopes the motion will be followed by more rigorous law enforcement. よろしくお願いします^^;

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    The Third Battle of Ypres pinned the German army to Flanders and caused unsustainable casualties. At a conference on 13 October, a scheme of the Third Army for an attack in mid-November was discussed. Byng wanted the operations at Ypres to continue, to hold German troops in Flanders. The Battle of Cambrai began on 20 November, when the British breached the first two parts of the Hindenburg Line, in the first successful mass use of tanks in a combined arms operation. The experience of the failure to contain the British attacks at Ypres and the drastic reduction in areas of the western front which could be considered "quiet", after the tank and artillery surprise at Cambrai, left the OHL with little choice but to return to a strategy of decisive victory in 1918. On 24 October, the Austro-German 14th Army (General der Infanterie Otto von Below), attacked the Italian Second Army on the Isonzo, at the Battle of Caporetto and in 18 days, inflicted casualties of 650,000 men and 3,000 guns. In fear that Italy might be put out of the war, the French and British Governments offered reinforcements. British and French troops were swiftly moved from 10 November &#8211; 12 December but the diversion of resources from the BEF forced Haig to conclude the Third Battle of Ypres short of Westrozebeke, the last substantial British attack being made on 10 November. Various casualty figures have been published, sometimes with acrimony but the highest estimates for British and German casualties appear to be discredited. In the Official History, Brigadier-General J. E. Edmonds put British casualties at 244,897 and wrote that equivalent German figures were not available, estimating German losses at 400,000. Edmonds considered that 30 percent needed to be added to German figures, to make them comparable to British casualty criteria.