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“Fundamentally,” he says, “what we are focused on is bringing people back to life from death or near-death, and reinventing or revolutionising the way we approach that.” Becker's key discovery is that cells don't die during that five-minute window. The real damage comes when the heart restarts and oxygen floods the tissues, a process known as reperfusion. “It's pretty well accepted that at the point at which the usual human being gets pronounced dead, all their cells are alive. It's a very eerie question: if all their cells are alive, what is death?” says Becker. Besides, if all the patient's cells are alive, why can't the patient recover and walk out of the hospital? “With our current therapies we can't do it.” One option, says Becker, is cooling the patient―by a few degrees, not to cryonic extremes―to buy time, an idea he says has been around for thousands of year. In studies, dogs and mice cooled before reperfusion have recovered better. “We believe it prevents reperfusion injury.” Cooling, he adds, is much quicker if you cool the blood directly, either by injecting a slurry of micro-ice particles or by using a bypass machine. Imagine, he says, a soldier in the Iraq war, bleeding to death while you watch. “If you could zap, perfuse him, put him on a plane, wing him to a major hospital and fix him all up―that's not at all crazy.” よろしくお願いします。


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こんにちは。 ざっと訳しましたので、参考にされて下さい、 「基本的には」彼は言った。「我々が注目しているのは、死んだ状態 あるいは臨死の状態から人々を生き返らせることであり、その問題に アプローチする方法を再発見したり改革したりすることなんだ。」 ベッカーの主要な発見は、その5分の時間枠内では細胞は死滅しないと いうことだ。本当のダメージは、心臓が再び動き始め、酸素が細胞の 組織に流れ込むとき、つまり再灌流として知られる過程で起こる。 「死亡宣告の時点でも、普通の人間の細胞は全部生きているというのは かなり広く認められている事実だ。細胞がみんな生きているとしたら 死とは何か?本当にぞっとするような問いだね。」ベッカーは言った。 だいたい、その患者の細胞が全部生きているなら、その患者が回復して 歩いて病院から出て行くことができないのは、何でだろう? 「我々の現在の治療法では無理なんだ。」 時間を稼ぐために、患者を冷やす―人体冷凍術のように極端な低温では なくて、ほんの数度―という選択肢もある、とベッカーは言う。彼が 言うには、数千年前からあるアイデアだそうだ。研究では、再灌流の 前に冷やされた犬と鼠は回復状況が良かった。「我々は冷やすことが 再灌流による損傷を防ぐのだと考えている。」 ミクロの氷の微粒子の懸濁液を注射するかバイパスの機械を使うかして、 血液を直接冷やすことができればずっと早く冷える、と彼は付け加えた。 想像してみて、と彼は言った。あなたの見ている前で出血死しつつある イラク戦争の兵士を。「彼に電気ショックを与えて体内に灌流液を入れ、 飛行機にのせて大病院に運び込み、完璧に治すことができたら・・・ これは実現不可能なことじゃないんだ。」



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    Cells generated from a patient are driven to form the tissue that is diseased, enabling biologists in some cases to track the steps by which the disease is developed.                        ”Cloning and Stem Cell Work Earns Nobel"

  • 至急和訳お願いします!

    Socrates did not fear death; he calmly drank the hemlock. Kierkegaard was obsessed with death, which made him a bit gloomy. As for Lorraine Tosiello, a 58-year-old internist in Bradley Beach, N.J., it is the process of dying that seems endlessly puzzling. “I’m more interested, philosophically, in what is death? What is that transition?” Dr. Tosiello said at a recent meeting in a Manhattan coffee shop, where eight people had shown up on a Wednesday night to discuss questions that philosophers have grappled with for ages. The group, which meets monthly, is called a Death Cafe, one of many such gatherings that have sprung up in nearly 40 cities around the country in the last year. Offshoots of the “café mortel” movement that emerged in Switzerland and France about 10 years ago, these are not grief support groups or end-of-life planning sessions, but rather casual forums for people who want to bat around philosophical thoughts. What is death like? Why do we fear it? How do our views of death inform the way we live? “Death and grief are topics avoided at all costs in our society,” said Audrey Pellicano, 60, who hosts the New York Death Cafe, which will hold its fifth meeting on Wednesday. “If we talk about them, maybe we won’t fear them as much.”

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    ユングの夢分析のlectureIからだそうですが、所々しかわかりません。 和訳お願いしますm(__)m ladies and Gentlemen: Dream analysis is the central problem of the analytical treatment,because it is the most important technical means of opening up an avenue to the unconscious. The main object in this treatment, as you know, is to get at the message of the unconscious. The patient comes to the analyst usually because he finds himself in an impasse or cul-de-sac,where there seems to be no way out,and he assumes that the doctor will know a way. If the doctor is honest,he recognizes that he also does not know the way. But doctors sometimes are not:only one hundred and fifty years ago,doctors were those quacks who went to fairs and pulled out teeth,performed marvellous cures,etc. ,and this attitude still prevails to a certain extent in the medical profession at the present day---human beings are everywhere bad! In analysis we must be very careful not to assume that we know all about the patient or that we know the way out of his difficulties. If the doctor tells him what he thinks the trouble may be,he follows the doctor's suggestions and does not experience himself. Suggestions may work for a time,but when he is away the patient collapses because he has no contact with himself and is living not his own way but the doctor's way. Then he has to return to the doctor for new suggestions,and after a while this becomes disgusting to both. It is important that the doctor admits he does not know;then both are ready to accept the impartial facts of nature,scientific realities. Personal opinions are more or less arbitrary judgments and may be all wrong; we are never sure of being right. Therefore we should seek the facts provided by dreams. Dreams are objective facts. They do not answer our expectations,and we have not invented them;if one intends to dream of certain things,one finds it impossible. We dream of our questions,our difficulties.There is a saying.

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    和訳お願いします Owen and his collaborators repeated their fMRI experiment on 54 patients who had previously been classified as either vegetative or minimally conscious(a consistently respond to commands, but cannot communicate interactively). They found that five of these 54 patients responded to commands to imagine playing tennis or navigating thought a familiar house. Four of those five patients had classified as vegetative, but when clinicians repeated their assessment following the fMRI study, they found evidence that two of those four should instead have been classified as minimally conscious. One of the responsive patients, a 22-year-old man who had been diagnosed as vegetative for five years after a traffic accident left him with a traumatic brain injury, was selected for further study. Because it is difficult-if not impossible-to determine whether someone is thinking yes or no, the reseachers instead asked the patient to imagine playing tennis when the answer to imagine playing tennis when the answer to a question was yes, and to imagine walking through a house when the answer was no. Visualizing these two activities stimulates different parts of the brain that are easily distinguished using fMRI. They asked the patient a series of simple yes-or-no question pertaining to his personal history, such as Is your father's name Alexander? He answered five out of six question correctly. No brain activity was observed in response to the sixth question. The results suggest that fMRI could be useful in diagnosing unresponsive patients, says Owen. There are things that are just not going to manifest themselves in outward behavior , says Owen. This method can tell us which patients are aware, and it can tell us what they are capable of. For Naccache, it is the patient's ability to respond using the code suggested by Owen and his team that indicates he is truly conscious. When you are conscious, you have the ability to use an arbitrary code to communicate with somebody, he says. Parashkev Nachev, a neuroscientist at University College London who was not affiliated with the work, cautions that it is important not to over-interpret the results. The patient only answered a series of very basic questions, he notes, and the results in his view do not necessarily suggest that the patient is fully conscious or has the potential for recovery. There is no doubt that it does merit further research, he says, but I could not see using it as a clinical tool at this stage. As a next step, Owen and his colleagues intend to ask the patient a series of questions with unverifiable answers. For example, the technique could be used to ask whether they are experiencing any pain-a question that frequently troubles family members and hospital staff. But should a vegetative patient be asked whether they want to live or die? I think there's an enormous problem with that, says Owen. Just because a patient is able to respond with yes or no doesn't tell you if they have the necessary level of competence to answer difficult, ethically challenging questions about their destiny.

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    次の英文の和訳お願いします(>_<) But they are reasonable only if information is all that counts. This attitude toward talk ignores the fact that people are emotionally involved with each other and that talking is the major way we establish, maintain, monitor, and adjust our relationships. Whereas words convey information, how we speak those words - how loud, how fast, with what information and emphasis - communicates what we think we are doing when we speak : teasing, flattering, explainig , or complaining ; whether we are feeling friendly or angry ; whether we want to get closer or back off. 長文ですみませんが お願いします(>_<)

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    下記の文章なのですが、和訳をお願いします。 よろしくお願いいします。 I totally understand you and I did tell him that you have alot on your mind right now.... I will tell him when you are ready to contact him, you will.. Any help you need just let me know.... He is one of my best friends and is cool. Take care and my heart goes out to all.... I told you before but when your ready you can post on the stern group about how Japan is coping there....... My prayers go out to all....keep in touch....

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    The research offers a clear warning that efforts to eradicate malaria should be accelerated, says Sanjeev Krishna from St George's University of London, who studies the biochemical origins of artemisinin resistance. He says that he expected resistance to occur eventually — but not as soon as this. "I thought we would have had longer," he says. More intensive drug-development programmes are needed, he adds, to find new drugs based on artemisinin, as well as alternatives. An eradication programme combining continued treatment and use of mosquito nets is under way in this area of Cambodia, Day says. "It's going to need considerable political willpower, scientific research and financial resources to achieve," he cautions. But without it, there is a danger that the resistant parasite could reach the world's malaria heartland — Africa. "That," says Day, "would be a major disaster." よろしくお願いします^^;

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    Dorina Papageorgiou, a neuroscientist who works on decoding speech from fMRI signals at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, says that the research is “cutting-edge work in the area of brain-computer interface speech output”. But brain signals for speech can also be decoded by electrodes positioned outside the brain, on the skull, or from fMRI, as in Papageorgiou’s work, and she believes that, for many patients, non-invasive methods would be a better bet than a brain electrode. Guenther and his colleagues say that they feel privileged to be involved in the project. “This was the first application where we see an individual improve his abilities based on something we theorized years ago,” he says. Their efforts are appreciated by the patient too. “When we first arrived to install this system he was obviously very excited ― you can tell from his involuntary movements, and he was trying to look at us the whole time,” Guenther says. As the man’s father told the team, “he really has a new lease on life”. The team’s next step is to train their computer decoder to recognize consonants so that patients can from whole words, and even sentences. They also hope that with developments in technology, they can implant more electrodes in their next patient to transmit a more detailed signal. よろしくお願いします^^;

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    下の文はJomo Kenyattaの演説で比喩表現が入ってるらしいのですが、それ自体ががどこにあるのかも分からないので誰か分かる方は教えてください><↓ 'There is no society of angels,whether it is white, brown or black. We are all human beings, and as such we are sure to make mistakes. If I have done a wrong to you, it is for you to forgive me; and if you have done something wrong to me, it is for me to forgive you. The Africans cannot say the Europeans have done all the wrong; and the Europeans cannot say the Africans have done all the wrong.... You have something to forget just as I have. Many of you are just as Kenyan as myself.'

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    With this information. we can see that the human body maintains a very delicate balance between cell creation and cell destruction, when this balance is disrupted the result can be a potentially fatal health condition, cancer is a disease in which too little apoptosis occurs, as cancerous cells often are corrupted in ways that make them resistant to the natural death process and can continue multiplying until destructive tumors are created. On the other hand, in a body that suffers from too much apoptosis, degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's can arise. With the process of apoptosis playing such a vital role in human health, it is no surprise that researchers are continuously studying it. If we can learn how to artificially control the apoptosis of cells in our bodies, it could lead to treatments for many life-threatening illnesses.