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Prior to the battle, isolated fighting around Lone Pine had begun early in the Gallipoli campaign. At around 7:00 a.m. on the first day of the Australian and New Zealand landings at Anzac Cove, 25 April 1915, elements of the Australian force had pushed through to Lone Pine in an effort to destroy an Ottoman artillery battery that had been firing down upon the landing beach. Before the Australians could engage the battery, the Ottomans had withdrawn to a ridge to the south-west, which the Australians later dubbed "Third Ridge" (or "Gun Ridge"). Pressing further inland, troops from the 6th Battalion had attempted to reach the ridge, crossing a wide valley (later known as "Legge Valley"), but they were pushed back when an Ottoman regiment, the 27th, had launched a counterattack from the south-east towards Lone Pine at 10:00 a.m., with the objective of retaking the 400 Plateau. Rolling up the 6th Battalion, the Ottomans pushed the Australians back to Pine Ridge, a finger of land that jutted south from Lone Pine towards Gaba Tebe. Taking heavy casualties, the Australians withdrew north to Lone Pine, where they were able to establish a defensive position. As reinforcements were brought up from New Zealand units, in the afternoon a second Ottoman regiment, the 77th, arrived and heavy hand-to-hand fighting ensued before the counterattack was blunted. Further fighting around Lone Pine continued throughout the early stages of the campaign, but eventually a stalemate developed in which neither side was able to advance and static trench warfare began. In early July 1915, while making plans for an offensive to break the deadlock that had developed around the Gallipoli Peninsula following the initial landings in April, the commander of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, Lieutenant General William Birdwood, had determined that an attack at Lone Pine could be used to divert Ottoman attention away from a main attack that would be launched by a combined force of British, Indian and New Zealand troops further north around Sari Bair, Chunuk Bair and Hill 971. The Australian 1st Infantry Brigade was chosen to undertake the attack on Lone Pine, and consisted of about 3,000 men, under the command of a British officer, Colonel Nevill Smyth. Along with the 2nd and 3rd Infantry Brigades, the 1st Infantry Brigade was part of the Australian 1st Division. The division's commander was Brigadier General Harold Walker, a British officer who had replaced Major General William Bridges as temporary commander after Bridges had been killed by a sniper in May. Walker did not like the idea of launching an attack at Lone Pine, let alone a mere diversion, but when General Sir Ian Hamilton, the commander of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, insisted the attack proceed, through thorough planning, Walker endeavoured to give his troops the best chance of success possible on such an unfavourable battleground.


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  • Nakay702
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>Prior to the battle, ~ dubbed "Third Ridge" (or "Gun Ridge"). ⇒この戦いの前、ガリポリ野戦の早い段階で、ローン・パインをめぐる孤立した戦いが始まっていた。1915年4月25日、オーストラリア-ニュージーランド軍がアンザック小湾に上陸した初日の午前7時頃、オーストラリア軍の一部が、上陸時の沿岸を砲撃したオスマン帝国の砲兵隊を破壊するためローン・インに押し入った。オーストラリア軍が砲撃中隊と会戦することになる前に、オスマン軍は南西部の山稜に退去していたが、後にオーストラリア軍はそれを「サード山稜」(または「ガン山稜」)と名付けた。 >Pressing further inland, ~ establish a defensive position. ⇒第6大隊の部隊はさらに内陸部へ押し入って、この山稜に到達しようとして広い谷(後に「レッジ渓谷」として知られる)を横切ったが、オスマン軍の1個連隊(第27連隊)が400番高原を奪還することを目的として、午前10時に南東からローン・パインに向かって反撃を開始したので、それに押し戻された。オスマン軍は第6大隊を呼び寄せて、ローン・パインからガバ・テベに向かって南に突き出した細い地面のパイン山稜にオーストラリア軍を押し戻した。オーストラリア軍は重傷を負って北のローン・パインに撤退したので、そこで防御陣地を確立することができた。 >As reinforcements were ~ static trench warfare began. ⇒ニュージーランド部隊からの援軍がきた日の午後にオスマン軍の次なる連隊、第77連隊が到着し、反撃が鈍するまで激しい対戦が続いた。野戦の初期段階を通じて、ローン・パインをめぐるさらなる戦いが続いたが、最終的に膠着状態に陥って進展せず、どちら側も前進できず、静的な塹壕戦が始まった。 >In early July 1915, ~ Colonel Nevill Smyth. ⇒1915年7月初旬、4月の最初の上陸に続いてガリポリ半島周辺で発生した行き詰まりを打開するための攻勢計画を立てている間に、オーストラリア-ニュージーランド方面軍部隊軍の司令官ウィリアム・バードウッド中尉は、英国・インド・ニュージーランド軍の合同部隊がサリ・ベア、チュヌーク・ベア、971番ヒル周辺より北で行う攻撃から、オスマン軍の注意をそらすためにローン・パインでの攻撃が使えることを決定した。英国軍のネビル・スミス大佐の指揮下、約3,000人の部隊で構成されるオーストラリア第1歩兵旅団がこのローン・パインに対する攻撃のために選ばれた。 >Along with the 2nd ~ on such an unfavourable battleground. ⇒第1歩兵旅団は、第2、第3歩兵旅団とともにオーストラリア軍第1師団の一部であった。師団の指揮官に関して、ウィリアム・ブリッジズ少将が5月に狙撃手によってブリッジが殺害された後、英国軍将校ハロルド・ウォーカー少将がその臨時指揮官に置き換えられた。ウォーカーは、単なる陽動攻撃は言うまでもなくローン・パインに攻撃を仕かけるという考えを好まなかったが、地中海遠征軍の指揮官であるイアン・ハミルトン卿将軍が綿密な計画を通じて攻撃の進行を主張したとき、ウォーカーは部隊にそのような不利な戦場で可能な限りの成功の可能性を与えるように努めた。




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  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The Lone Pine battlefield was named for a solitary Turkish pine that stood there at the start of the fighting; The tree was also known by the Anzac soldiers as the "Lonesome Pine", and both names are likely to have been inspired by the popular song "The Trail of the Lonesome Pine". The battlefield was situated near the centre of the eastern line of the Australian and New Zealand trenches around Anzac Cove on a rise known as "400 Plateau" that joined "Bolton's Ridge" to the south with the ridge along the east side of "Monash Valley" to the north. Being towards the southern end of the area around Anzac Cove, the terrain in the Lone Pine region was comparatively gentle and the opposing trenches were separated some distance with a flat no-man's land intervening. Due to its location relative to the beachhead and the shape of the intervening ground, Lone Pine's importance lay in the fact that its position provided a commanding view of the Australian and New Zealand rear areas. From the 400 Plateau it was possible to observe as far south as Gaba Tepe and its possession would have afforded the Ottomans the ability to place the approaches to the Second Ridge under fire, preventing the flow of reinforcements and supplies from the beachhead to the forward trenches. The main part of the Australian position at Lone Pine was centred on a feature known as "The Pimple", where a salient had developed at the point where the Australians' position was closest to the Ottoman line. To the east of the salient, opposite The Pimple, the Ottoman line extended from the head of a gully—known as "Owen's Gulley" by the Australians—south for 400 yards (370 m) towards the neck of Bolton's Ridge and continued south along a spur called "Sniper's Ridge". Because of the salient around The Pimple, the Ottomans had focused on developing the trenches along the flanks of the position more than the centre, and had placed the firing positions in the centre in depth in order to gain the advantage of being able to pour enfilade fire upon any attacking force. At the rear of the Ottoman line, near Owen's Gully, was a depression called "The Cup" that was not visible from the Australians' position on The Pimple. Despite overflights of the area by British reconnaissance aircraft in June, the Australians were unaware of The Cup's existence, and at the time of the attack they believed this area to be flat and to consist of further trench lines. In reality it was actually a reserve area where the Ottomans had established a regimental headquarters and sited a series of bivouacs in terraces and at the time of the attack there were large numbers of reinforcements camped there.

  • 次の英文を訳して下さい。

    The Ottoman forces opposing the Australians at Lone Pine consisted of two battalions from the 47th Regiment, under the command of Tevfik Bey. These battalions amounted to a total of about 1,000 men, of which 500 were positioned in the trenches along the front, while another 500 were positioned further back in depth. Sitting further back in divisional reserve, to the north-east on "Mortar Ridge", was a battalion from the 57th Regiment, which had been relieved from its position on the front line north of Lone Pine by an Arab battalion of the 72nd Regiment. The positions north and south of the Ottoman line at Lone Pine were held by the 125th Regiment at Johnston's Jolly in the north and the 48th Regiment in the south along Pine Ridge. The width of the front of the attack was 160 yards (150 m) and the distance between the two trench lines was about 60–100 yards (55–91 m). To reduce the distance to be crossed, the Australians projected a number of tunnels towards the Ottoman trenches from The Pimple. Immediately after the attack, one of these tunnels was to be opened along its length to make a communications trench through which reinforcements could advance without having to cross the exposed ground. Some of the attackers would have to make the advance over open ground from the Australian trench line. To provide some measure of protection for these men, three mines were set by engineers to make craters in which they could seek shelter. The preliminary bombardment was stretched over three days—initially confined to a limited "slow shoot", building up to a final intense bombardment an hour before the assault—and was successful in cutting much of the barbed wire that the Ottomans had placed in front of their position. The preparation stage of the attack began at 2:00 p.m. on 6 August, when the Australians detonated the three mines they had dug in front of the Ottoman lines, in an attempt to create cover for the advancing troops. Two and a half hours later the final heavy preliminary bombardment commenced, with Australian, British and New Zealand artillery batteries firing on the Ottoman trench line, while naval gunfire support from the British cruiser HMS Bacchante provided counter-battery fire on Ottoman artillery positioned along Third Ridge. Retreating into tunnels which had been cut as part of mining operations, the majority of the forward Ottoman troops were able to find shelter from the bombardment that lasted for an hour.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    These represent some of the highest casualties of the campaign. The toll was particularly heavy amongst the Australian officers; both the commanding officers of the 2nd and 3rd Battalions were killed leading their troops. After the battle, the dead were so thick on the ground that one Australian, Captain Harold Jacobs of the 1st Battalion, remarked "[t]he trench is so full of our dead that the only respect that we could show them was not to tread on their faces, the floor of the trench was just one carpet of them, this in addition to the ones we piled into Turkish dugouts." Later, over 1,000 dead were removed from Australian position to be hastily buried. Seven Australians were awarded the Victoria Cross for their actions during the fighting at Lone Pine, including four men from the 7th Battalion, which had been rushed forward to help relieve the 1st Brigade at the height of the Ottoman counterattacks. One of the recipients was Corporal William Dunstan, who after the war became the general manager of The Herald newspaper in Melbourne. Another VC recipient was Captain Alfred Shout who had already earned the Military Cross and been Mentioned in Despatches earlier in the Gallipoli campaign. He was mortally wounded at Lone Pine and was later buried at sea. The other VC recipients were Privates Leonard Keysor and John Hamilton, Corporal Alexander Burton and Lieutenants Frederick Tubb and William Symons. After the war, an Australian military historical mission was sent to Gallipoli, led by Charles Bean. On Bean's advice the Australian government sought permission from the newly formed Turkish Republic to establish an official war cemetery in the area. In 1923 the Treaty of Lausanne was ratified, and through its provisions the Lone Pine cemetery was established in the area, dubbed the Daisy Patch by the Australians. There are a total of 1,167 graves in the cemetery and as of 2012, the identities of 471 bodies interred in the cemetery remain unknown. Also standing within the cemetery's grounds is the Lone Pine memorial. It is the main Australian and New Zealand memorial at Gallipoli and commemorates all the Australian and some of the New Zealanders who died during the campaign, including those who have no known grave and those buried at sea. As a result of the battle's significance to the Australians, Lone Pine is the site of the annual Australian Anzac Day dawn service at Gallipoli. After the service Australian visitors congregate at the memorial to remember all their countrymen who fought and died at Gallipoli. At the New Zealand National World War I Museum, there is an exhibit for the Battle of Lone Pine, and there is also one in the Australian War Memorial. Memorial "Lone Pine" trees have also been planted in Australia, New Zealand and Gallipoli to commemorate the battle and the Gallipoli campaign in general, seeded from specimens taken from Gallipoli. There are also many places in Australia named after the battle.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    The fighting continued throughout the night of 7/8 August as the 47th Regiment, launched a determined counterattack; suffering heavy casualties, including the regimental commander, Tewfik Bey, the attack was unsuccessful in retaking the main front-line trenches, but succeeded in regaining some of the ground in the north and also pushed the Australians back a little way from The Cup. As Ali Riza Bey, the commander of the 13th Regiment, took charge of the Ottoman effort around Lone Pine, the grenading continued into the next day as the Ottomans began to prepare for a large-scale counterattack. Throughout the morning the remaining Australian positions overlooking The Cup were abandoned before the fighting stopped briefly as both the Australians and Ottomans evacuated their wounded and removed the dead from the front-line. By this time the 1st and 2nd Battalions, which had been defending the heavily counterattacked southern flank, had suffered so many casualties that they were withdrawn from the line, with the 7th Battalion moving into their positions late in the afternoon. The 3rd, 4th and 12th Battalions remained holding the north and centre of the Australian line. Further attacks were mounted by the Ottomans all along the Australian line after 3:00 p.m., but after dark they focused their efforts on the 7th Battalion's position in the south; there the Ottomans succeeded in taking part of the Australian line late in the night, and fierce hand-to-hand fighting followed until early in the morning of 9 August as the Australians retook these positions. More grenade attacks were launched by Ottoman troops later that morning and as the Australian trenches were brought under fire from the Ottoman positions around Johnston's Jolly, an attack was launched at the junctions between the Australian battalions. Achieving a break-in in the centre, they reached the 1st Infantry Brigade's headquarters—which had advanced forward from Brown's Dip following the initial gains—where the brigade commander, Smyth, joined the defence that eventually drove them back. Around midday the Ottomans put in another attack, but this too was repulsed. The positions on the southern Australian flank continued to be subjected to grenading, so the 5th Battalion was brought up to relieve the 7th. The 2nd Battalion, having received a brief respite, also came forward, replacing the 4th Battalion with the support of a dismounted squadron from the 7th Light Horse Regiment. As the fresh units settled in, the Australians prepared for renewed fighting along the line. In the end, the expected attack never came and finally, late in the afternoon of 9 August, the Ottoman commanders called off further attempts to dislodge the Australians. The next day, the fighting "subsided" as both the Ottomans and the Australians worked to consolidate their positions.

  • 下記の英文を日本文に訳して下さい。

    Two Victoria Crosses were awarded to men of the 42nd Division during the fighting at Krithia Vineyard. The British casualties in the first 24 hours of fighting, covering the original attacks of the 88th Brigade and the two brigades of the 42nd Division, were 3,469. The total British casualties for the duration of the battle were probably in excess of 4,000. The Ottoman casualties for the period of the battle were estimated to be around 7,000. As for the other diversion at Lone Pine, the attack failed to fulfil its goal of tying down the Ottoman reinforcements away from the main offensive. As early as the morning of 7 August, regiments were being dispatched from Helles to the main front in the Sari Bair range. The landing at Suvla Bay was an amphibious landing made at Suvla on the Aegean coast of the Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire as part of the August Offensive, the final British attempt to break the deadlock of the Battle of Gallipoli. The landing, which commenced on the night of 6 August 1915, was intended to support a breakout from the ANZAC sector, five miles (8 km) to the south. Although initially successful, against only light opposition, the landing at Suvla was mismanaged from the outset and quickly reached the same stalemate conditions that prevailed on the Anzac and Helles fronts. On 15 August, after a week of indecision and inactivity, the British commander at Suvla, Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick Stopford, was dismissed. His performance in command is often considered one of the most incompetent feats of generalship of the First World War.On 7 June 1915, the Dardanelles Committee met in London and, under the guidance of Lord Kitchener, decided to reinforce the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force of General Sir Ian Hamilton with three New Army divisions. Two more Territorial Army divisions were allocated later in the month, giving Hamilton the numbers required to reinvigorate the campaign. A long-standing plan to break out of the Anzac bridgehead was adopted; it had first been proposed on 30 May by the commander of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, Lieutenant-General William Birdwood. However, just as the original landing site at Helles in April had insufficient space to land all the troops available, and so a secondary landing was to be made north of Gaba Tepe, now in July there was insufficient room to accommodate all the new troops within the congested Anzac perimeter, nor was there room to manoeuvre them in battle, and so a new landing at Suvla was planned which would link up with the forces at Anzac.

  • 英語の文を日本語訳して下さい。

    At 10:30 the six guns of the 26th Jacobs Mountain Battery arrived, positioning three guns each side of White's Valley. At noon they opened fire on the Turks on Gun Ridge. Within two hours half the Australian Division was involved in the battle of 400 Plateau. However, most of the officers had misunderstood their orders. Believing the intention was to occupy Gun Ridge and not hold their present position, they still tried to advance. The 9th and 10th Battalions had started forming a defence line, but there was a gap between them that the 7th Battalion was sent to fill. Seeing the 2nd Brigade coming forward, units of the 3rd Brigade started to advance to Gun Ridge. The advancing Australians did not then know that the counter-attacking Turkish forces had reached the Scrubby Knoll area around 08:00 and were prepared for them. As the Australians reached the Lone Pine section of the plateau, Turkish machine-guns and rifles opened fire, decimating the Australians. To the north other troops, advancing beyond Johnstone's Jolly and Owen's Gully, were caught by the same small arms fire. Soon afterwards a Turkish artillery battery also started firing at them. This was followed by a Turkish counter-attack from Gun Ridge. Such was the situation they now found themselves in that at 15:30 McCay, now giving up all pretence of advancing to Gun Ridge, ordered his brigade to dig in from Owen's Gully to Bolton's Ridge. Pine Ridge is part of the 400 Plateau, and stretches, in a curve towards the sea, for around one mile (1.6 km). Beyond Pine Ridge is Legge Valley and Gun Ridge and, like the rest of the terrain, it was covered in a thick gorse scrub, but also had stunted pine trees around eleven feet (3.4 m) tall growing on it. Several groups of men eventually made their way to Pine Ridge. Among the first was Lieutenant Eric Plant's platoon from the 9th Battalion. Captain John Whitham's company of the 12th Battalion moved forward from Bolton's Ridge when they saw the 6th Battalion moving up behind them. As the 6th Battalion reached the ridge, the companies carried on towards Gun Ridge, while Lieutenant-Colonel Walter McNicoll established the battalion headquarters below Bolton's Ridge. As the 6th Battalion moved forward they were engaged by Turkish small arms and artillery fire, causing heavy casualties. At 10:00 brigade headquarters received a message from the 6th Battalion asking for reinforcement, and McCay sent half the 5th Battalion to assist. At the same time the 8th Battalion were digging in on Bolton's, except for two companies which moved forward to attack a group of Turks that had come up from the south behind the 6th Battalion. By noon the 8th Battalion was dug in on the ridge; in front of them were scattered remnants of the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 9th Battalions, mostly out of view of each other in the scrub.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    After clearing Wellington Ridge, the mounted riflemen, light horsemen and infantrymen pressed forward from ridge to ridge without pause. These troops swept down on a body of about 1,000 to 1,500 Ottoman soldiers, who became demoralised. As a result of this attack, a white flag was hoisted and by 05:00 the German and Ottoman soldiers who had stubbornly defended their positions on Wellington Ridge, dominating the camps at Romani, were captured. A total of 1,500 became prisoners in the neighbourhood of Wellington Ridge; 864 soldiers surrendered to infantry in the 8th Scottish Rifles alone, while others were captured by the light horse and mounted rifles regiments.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    By December, construction of the infrastructure and supply lines had sufficiently progressed to enable the British advance to recommence, during the evening of 20 December. By the following morning a mounted force had reached El Arish to find it abandoned. An Ottoman Army garrison in a strong defensive position was located at Magdhaba, some 18–30 miles (29–48 km) inland to the south east, on the Wadi el Arish. After a second night march by the Anzac Mounted Division (Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division), the attack on Magdhaba was launched by Australian, British and New Zealand troops against well-entrenched Ottoman forces defending a series of six redoubts.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    The fighting was "some of the fiercest" the Australians experienced during the campaign to that point. The ground captured during the battle amounted to a total of about 150 metres (160 yd) across a 300-metre (330 yd) front. Amidst scenes of considerable devastation, the Australian divisional commander, Walker, believed the result "disastrous". The higher commanders believed it to have been a tactical success, however, with Hamilton describing it as a "desperate fine feat". Though a tactical victory for the Australians in terms of the fact that they remained in possession of the ground captured, and had managed to draw off some Ottoman reinforcements, nevertheless the wider repercussions of the attack at Lone Pine weighed heavily on the outcome at Chunuk Bair. Sent north to reinforce Lone Pine, due to the effectiveness of the Australian attack, Kannengiesser's 9th Division was directed instead to proceed on to Chunuk Bair where, at the time, there was only one Ottoman artillery battery and a covering force of 20 infantrymen. His force arrived in time to seriously delay the New Zealand attack, and ultimately the wider offensive of which the battle was a part failed. Afterwards, a stalemate situation developed on the Gallipoli peninsula although there were brief periods of localised fighting. In September, the troops of the Australian 1st Division who had taken the position at Lone Pine were relieved by the 23rd and 24th Battalions. Dominated by the heights of Baby 700,[Note 7] the position was regularly shelled and was subsequently described by one Australian soldier, Trooper Ion Idriess, as "the most dangerous spot" in the Australian lodgement and it ultimately proved a "liability" for the troops tasked with holding it. Opposed by troops from the Ottoman 47th Regiment, for the remaining three months of the campaign, the two Australian battalions would alternate their positions in the front line as the Ottoman and Australians engaged in mining and countermining operations against each other's positions. The stalemate continued as both the Australians and Ottomans lacked the strength to mount a determined attack and this situation ultimately lasted until the Allied evacuation in December 1915. In most sources, Ottoman losses are estimated at between 5,000–6,000, although Kenan Celik from Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, has placed their losses as high as 7,164, broken down as 1,520 killed, 4,700 wounded, 760 listed as missing and 134 captured by the Australians. These included the commanding officers of both the 47th and 15th Regiments. Of the Australian force that had launched the attack, almost half became casualties. Australian losses during the battle amounted to 2,277 men killed or wounded, out of the total 4,600 men committed to the fighting over the course of the battle.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    The Battle of Kara Killisse (Lit. Black church, Turkish: Karakilise Muharebesi), also known as the Battle of Malazgirt, was a battle on the Caucasus front in July 1915 after the Battle of Manzikert. In Russian historical literature, this engagement is considered as a part of "Alashkert defensive operation" (9 July-3 August). Previously in the summer of 1915 the Russians attacked Turkish positions northeast of lake Van but they underestimated the size of their enemy. They were defeated at the Battle of Manzikert. This success encouraged the Turks under Abdul Kerim Pasha to advance towards the Russians in the Eleşkirt valley while the Turks were pursuing the remnants of Oganovki's army across the Ağrı mountains they spread out and Russian general Yudenich took the opportunity to counterattack from the west with some 20.000 reinforcements mostly Cossack units to encircle them. in the following battles between 5–8 August the Turks retreated south but the Russians succeeded only partially. The Turks lost some guns, large provisions and 10.000 killed and wounded and 6.000 became prisoners. Due to difficulties the Russians could not gain total advantage and retreated from the town of Van and Turks occupied it on 3 August. The Battle of Kara Killisse カラ・キリッセの戦い The Battle of Lone Pine (also known as the Battle of Kanlı Sırt) was fought between Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) and Ottoman Empire forces during the Gallipoli Campaign of the First World War, between 6 and 10 August 1915. The battle was part of a diversionary attack to draw Ottoman attention away from the main assaults being conducted by British, Indian and New Zealand troops around Sari Bair, Chunuk Bair and Hill 971, which became known as the August Offensive. At Lone Pine, the assaulting force, initially consisting of the Australian 1st Brigade, managed to capture the main trench line from the two Ottoman battalions that were defending the position in the first few hours of the fighting on 6 August. Over the next three days, the fighting continued as the Ottomans brought up reinforcements and launched numerous counterattacks in an attempt to recapture the ground they had lost. As the counterattacks intensified the ANZACs brought up two fresh battalions to reinforce their newly gained line. Finally, on 9 August the Ottomans called off any further attempts and by 10 August offensive action ceased, leaving the Allies in control of the position. Nevertheless, despite the Australian victory, the wider August Offensive of which the attack had been a part failed and a situation of stalemate developed around Lone Pine which lasted until the end of the campaign in December 1915 when Allied troops were evacuated from the peninsula. The Battle of Lone Pine ローンパインの戦い