• ベストアンサー
※ ChatGPTを利用し、要約された質問です(原文:英文を日本語訳して下さい。)

German Attack on Villers-Bretonneux: The Last Stand of Operation Michael

  • On 30 March, the Germans launched an attack near Le Hamel, resulting in gains around Hangard Wood.
  • The French First Army counter-attacked and regained much of the lost ground.
  • The Australians and British held the line, with the Australians successfully pushing back the Germans and preventing the fall of Villers-Bretonneux.


  • ベストアンサー
  • Nakay702
  • ベストアンサー率80% (9735/12112)

>On 30 March the Germans attacked around Le Hamel and although this was turned back, they succeeded in making gains around Hangard Wood. Five days later, the Germans renewed their drive towards Villers-Bretonneux. Part of the German attack fell on the centre and left of the French First Army. The French line fell back, but a counter-attack regained much of the ground. From north to south the line was held by British and Australian troops of the 14th (Light) Division, the 35th Australian Battalion and the 18th (Eastern) Division. ⇒ドイツ軍がル・ハーメルを攻撃した3月30日、それは追い返されたが、ハワード・ウッド周辺では利得を上げることに成功した。5日後、ドイツ軍はヴィレ=ブルトヌー方面への追い込みを再開した。ドイツ軍攻撃隊の一部は、フランス第1方面軍の中央と左翼に当たった。フランス軍戦線は後退したが、反撃によって地面の多くを回復した。戦線は北から南まで、第14(軽)師団の英国軍とオーストラリア軍、第35オーストラリア大隊および第18(東部)師団によって保持されていた。 >By 4 April the 14th (Light) Division, around Le Hamel, had fallen back under attack from the German 228th Division. The Australians held off the 9th Bavarian Reserve Division and the 18th Division repulsed the German Guards Ersatz Division and 19th Division. The British were forced to retire by the retreat of the 14th (Light) Division, where the 41st Brigade had been pushed back for 500 yards (460 m) "in some disorder" and then retired to a ridge another 3,000 yards (2,700 m) back, which left the right flank of the 42nd Brigade uncovered. ⇒ル・ハメル周辺の第14(軽)師団は、ドイツ軍第228師団の攻撃に晒されて4月4日までに退却した。オーストラリア軍は第9バイエルン予備師団を食い止め、第18師団はドイツ軍の護衛エルサッツ師団と第19師団を撃退した。英国軍は、第14(軽)師団の退去によって撤退を余儀なくされた。師団のうち、第41旅団が「何らかの障害」で500ヤード(460m)押し戻された後、尾根に3000ヤード(2,700m)後退した。その結果、第42旅団の右側面は、援護のない、むき出しの状態になった。 >The line west of Le Hamel was reinforced by the arrival of the 15th Australian Brigade. In the afternoon, the Germans resumed their efforts and pushed the 18th Division in the south, at which point Villers-Bretonneux appeared ready to fall. The Germans came within 440 yards (400 m) of the town but Colonel Goddard of the 35th Australian Battalion, in command of the sector, ordered a surprise late afternoon counter-attack on 4 April, by the 36th Australian Battalion with c. 1000 men, supported by a company from the 35th Australian Battalion and his reserve, the 6th Battalion London Regiment. ⇒ル・ハーメルの西側面は、第15オーストラリア旅団の到着で強化された。午後には、ドイツ兵らが奮戦を再開し、第18師団を南へ押しやった。その時点で、ヴィレ=ブルトヌーは陥落しそうに見えた。ドイツ兵は町の440ヤード(400m)以内に来たが、第35オーストラリア大隊のコルデル・ゴダード大佐は、地区の統括指揮を受け持って、4月4日に午後遅くに第36オーストラリア大隊の兵士1000人によって反撃を行うこと、それを第35回オーストラリア大隊とその予備軍である第6大隊ロンドン連隊が支援することを命じた。 >Advancing by section rushes, they pushed the Germans back towards Monument Wood and then north of Lancer Wood and forced two German divisions to retreat from Villers-Bretonneux. Flanking movements by British cavalry and Australian infantry from the 33rd and 34th Battalions helped consolidate the British gains. Further fighting around the village took place later in the month during the Second Battle of Villers-Bretonneux. The attack on Villers-Bretonneux was the last significant German attack of Operation Michael (known to the British as the First Battle of the Somme, 1918). ⇒彼らは、地区への襲撃によって進軍し、ドイツ軍をモニュメント・ウッドに押し戻し、それからランサー・ウッドの北側に押し戻して、ドイツ軍の2個師団をヴィレ=ブルトヌーから退去させた。第33、第34大隊からの英国軍騎兵隊とオーストラリア軍歩兵隊による側面隊の動きが、英国軍の利益を強化するのに役立った。村周辺でのさらなる戦闘が、月末に「第2次ヴィレ=ブルトヌーの戦い」で行われた。ヴィレ=ブルトヌーに対する攻撃は、「マイケル作戦行動」(1918年の「第1次ソンムの戦い」として英国軍に知られている)の最後の重要なドイツ攻撃であった。 >After the failure of the German forces to achieve their objectives, Ludendorff ended the offensive to avoid a battle of attrition. The 9th Australian Brigade had 665 casualties from c. 2,250 men engaged. German casualties were not known but there were 498 losses in two of the regiments engaged. The 9th Australian Brigade recorded 4,000 dead German soldiers on their front and the 18th Division had "severe" losses and took 259 prisoners from the 9th Bavarian Reserve, Guards Ersatz and 19th divisions. ⇒ドイツ軍が目標達成に失敗した後、ルーデンドルフは消耗敗退戦を回避するために攻撃を終了した。第9オーストラリア旅団では、交戦した約2,250人の兵士のうち665人の死傷者があった。ドイツ軍の死傷者は知られていないが、関与した2個連隊のうちでは498人の損失があった。第9オーストラリア軍団は、前線で死亡したドイツ軍兵士を4,000人と記録し、第18師団は「甚大な」損失を受けたが、第9バイエルン予備師団、護衛エルサッツ師団、第19師団から259人の囚人を捕縛した。






  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    The Battle of the Avre (4–5 April 1918), part of the First Battle of Villers-Bretonneux, constituted the final German attack towards Amiens in World War I. It was the point at which the Germans got the closest to Amiens. It was fought between attacking German troops and defending Australian and British troops. The attack was an attempt to take Amiens, where other aspects of Operation Michael had failed. The Avre marked the beginning of the end for Ludendorf's March Offensive.Preliminary moves (29–30 March) across the southern battlefields by German 2nd Army proved so slow and difficult that offensive operations were suspended between 1–3 April to allow German forces to recover. 4 April The final German attack was eventually launched towards Amiens. It came on 4 April, when fifteen divisions attacked seven Allied divisions on a line east of Amiens and north of Albert (towards the Avre River). Ludendorff decided to attack the outermost eastern defenses of Amiens centred on the town of Villers-Bretonneux. His aim was to secure that town and the surrounding high ground from which artillery bombardments could systematically destroy Amiens and render it useless to the Allies. The subsequent fighting was remarkable on two counts: the first use of tanks simultaneously by both sides in the war; and the night-time counterattack hastily organized by the Australian and British units (including the exhausted 54th Brigade) which dramatically re-captured Villers -Bretonneux and halted the German onslaught. From north to south, the line was held by British and Australian troops, specifically the British 14th and 18th Divisions, and the 35th Australian Battalion. However, by 4 April the 14th Division fell back under attack from the German 228th Division. The Australians held off the 9th Bavarian Reserve Division and the British 18th Division held off the German Guards Ersatz Division and 19th Divisions First Battle of Villers-Bretonneux. 5 April An attempt by the Germans to renew the offensive on 5 April failed and by early morning British Empire troops had forced the enemy out of all but the south-eastern corner of the town. German progress towards Amiens, having reached its furthest point westward, had finally been held. Ludendorff called a halt to the offensive.

  • 以下の英文を訳して下さい。

    Artillery support was available but since German positions were unknown and to avoid alerting the Germans, there was no preparatory barrage to soften up the German positions. Instead the artillery would bombard the town for the hour once the attack began and then move its line of fire back beyond the line held by the Allies before the German attack. The attack took place on the night of 24/25 April, after a postponement from 8:00 p.m. Glasgow argued that it would still be light, with terrible consequences for his men and that the operation should start at 10:00 p.m. and "zero hour" was eventually set for 10:00 p.m. The operation began with German machine gun crews causing many Australian casualties. A number of charges against machine-gun posts helped the Australian advance; in particular, Lieutenant Clifford Sadlier of the 51st Battalion, was awarded the Victoria Cross, after attacking with hand-grenades. The two brigades swept around Villers-Bretonneux and the Germans retreated, for a while escaping the pocket along a railway cutting. The Australians eventually captured the German positions and pushed the German line back, leaving the German troops in Villers-Bretonneux surrounded. The British units attacked frontally and suffered many casualties. By 25 April, the town had been recaptured and handed back to the villagers. The battle was a great success for the Australian troops, who had defeated the German attempt to capture Amiens and recaptured Villers-Bretonneux while outnumbered; the village remained in Allied hands to the end of the war. Fighting continued in Villers-Bretonneux and the vicinity for months after the counter-attack. The Australians spent Anzac Day in hand-to-hand fighting and the town was not secured until 27 April. On 26 April a French Moroccan Division attack on Hangard Wood, south of the village, was a costly failure and on 3 May an attack by the Australian 12th Brigade towards Monument Wood south-east of Villers-Bretonneux failed, with the 48th Australian Battalion, losing over 150 men to the Jäger. The German offensive in the Australian sector ended in late April. As the Germans turned their attention to the French sectors in May and June, a lull occurred on the Somme, during which the Australians exploited their success at Villers-Bretonneux by conducting "peaceful penetration" operations, that slowly advanced the front eastwards.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします。

    The First Battle of Villers-Bretonneux (30 March – 5 April 1918), took place during Operation Michael, part of the German Spring Offensive on the Western Front. The offensive began against the British Fifth Army and the Third Army on the Somme and pushed back the British and French reinforcements on the north side of the Somme. The capture of Villers-Bretonneux, close to Amiens, a strategically-important road- and rail-junction, would have brought the Germans within artillery-range. In late March, Australian troops were brought south from Belgium as reinforcements to help shore up the line and in early April the Germans launched an attack to capture Villers-Bretonneux. After a determined defence by British and Australian troops, the attackers were close to success until a counter-attack by the 9th Australian Infantry Brigade and British troops late in the afternoon of 4 April restored the situation and halted the German advance on Amiens.In early 1918, following the capitulation of Tsarist Russia, the end of the fighting on the Eastern Front allowed the Germans to transfer a significant amount of manpower and equipment to the Western Front. With the general position for the Germans looking weak, the German commander, Erich Ludendorff, decided to go on the offensive. On 21 March 1918, Operation Michael was launched, and the attack was aimed at the weakest part of the British lines, along the Somme River. By 5 April, the Germans had gained 60 kilometres (37 mi) of British held territory. Two other operations were launched, one near Armentières, one near Reims. All three operations were eventually halted by the Allies. In late March 1918, the German army advanced towards the vital rail-head at Amiens, pushing the British line back towards the town of Villers-Bretonneux. In response to the Germans' early advances during the offensive, on 29 March the 9th Australian Brigade, consisting of four infantry battalions, had been detached from the 3rd Australian Division and sent south from Belgium to help prevent a breach of the line between the British Fifth Army (General Hubert Gough) and the French First Army (General Marie-Eugène Debeney) that was positioned to the south. The First Battle of Villers-Bretonneux 第一次ヴィレ=ブルトヌーの戦い

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The attack at Longueval and Delville Wood had lacked sufficient power to capture all of the wood and village, where II Battalion, BIR 16 was reinforced by II Battalion, IR 26 of the 7th Division and a battalion of RIR 99 during the day. The relative success of the defenders inhibited the British from ordering a bolder exploitation further west. Opposite the 7th and part of the 3rd Division the Germans were found to have disappeared by 10:00 a.m. and some British officers walked up to High Wood unchallenged. Watts suggested sending the 91st Brigade from reserve to occupy the wood but was ordered to wait for the cavalry and Haldane was told to keep his reserve brigade ready to receive counter-attacks.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The German force moving up the Reutelbeek valley into the area of the 23rd and 1st Australian divisions, was watched by the infantry for an hour, when at 7:02 p.m. a field artillery and machine-gun barrage fell on the Germans for an hour, stopping all movement towards the British positions, The 16th Bavarian Division was a high quality formation, but all the skill and dash in the world stood no chance in the face of the torrent of fire the British artillery could bring to bear at the critical points. — Sheldon a similar barrage for forty minutes in front of the 2nd Australian Division, on a regiment of the 236th Division advancing from Molenaarelsthoek and downhill from Broodseinde, stopped the counter-attack long before it came within range of the Australian infantry. On the southern edge of the plateau, German troops dribbling forward in the 39th Division area, managed to reinforce the garrison at Tower Hamlets, then tried twice to advance to the Bassevillebeek and were "smashed" by artillery and machine-gun fire. In the Fifth Army area, from 800 yd (730 m) south of the Ypres–Roulers railway, north to the Ypres–Staden railway, many Germans were seen moving west down Passchendaele ridge around 5:30 p.m., into the area held by the 55th, 58th and 51st divisions. In the 58th Division area, fire was opened on the Germans after half an hour, which forced the Germans to deploy into open order. When the Germans were 150 yd (140 m) from the first British strong point, the British defensive barrage arrived with such force that the German infantry "stampeded". No Germans were seen in the area until night, when patrols occupied an outpost. On the 55th Division front, "an extraordinarily gallant" German counter-attack by Reserve Infantry Regiment 459 (236th Division) from Gravenstafel, on Hill 37, through the positions of Reserve Infantry Regiment 91, was stopped by artillery and enfilade fire by machine-guns at Keir Farm and Schuler Galleries. A German attack down Poelcappelle spur at 5:30 p.m. towards the 51st Division, had much better artillery support and although stopped in the area of the Lekkerboterbeek by 7:00 p.m., pushed the British left back to Pheasant trench in the Wilhemstellung, before the British counter-attacked and pushed the Germans back to the line of the first objective, 600 yd (550 m) short of the final objective.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The 17th Brigade on the right of 24th Division reached its objective 1,000 yards (910 m) east of Klein Zillebeke. The 73rd Brigade in the centre was stopped by German pillboxes at Lower Star Post and 72nd Brigade on the left reached the Bassevillebeek but then had to withdraw to a line south from Bodmin Copse, a few hundred yards short of the blue line (first objective). The 30th Division with an attached brigade of the 18th Division, had to advance across the Gheluvelt plateau to Glencorse Wood. The 21st Brigade on the right lost the barrage as it crossed the wreckage of Sanctuary Wood and took until 6:00 a.m. to capture Stirling Castle Ridge. Attempts to advance further were stopped by German machine-gun fire. The 90th Brigade to the left was stopped on the first objective. German artillery fire fell on Sanctuary Wood and Chateau Wood from 5:00 a.m. and succeeded in stopping the advance, except for a short move forward of about 300 yards (270 m) south of Westhoek. In the dark an 8th Division battalion had veered left into Château Wood and reported mistakenly that it had captured Glencorse Wood. The attached 53rd Brigade of 18th Division moved forward into ground that both divisions believed to be clear of German defenders. It was not until 9:00 a.m. that the mistake became known to the divisional commanders and the 53rd Brigade spent the rest of the day attacking an area that 30th Division had been intended to clear. The 30th Division and 24th Division failed to advance far due to the boggy ground, loss of direction in the dark and because much of the German machine-gun defence on this section of the front remained intact. The 8th Division advanced towards Westhoek and took the Blue and Black lines relatively easily. The southern flank then became exposed to the concentrated fire of German machine-guns from Nonne Boschen and Glencorse Wood in the area to be taken by the 30th Division. The difficulties of the 30th Division further south were unknown to the 8th Division until just before the 25th Brigade was due to advance over Westhoek Ridge.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Next day, the division attacked Aisne Farm and was repulsed but the neighbouring 58th Division took Spot Farm. On 5 September, the 61st Division tried again at night, took a German outpost on Hill 35 and then lost it to a counter-attack. An attack from south of Hill 35 by the 42nd Division with the 125th Brigade and part of the 127th Brigade, took place on 6 September. For several days, practice barrages were conducted and a daylight reconnaissance by a small party probed to within 25 yd (23 m) of Beck House. During the night, the Germans sent up many flares and rockets, disclosing their barrage line and many undetected posts. The British barrage schedule required four rounds per-gun-per-minute but the gunners fired up to ten. The 125th Brigade attacked Iberian, Borry and Beck House farms and captured Beck House but small-arms fire from Hill 35 stopped the rest of the attack, which was a costly failure. The Germans retook Beck House at 10.45 a.m. and enfiladed the rest of the attackers, who were withdrawn, except on the extreme right. Another German counter-attack at 7.30 p.m. by fresh storm-troops forced the battalion to retire, except from a small area 150 yd (140 m) forward, which was abandoned next day; the division had c. 800 casualties. Another night attack by the 61st Division on Hill 35 failed and in the XVIII Corps area, a company of the 51st Division made an abortive raid on Pheasant Trench. Two battalions of the 58th Division conducted raids on 8 September and next day the 24th Division in II Corps, withstood another determined German attack at Inverness Copse. On 11 September, a night attack by a battalion of the 42nd Division failed to capture The Hut. A covering party for a group of soldiers working in no man's land discovered an Inniskilling Fusilier, who had lain out wounded since 11 August, subsisting on rations recovered from dead soldiers. On 13 September, the Guards Division was pushed back from the far side of the Broembeek and the Wijdendreft road.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    In 2007 Sheldon gave 22,988 casualties for the German 4th Army from 1–10 June 1917. At 3:00 a.m. on 8 June, the British attack to regain the Oosttaverne line from the river Douve to the Warneton road found few German garrisons as it was occupied. German artillery south of the Lys, heavily bombarded the southern slopes of the ridge and caused considerable losses among Anzac troops pinned there. Ignorance of the situation north of the Warneton road continued; a reserve battalion was sent to reinforce the 49th Australian Battalion near the Blauwepoortbeek for the 3:00 a.m. attack, which did not take place. The 4th Australian Division commander, Major-General William Holmes, went forward at 4:00 a.m. and finally clarified the situation. New orders instructed the 33rd Brigade (11th Division) to side-step to the right and relieve the 52nd Australian Battalion, which at dusk would move to the south and join the 49th Australian Battalion for the attack into the gap at the Blauwepoortbeek. All went well until observers on the ridge saw the 52nd Australian Battalion withdrawing, mistook it for a German counter-attack and called for an SOS bombardment. German observers in the valley saw troops from the 33rd Brigade moving into the area to relieve the Australian battalion, mistook them for an attacking force and also called for an SOS bombardment. The area was deluged with artillery fire from both sides for two hours, causing many casualties and the attack was postponed until 9 June. Confusion had been caused by the original attacking divisions on the ridge, having control over the artillery which covered the area occupied by the reserve divisions down the eastern slope. The arrangement had been intended to protect the ridge from large German counter-attacks, which might force the reserve divisions back up the slope.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The troops on the left were exposed by the repulse of the troops to the west, beyond the Thuizy–Nauroy road. German resistance in the Konstanzlager to the south-east of Mont Blond, prevented its right from being supported by the 45th division. The 83rd Regiment managed a costly advance to the summit of Mont Cornillet but German machine-guns on the ridge between Mont Cornillet and Mont Blond, slowed the advance. The left flank of the 59th Regiment was stopped by the Germans at Flensburg Trench, which connected the German defences of Mont Cornillet and Mont Blond, losing touch with the 83rd Regiment. The Germans in the west end of Erfurt Trench, repulsed the attack and the left flank regiment of the 45th Division on the right, was held up at the Konstanzlager. Lobit, the 34th division commander, sent the reserve battalions of the two regiments, to guard the open western flank of the division, between Erfurt trench and Mont Cornillet and to close the gap between the 83rd and 59th regiments. Some companies were sent to outflank the Konstanzlager from the west. Field artillery from the 128th Division, was galloped up the slopes of Mont Cornillet, despite German return fire and the 34th Division was subjected to a heavy German bombardment and counter-attacks against both flanks. At 2:30 p.m., the German garrison and reinforcements from the tunnel under the hill, broke into the French position on Mont Cornillet.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The difficulties of the division were made worse at 7:08 a.m., when the scheduled advance to the final objective coincided with the dispersal of the mist. Reserves were pushed forward around 10:00 a.m. from the 166th Brigade, which allowed the 165th and 164th brigades to take the first objective around Gallipoli Farm and the Schuler Galleries in front of Schuler Farm, by noon. Fighting at Hill 35 continued and the Germans regained Hill 37 with a counter-attack. Machine-guns were placed in the Schuler Galleries and nine machine-guns were dug in near Keir Farm, with which the British stopped German counter-attacks from making further progress. In the afternoon the rest of the reserve brigade captured Hills 35 and 37, which dominated the Zonnebeke spur. The right of the division established touch with the 9th Division but the centre and left of 55th Division were 500 yd (460 m) short of the final objective. XVIII Corps was to advance onto the Gravenstafel and Poelcappelle spurs, held by the German 36th Division since 8 September. The divisions had to assemble east of the Steenbeek between St Julien and Langemarck in low ground which was still muddy and full of flooded shell-holes despite the better weather. The 58th Division objective was 1,000 yd (910 m) ahead, among German strong points on the west end of Gravenstafel spur. As a frontal attack here had failed, the division feinted with its right brigade, while the left brigade made the real attack from the flank. The feint captured Winnipeg crossroads, as the main attack by three battalions one behind the other, captured Vancouver Farm, Keerselaere and Hubner Farm. The two following battalions passed through the leading battalion and turned right half way up the spur, to reach Wurst Farm on a tactically vital part of the spur, at the same time as the barrage. Nearly 300 prisoners and fifty machine-guns were taken and outposts were established to the left, overlooking the Stroombeek valley.