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The Ottoman front line at the Nek consisted of two lines of trenches, with machine guns positioned on the flanks on spur lines, which provided clear fields of fire into no man's land in front of the Ottoman position. Behind this another eight trenches existed, tiered along the slopes towards Baby 700. At least five groups of machine guns – approximately 30 altogether – were located in the area, providing direct fire support to the Ottoman troops holding the Nek.These positions were widely dispersed and positioned in depth, at least 200 yards (180 m) from the Ottoman front line. The commanders of the two Ottoman regiments occupying positions around the Nek had chosen not to cover their trenches, despite orders from their divisional headquarters, due to concerns that a bombardment would collapse the roofs and block communication through the trenches, similar to what had occurred at Lone Pine.[20]For the three months since the 25 April landings, the Anzac beachhead had been a stalemate. On 19 May, Ottoman troops had attempted to break the deadlock with a counter-attack on Anzac Cove, but had suffered heavy casualties. In August, an Allied offensive (which later became known as the Battle of Sari Bair) was intended to break the deadlock by capturing the high ground of the Sari Bair range, and linking the Anzac front with a new landing to the north at Suvla. Along with the main advance north out of the Anzac perimeter, supporting attacks were planned from the existing trench positions. Higher-level conceptual planning for the offensive was undertaken by the commander of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, Lieutenant General William Birdwood, and Colonel Andrew Skeen; more detailed tactical planning devolved to other staff. Tactical command of the offensive to secure Sari Bair was given to Godley, who was at the time in command of the New Zealand and Australian Division. As part of the effort to secure Baby 700, Godley, assisted by Birdwood, planned a breakthrough from the Nek. The official Australian historian Charles Bean writes that concerns about "attacking unaided" meant that plans were made to co-ordinate the attack with other actions. The attack at the Nek was meant to coincide with an attack by New Zealand troops from Chunuk Bair, which was to be captured during the night. The light horsemen were to attack across the Nek to Baby 700 while the New Zealanders descended from the rear from Chunuk Bair onto Battleship Hill, the next knoll above Baby 700. Other attacks were to be made by the 1st Light Horse Brigade at Pope's Hill and the 2nd Light Horse Brigade at Quinn's Post.The 3rd Light Horse Brigade was chosen for the attack at the Nek. This formation was commanded by Colonel Frederic Hughes, and consisted of the 8th, 9th and 10th Light Horse Regiments. For the attack, the 8th and 10th would provide the assault troops, while the 9th was placed in reserve. Some of its machine guns, positioned on Turk's Point, about 120 metres (390 ft) from the Nek, would provide direct fire support during the attack. Like the other Australian Light Horse and the New Zealand Mounted Rifles formations, the 3rd Light Horse Brigade had been dispatched to Gallipoli in May as infantry reinforcements, leaving their horses in Egypt. The area around the Nek was held by the 18th Regiment,under the command of Major Mustafa Bey. The regiment formed part of Mustafa Kemal's Ottoman 19th Division. The 27th Regiment, under Lieutenant Colonel Sefik Bey, also held part of the line south from the Nek to Quinn's Post (Bomba Sirt).


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ネクでのオスマン軍の前線は、2列の塹壕で構成されており、側面のスパーラインには機関銃が配置され、オスマン軍の陣地前方の無人地帯に向けて明確な射界を確保していた。この後ろにも8つの塹壕があり、ベビー700に向かって斜面に沿って段々になっていた。これらの陣地は広く分散しており、オスマン軍の前線から少なくとも200ヤード(180m)離れた場所に深く配置されていた。 ネク周辺に陣取っていたオスマン軍の2連隊の指揮官は、師団司令部からの命令にもかかわらず、砲撃によって屋根が崩れ、ローンパインで起きたような塹壕内の通信が遮断されることを懸念して、塹壕を覆うことを選択しなかった[20]。 4月25日の上陸から3ヶ月間、アンザックのビーチヘッドは膠着状態が続いていた。5月19日、オスマン・トルコ軍はアンザック・コーブへの反撃で膠着状態を打開しようとしたが、大きな犠牲を出した。8月、連合軍の攻勢(後にサリ・ベアの戦いと呼ばれる)は、サリ・ベア山脈の高地を占領して膠着状態を打破し、アンザック戦線と北のスヴラにある新たな上陸地点を結ぶことを目的としていた。アンザック周辺からの北への主な前進とともに、既存の塹壕陣地からの支援攻撃も計画されていました。攻勢作戦の上位概念計画は、オーストラリア・ニュージーランド陸軍軍団司令官ウィリアム・バードウッド中将とアンドリュー・スキーン大佐が担当し、より詳細な戦術計画は他のスタッフに委ねられた。サリ・ベア確保のための攻勢の戦術的指揮は、当時、ニュージーランド・オーストラリア師団を指揮していたゴドリーに委ねられた。ベビー700の確保の一環として、ゴドリーはバードウッドの協力を得てネックからの突破を計画した。豪州の公式歴史家チャールズ・ビーンは、「単独攻撃」への懸念から、この攻撃を他の行動と協調させる計画が立てられたと書いている。ネクでの攻撃は、夜のうちに占領される予定だったチュヌク・ベアからのニュージーランド軍の攻撃と同時 に行われることになっていた。軽騎兵はネックを越えてベイビー700まで攻撃し、ニュージーランド軍は後方からチュヌック・ベアーからベイビー700の次の丘であるバトルシップ・ヒルに降りてきました。他にも、第1軽騎兵旅団がポープの丘、第2軽騎兵旅団がクインズ・ポストを攻撃することになっていた。ネクでの攻撃には第3軽騎兵旅団が選ばれた。この編成はフレデリック・ヒューズ大佐が指揮し、第8、9、10軽騎兵連隊で構成されていました。この編成では、第8、第10連隊が突撃部隊となり、第9連隊は予備役となっていた。 第9連隊の機関銃の一部は、ネクから約120メートルの距離にあるタークス・ポイントに配置され、攻撃時に直接射撃支援を行った。第3軽騎兵旅団は、他のオーストラリア軽騎兵隊やニュージーランド騎兵隊と同様、5月に歩兵の増援としてエジプトに馬を残して派遣されていた。ネク周辺は、ムスタファ・ベイ少佐の指揮下にある第18連隊が保持していた。この連隊はムスタファ・ケマルのオスマン帝国第19師団の一部を構成していた。セフィク・ベイ中佐が率いる第27連隊も、ネクからクインズ・ポスト(ボンバ・シルト)までの南側の線の一部を保持していた。



  • 英文の日本語翻訳をお願いいたします。

    The right column heading for Chunuk Bair had a simpler navigation task as their route was to some degree visible from the old Anzac perimeter. In what became known as the Battle of Chunuk Bair, the New Zealanders failed to capture the peak by the morning of 7 August but managed the feat on the next morning. Map of the Turkish counter-attack, 9–10 August On the morning following the breakout, a number of other attacks were planned within the old Anzac perimeter. The most notorious was the attack of the Australian 3rd Light Horse Brigade at The Nek whose slim chance of success had depended on the New Zealanders having captured Chunuk Bair on schedule. The left column's journey through the tangled ravines was doomed to failure and, having become lost and confused, it never got close to the objective of Hill 971. By the morning of 8 August Cox's forces were sufficiently organised to attempt an attack on their original objectives of Hill 971 and Hill Q. However Monash's brigade was still mistaken about its position relative to Hill 971. In fact, by the end of the day's advance Monash's troops had actually reached the position they had believed they had been starting from. Meanwhile, Hill 971 was more unreachable than ever. The three Australian battalions that had made the assault suffered 765 casualties — the 15th Battalion was reduced to about 30 per cent of its normal strength. Of the force aiming for Hill Q, one battalion of the 6th Gurkhas commanded by Major Cecil Allanson and joined by disparate New Army men, moved to within 200 feet of Hill Q by 6 p.m. on 8 August where they sought shelter from the heavy Ottoman fire. After a naval artillery bombardment, the battalion attacked the summit shortly after 5 a.m. on 9 August. The plan of the attack, as concocted by General Godley, had involved numerous other battalions but all were lost or pinned down so the Gurkhas went on alone. They succeeded in driving the Ottomans off the hill but were then caught in further naval gunfire from friendly monitors or from an artillery battery at Anzac. Having suffered heavy casualties and with no reinforcements, Allanson's force was pushed back off the hill shortly afterwards. By the end of 9 August the Allies retained only a foothold on Chunuk Bair. On 10 August the Ottomans, led from the front by Colonel Mustafa Kemal, counter-attacked and regained control of the entire Sari Bair ridge.

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    After clearing Wellington Ridge, the mounted riflemen, light horsemen and infantrymen pressed forward from ridge to ridge without pause. These troops swept down on a body of about 1,000 to 1,500 Ottoman soldiers, who became demoralised. As a result of this attack, a white flag was hoisted and by 05:00 the German and Ottoman soldiers who had stubbornly defended their positions on Wellington Ridge, dominating the camps at Romani, were captured. A total of 1,500 became prisoners in the neighbourhood of Wellington Ridge; 864 soldiers surrendered to infantry in the 8th Scottish Rifles alone, while others were captured by the light horse and mounted rifles regiments.

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    The Germans secured the appointment of Lieutenant-General Erich Weber as an advisor to the Ottoman GHQ and at the end of August 1914, Vice-Admiral Guido von Usedom, several specialists and 500 men were sent to reinforce the forts on the Dardanelles and Bosphorus. In September, Usedom was made Inspector-General of Coast Defences and Mines and Vice-Admiral Johannes Merten relieved Weber at Chanak with a marine detachment to operate the modern guns. By mid-September, the German advisers reported that the guns in the Narrows had been refurbished and were serviceable. By October, most of the guns in the main batteries had German crews, operating as training units but able to man the guns in an emergency. Plans were made to build more defensive works in the Intermediate Zone and to bring in mobile howitzers and quick-firers dismounted from older Ottoman ships. Several heavy howitzers arrived in October but the poor standard of training of the Ottoman gunners, obsolete armaments and the chronic ammunition shortage, which Usedom reported was sufficient only to defend against one serious attack, led him to base the defence of the straits on minefields. Three more lines of mines had been laid before Usedom arrived and another 145 mines were searched out, serviced and laid in early November. Cover of the minefields was increased with small quick-firers and four more searchlights. by March 1915, there were ten lines of mines and 12 searchlights. When the Ottoman Empire went to war on 29 October 1914, the defences of the Straits had been much improved but the Intermediate Defences were still inadequately organised and lacking in guns, searchlights and mines. On 3 November, the outer forts were bombarded by Allied ships, which galvanised the Ottoman defenders into reducing their obstructionism against the German advisers. The fortress commander, Jevad Pasha, wrote later that he had to improve the defences at all costs. The short bombardment had been extraordinarily successful, destroying the forts at Sedd el Bahr with two shots, that exploded the magazine and dismounted the guns. The Ottoman and German defenders concluded that the Outer Defences could be demolished by ships firing from beyond the range of the Ottoman reply. The forts were repaired but not reinforced and the main effort was directed to protecting the minefield and Inner Defences.

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    Over the next week, attacks by the 53rd (Welsh) Division, the Anzac Mounted Division, and the 5th Mounted Brigade (Australian Mounted Division) attempted to capture the Khuweilfe position. Attacks were launched by the British infantry and Yeomanry cavalry, and Australian and New Zealand mounted brigades. Despite their failure to dislodge the Ottoman defenders, the continuing pressure drew in Ottoman reserves, which could have made the EEF attacks at Gaza during the night of 1/2 November, and at Hareira and Sheria on 6–7 November, more strongly contested. On 6 November, in coordination with the attacks on Hareira and Sheria, the 53rd (Welsh) Infantry Division, with the Imperial Camel Brigade covering their flanks, made another inconclusive assault with artillery support. This fighting continued the following day, until the Ottoman defenders began to withdraw, as a consequence of the loss of Hareira, the evacuation of Gaza, and the weakening of the Sheria position, all of which threatened to outflank the Tel el Khuweilfe position. The Charge at Sheria took place on 7 November 1917 during the Battle of Hareira and Sheria when the 11th and 12th Light Horse Regiments (4th Light Horse Brigade) charged a Yildirim Army Group rearguard in support of an attack by the 60th (London) Division during the Southern Palestine Offensive of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in World War I. Following the victory at the Battle of Beersheba on 31 October, Ottoman Army forces continued to hold most of their front line stretching from Gaza on the Mediterranean coast to the mound of Tel el Sheria and Tel el Khuweilfe, in the Judean Hills to the north of Beersheba. A major offensive launched by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) on 6 November could not dislodge the Ottoman defenders at Gaza, Hareira and Tel el Khuweilfe. Although Sheria and Tel el Khuweilfe continued to be strongly defended, the heavy EEF bombardment by the XXI Corps against Gaza, resulted in the Ottoman garrison withdrawing from Gaza during the night. During 7 November the attack by the XX Corps, led by the 60th (London) Division and supported by the 10th (Irish) Division on the left and the 74th (Yeomanry) Division on the right, gained some ground in the morning but was held up by a strong position at Sheria, when the Australian Mounted Division was ordered to attack mounted. The 11th and 12th Light Horse Regiments charged into the face of heavy artillery, machine gun and rifle fire, was forced to stop and dismount as the fire was too fierce. One troop missed the signal and was annihilated, after they charged up and over the Ottoman trenches.

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    Two more Ottoman squadrons were seen moving south east of el Buqqar towards Khor el Asram also at 05:00, and a 2nd Light Horse Brigade patrol from Khor el Asram, was fired on by Ottoman soldiers occupying a ridge 8 miles (13 km) north of Point 680. During these operations Ottoman soldiers continued holding a line from Point 820 to Bir Ifteis, while the left of the sector of the Australian Mounted Division's front line remained quiet. 23/4 October permanent outpost line By late October 1917 the EEF outpost line had been pushed forward to an outpost line of low hills/ridge overlooking the Wadi Hanafish. Instead of being held only during the day, this line became permanent from 17:00 on 24 October, when it was to be held day and night to cover the construction of the railway to Karm as it approached Imara. This forward line, established to prevent Ottoman field artillery firing on the railway construction crews, stretched from el Buqqar through Points 720 and 630 to Point 550. It was noted that attack was most likely to occur about dawn, when the el Buqqar line was to form a pivot. If such an attack was successful the Ottoman force was to be "driven off" by an immediate counter-attack, and if the counter-attack was unsuccessful, then all available units were to contribute to a "deliberate and carefully arranged attack" by mounted units, supported by infantry and artillery from el Imara and Esani. 24 to 26 October On 24 October the 53rd (Welsh) Division (XX Corps) concentrated between Hisea and Shellal on the Wadi Ghazzeh in the center of the line. The following night the 158th Brigade (53rd Division) crossed the Wadi Ghazzeh, to arrive at El Imara when it extended its right to the Tel el Fara to Beersheba road, covering the railway extension work to Karm. On 25 October, the 4th Light Horse Brigade relieved the 3rd Light Horse Brigade on the outpost line, with the 11th Light Horse Regiment holding el Buqqar to Point 600 inclusive. During the evening the New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade left El Fukhari on a night march to Esani 15 miles (24 km) away. The brigade remained in the area for three days supporting the yeomanry and providing escorts for camel trains.

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    During the Battle of Arras the British Fifth Army was intended to help the operations of the Third Army, by pushing back German rear guards to the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line) and then attacking the position from Bullecourt to Quéant, which was 3.5 miles (5.6 km) from the main Arras–Cambrai road. The German outpost villages from Doignies to Croisilles were captured on 2 April and an attack on a 3,500-yard (3,200 m) front, with Bullecourt in the centre was planned. The wire-cutting bombardment was delayed by transport difficulties behind the new British front line and the attack of the Third Army, which was originally intended to be simultaneous, took place on 9 April. A tank attack by the Fifth Army was improvised for 10 April on a front of 1,500 yards (1,400 m) to capture Riencourt and Hendecourt. The attack was intended to begin 48 minutes before sunrise but the tanks were delayed by a blizzard and the attack was cancelled at the last minute; the 4th Australian Division withdrawal from its assembly positions was luckily obscured by a snowstorm.

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    The garrisons were able to shoot at the advancing British troops of the 48th Brigade from behind and only isolated parties of British troops managed to reach their objectives. The 49th Brigade on the left was also held up by Borry Farm, which defeated several costly attacks but the left of the brigade got within 400 yd (370 m) of the top of Hill 37. The 36th Division also struggled to advance, Gallipoli and Somme farms were behind a new wire entanglement, with German machine-guns trained on gaps made by the British bombardment, fire from which stopped the advance of the 108th Brigade. To the north, the 109th Brigade had to get across the swamp astride the Steenbeek. The infantry lost the barrage and were stopped by fire from Pond Farm and Border House. On the left troops got to Fortuin, about 400 yd (370 m) from the start line. The attack further north was much more successful. In XVIII Corps, the 48th Division attacked at 4:45 a.m. with one brigade, capturing Border House and gun pits either side of the St. Julien–Winnipeg road, where they were held up by machine-gun fire and a small counter-attack. The capture of St. Julien was completed and the infantry consolidated along a line from Border House, to Jew Hill, the gun pits and St. Julien. The troops were fired on from Maison du Hibou and Hillock Farm, which was captured soon after, then British troops seen advancing on Springfield Farm disappeared. At 9:00 a.m., German troops gathered around Triangle Farm and at 10:00 a.m., made a counter-attack which was repulsed. Another German attack after dark was defeated at the gun pits and at 9:30 p.m., another German counter-attack from Triangle Farm was repulsed. The 11th Division attacked with one brigade at 4:45 a.m. The right flank was delayed by machine-gun fire from the 48th Division area and by pillboxes to their front, where the infantry lost the barrage. On the left, the brigade dug in 100 yd (91 m) west of the Langemarck road and the right flank dug in facing east, against fire from Maison du Hibou and the Triangle.

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    The Battle of Chunuk Bair (Turkish: Conk Bayırı Muharebesi) was a World War I battle fought between the Ottoman defenders and troops of the British Empire over control of the peak in August 1915. The capture of Chunuk Bair, (Turkish: Çanak Bayır Basin Slope, now Conk Bayırı), the secondary peak of the Sari Bair range, was one of the two objectives of the Battle of Sari Bair. British units that reached the summit of Chunuk Bair early on 8 August 1915 to engage the Turks were the Wellington Battalion of the New Zealand and Australian Division, 7th (Service) Battalion, Gloucestershire Regiment, and 8th (Service) Battalion, Welch Regiment, both of the 13th (Western) Division. The troops were reinforced in the afternoon by two squads of the Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment, also part of the New Zealand and Australian Division. The first troops on the summit were severely depleted by Ottoman return fire and were relieved at 10:30 pm on 8 August by the Otago Battalion (NZ), and the Wellington Mounted Rifles Regiment, New Zealand and Australian Division. The New Zealand troops were relieved by 8:00 pm on 9 August by the 6th Battalion, Loyal North Lancashire Regiment, and 5th Battalion, Wiltshire Regiment, who were massacred and driven off the summit in the early morning of 10 August, by an Ottoman counter-attack led by Mustafa Kemal. The British August Offensive at Anzac Cove and Suvla was an attempt to try to break the stalemate that the Gallipoli Campaign had become. The capture of Chunuk Bair was the only success for the Allies of the campaign but it was fleeting as the position proved untenable. The Ottomans recaptured the peak for good a few days later.The failure of the Allies to capture Krithia or make any progress on the Cape Helles front, led General Ian Hamilton, commander of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force (MEF) to pursue a new plan to secure the Sari Bair Range and capture the high ground of Hill 971 and Chunuk Bair. Both sides had been reinforced, with Hamilton's original five divisions increased to 15 divisions and the six original Ottoman divisions having grown to a force of 16 divisions. The British planned to land two fresh infantry divisions from IX Corps (Lieutenant-General Frederick Stopford), at Suvla, 5 miles (8.0 km) north of Anzac, followed by an advance on Sari Bair from the north-west to Hill 971.[3]At Anzac an offensive would be made against the Sari Bair range by the New Zealand and Australian Division (Major-General Alexander Godley) on the northern flank advancing through rough and thinly defended terrain north of the Anzac perimeter. The division had been reinforced with most of the 13th (Western) Division (Lieutenant-General F. C. Shaw), the 29th Indian Infantry Brigade and the Indian Mountain Artillery Brigade, to about 20,000 front-line infantry. The attack would be conducted by a Right Assaulting Column up Rhododendron Spur to Chunuk Bair and the Left Assaulting Column would divide at Aghyl Dere and half would advance across Damakjelik Spur and Azma Dere to the Abdul Rahman Spur and then attack Hill 971, the other part of the force would move to the right up Damakjelik Spur to Hill Q. To prevent delays, a Right Covering Force was to take Destroyer Hill, Table top, Old No 3 Post and Bauchop's Hill and the Left Covering Force was to reach Walden Point, cross Aghyl Dere and take Damakjelik Bair. The Battle of Chunuk Bair チュヌクベアの戦い

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    By As the 9th Light Horse Regiment (3rd Light Horse Brigade) was fighting their way towards el Buqqar and Point 720, at 11:35, the 8th Mounted Brigade reported by phone to the Australian Mounted Divisional headquarters, that the advance by the infantry brigade towards Point 720 was proceeding, but that the garrison on Point 720 had been "presumably wiped out", as Ottoman soldiers were seen riding over the top of the hill. The 12th Light Armoured Motor Battery was ordered to support the 3rd Light Horse Brigade advance against Point 720. By 14:10 the 9th Light Horse Regiment was reported to be advancing with its right on the cross roads at Taweil el Habari and its left on El Buqqar, with two squadrons of the 10th Light Horse Regiment on their right, facing east within sight. When the 9th Light Horse Regiment had been held up at 13:45 by machine gun fire from Point 820, the 1/1st Nottinghamshire Royal Horse Artillery came into action, against the Ottoman fire. The 3rd Light Horse Brigade reported to the Australian Mounted Division at 14:37 that Ottoman forces were holding Point 720 on a front 1 mile (1.6 km) long, "in strength." By 15:05 the 9th Light Horse Regiment, conforming to infantry moves, had advanced to within 1 mile (1.6 km) of Point 720. At 08:35 further infantry reinforcements had been expected to arrive at about 13:00, however they didn't arrive until 16:35 when the 229th Brigade (74th Division) was reported advancing on the left flank of the 3rd Light Horse Brigade, causing considerable Ottoman movements on Point 820. By 17:10 an Ottoman position defended by four machine guns and 400 infantry defending Point 820, was reconnoitred by the armoured cars attached to the light horsemen, which drove to just east of the cross roads east of el Buggar, reporting the 53rd (Welsh) Division deployments of the 159th Brigade against Point 630 and Kh. Imleih, the 160th Brigade opposing Point 720 and the 229th Brigade opposing el Buqqar ridge. At 18:00 the 8th Mounted Brigade's reserve regiment was still holding the line when the 3rd Light Horse Brigade supported by 1/1st Nottinghamshire RHA counter-attacked along with two infantry brigades of the 53rd (Welsh) Division and the Ottoman forces retired during the evening. The yeomanry lost 24 killed and 53 wounded with 10 missing.

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    A shot or two fired out in the desert to the south-east of their position put the long piquet line of the 1st and 2nd Light Horse Regiment (1st Light Horse Brigade) on alert about midnight, when the 3rd Light Horse Regiment (1st Light Horse Brigade) was called up to the front line. The Austrian, German and Ottoman advance paused after finding the gullies held by the light horsemen, but at about 01:00, a sudden heavy burst of fire along the whole front began the attack of the considerably superior Ottoman and German forces, and by 02:00 they had in many places advanced to within 50 yards (46 m) of the Australian line.