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These represent some of the highest casualties of the campaign. The toll was particularly heavy amongst the Australian officers; both the commanding officers of the 2nd and 3rd Battalions were killed leading their troops. After the battle, the dead were so thick on the ground that one Australian, Captain Harold Jacobs of the 1st Battalion, remarked "[t]he trench is so full of our dead that the only respect that we could show them was not to tread on their faces, the floor of the trench was just one carpet of them, this in addition to the ones we piled into Turkish dugouts." Later, over 1,000 dead were removed from Australian position to be hastily buried. Seven Australians were awarded the Victoria Cross for their actions during the fighting at Lone Pine, including four men from the 7th Battalion, which had been rushed forward to help relieve the 1st Brigade at the height of the Ottoman counterattacks. One of the recipients was Corporal William Dunstan, who after the war became the general manager of The Herald newspaper in Melbourne. Another VC recipient was Captain Alfred Shout who had already earned the Military Cross and been Mentioned in Despatches earlier in the Gallipoli campaign. He was mortally wounded at Lone Pine and was later buried at sea. The other VC recipients were Privates Leonard Keysor and John Hamilton, Corporal Alexander Burton and Lieutenants Frederick Tubb and William Symons. After the war, an Australian military historical mission was sent to Gallipoli, led by Charles Bean. On Bean's advice the Australian government sought permission from the newly formed Turkish Republic to establish an official war cemetery in the area. In 1923 the Treaty of Lausanne was ratified, and through its provisions the Lone Pine cemetery was established in the area, dubbed the Daisy Patch by the Australians. There are a total of 1,167 graves in the cemetery and as of 2012, the identities of 471 bodies interred in the cemetery remain unknown. Also standing within the cemetery's grounds is the Lone Pine memorial. It is the main Australian and New Zealand memorial at Gallipoli and commemorates all the Australian and some of the New Zealanders who died during the campaign, including those who have no known grave and those buried at sea. As a result of the battle's significance to the Australians, Lone Pine is the site of the annual Australian Anzac Day dawn service at Gallipoli. After the service Australian visitors congregate at the memorial to remember all their countrymen who fought and died at Gallipoli. At the New Zealand National World War I Museum, there is an exhibit for the Battle of Lone Pine, and there is also one in the Australian War Memorial. Memorial "Lone Pine" trees have also been planted in Australia, New Zealand and Gallipoli to commemorate the battle and the Gallipoli campaign in general, seeded from specimens taken from Gallipoli. There are also many places in Australia named after the battle.

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>These represent some of ~ position to be hastily buried. ⇒これ(オーストラリア軍の損失)はこの野戦における最大の犠牲者の一部を表している。オーストラリア軍将校の間の犠牲は特に高くついた。第2大隊と第3大隊の両方の指揮官が部隊を率いて殺害された。戦いの後、死者が地面にうず高く積まれてあったので、オーストラリア軍第1大隊のハロルド・ジェイコブス大尉は、「塹壕はわが軍の死者でいっぱいで、私たちが彼らに示せる唯一の敬意、彼らの顔を踏みつぶさないことであった。塹壕の床はあたかも彼らが1つのカーペットでした。(しかも)これは、トルコ軍の待避壕に積み上げられたものとは別のものでした」と発言した。その後、1,000人以上の死者がオーストラリア軍の陣地から運び出され、急遽埋葬された。 >Seven Australians were awarded ~ Frederick Tubb and William Symons. ⇒オスマン軍が反撃する高地で第1旅団を救援するために急遽馳せつけた第7大隊の4人を含む7人のオーストラリア軍が、ローン・パインでの戦闘中の行動に対してビクトリア十字章を授与された。VC(ビクトリア十字章)受章者の1人であるウィリアム・ダンスタン伍長は、戦後、メルボルンのヘラルド新聞の総支配人になった。もう1人のVC受章者であるアルフレッド・シャウト大尉は、すでに戦功十字章を獲得しており、ガリポリ野戦の初期に派遣団で表彰されていた。彼はローン・パインで致命傷を負い、後に海に埋葬された。他のVC受章者は、レナード・キーソー兵卒、ジョン・ハミルトン兵卒、アレクサンダー・バートン伍長、フレデリック・タブ中尉、およびウィリアム・シモンズ中尉らであった。 >After the war, an Australian ~ and those buried at sea. ⇒戦後、オーストラリア軍の歴史的使命がチャールズ・ビーン率いるガリポリ(隊)に送られた。ビーンの助言に基づき、オーストラリア政府はこの地域に公式の戦没者墓地を設立する許可を新しく形成されたトルコ共和国に求めた。1923年に「ローザンヌ条約」が承認され、その規定によってこの地域にオーストラリア人の手で「デイジーパッチ」と呼ばれるローン・パイン墓地が設立された。この墓地には合計1,167柱の墓があり、2012年現在、墓地に埋葬された遺体のうち471人の身元は不明のままである。また、墓地の敷地内にはローン・パイン記念館がある。これはガリポリにおけるオーストラリアとニュージーランドの主要な記念碑であり、野戦中に亡くなったすべてのオーストラリア人と、ニュージーランド人の一部を記念している。 >As a result of the battle's significance ~ named after the battle. ⇒オーストラリア人にとっての戦いの重要性の結果として、ローン・パインは、ガリポリで毎年開催されるオーストラリア軍の「アンザックデイ」の夜明けの礼拝の場所である。礼拝後、オーストラリア人訪問者は記念碑に集まり、ガリポリで戦って亡くなったすべての同国人に思いを馳せる。「ニュージーランド国立第一次世界大戦博物館」にも「オーストラリア戦争記念館」にも、「ローン・パインの戦い」の展示がある。オーストラリア、ニュージーランド、およびガリポリにはガリポリ野戦全般を記念して、ガリポリで採取された種の「ローン・パイン」記念木が植えられた。オーストラリアには、戦闘にちなんで名付けられた場所もたくさんある。

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    The Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing commemorates those of all Commonwealth nations, except New Zealand who died in the Ypres Salient and have no known grave. In the case of the United Kingdom only casualties before 16 August 1917 are commemorated on the memorial. United Kingdom and New Zealand servicemen who died after that date are named on the memorial at Tyne Cot Cemetery. There are numerous tributes and memorials all over Australia and New Zealand to ANZAC soldiers who died in the battle, including plaques at the Christchurch and Dunedin railway stations. The Canadian Corps participation in the Second Battle of Passchendaele is commemorated with the Passchendaele Memorial located at the former site of the Crest Farm on the south-west fringe of Passchendaele village. One of the newest monuments to be dedicated to the fighting contribution of a group is the Celtic Cross memorial, commemorating the Scottish contributions and efforts in the fighting in Flanders during the Great War. This memorial is located on the Frezenberg Ridge where the Scottish 9th and 15th Divisions, fought during the Battle of Passchendaele. The monument was dedicated by Linda Fabiani, the Minister for Europe of the Scottish Parliament, during the late summer of 2007, the 90th anniversary of the battle.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The Lone Pine battlefield was named for a solitary Turkish pine that stood there at the start of the fighting; The tree was also known by the Anzac soldiers as the "Lonesome Pine", and both names are likely to have been inspired by the popular song "The Trail of the Lonesome Pine". The battlefield was situated near the centre of the eastern line of the Australian and New Zealand trenches around Anzac Cove on a rise known as "400 Plateau" that joined "Bolton's Ridge" to the south with the ridge along the east side of "Monash Valley" to the north. Being towards the southern end of the area around Anzac Cove, the terrain in the Lone Pine region was comparatively gentle and the opposing trenches were separated some distance with a flat no-man's land intervening. Due to its location relative to the beachhead and the shape of the intervening ground, Lone Pine's importance lay in the fact that its position provided a commanding view of the Australian and New Zealand rear areas. From the 400 Plateau it was possible to observe as far south as Gaba Tepe and its possession would have afforded the Ottomans the ability to place the approaches to the Second Ridge under fire, preventing the flow of reinforcements and supplies from the beachhead to the forward trenches. The main part of the Australian position at Lone Pine was centred on a feature known as "The Pimple", where a salient had developed at the point where the Australians' position was closest to the Ottoman line. To the east of the salient, opposite The Pimple, the Ottoman line extended from the head of a gully—known as "Owen's Gulley" by the Australians—south for 400 yards (370 m) towards the neck of Bolton's Ridge and continued south along a spur called "Sniper's Ridge". Because of the salient around The Pimple, the Ottomans had focused on developing the trenches along the flanks of the position more than the centre, and had placed the firing positions in the centre in depth in order to gain the advantage of being able to pour enfilade fire upon any attacking force. At the rear of the Ottoman line, near Owen's Gully, was a depression called "The Cup" that was not visible from the Australians' position on The Pimple. Despite overflights of the area by British reconnaissance aircraft in June, the Australians were unaware of The Cup's existence, and at the time of the attack they believed this area to be flat and to consist of further trench lines. In reality it was actually a reserve area where the Ottomans had established a regimental headquarters and sited a series of bivouacs in terraces and at the time of the attack there were large numbers of reinforcements camped there.

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    Prior to the battle, isolated fighting around Lone Pine had begun early in the Gallipoli campaign. At around 7:00 a.m. on the first day of the Australian and New Zealand landings at Anzac Cove, 25 April 1915, elements of the Australian force had pushed through to Lone Pine in an effort to destroy an Ottoman artillery battery that had been firing down upon the landing beach. Before the Australians could engage the battery, the Ottomans had withdrawn to a ridge to the south-west, which the Australians later dubbed "Third Ridge" (or "Gun Ridge"). Pressing further inland, troops from the 6th Battalion had attempted to reach the ridge, crossing a wide valley (later known as "Legge Valley"), but they were pushed back when an Ottoman regiment, the 27th, had launched a counterattack from the south-east towards Lone Pine at 10:00 a.m., with the objective of retaking the 400 Plateau. Rolling up the 6th Battalion, the Ottomans pushed the Australians back to Pine Ridge, a finger of land that jutted south from Lone Pine towards Gaba Tebe. Taking heavy casualties, the Australians withdrew north to Lone Pine, where they were able to establish a defensive position. As reinforcements were brought up from New Zealand units, in the afternoon a second Ottoman regiment, the 77th, arrived and heavy hand-to-hand fighting ensued before the counterattack was blunted. Further fighting around Lone Pine continued throughout the early stages of the campaign, but eventually a stalemate developed in which neither side was able to advance and static trench warfare began. In early July 1915, while making plans for an offensive to break the deadlock that had developed around the Gallipoli Peninsula following the initial landings in April, the commander of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, Lieutenant General William Birdwood, had determined that an attack at Lone Pine could be used to divert Ottoman attention away from a main attack that would be launched by a combined force of British, Indian and New Zealand troops further north around Sari Bair, Chunuk Bair and Hill 971. The Australian 1st Infantry Brigade was chosen to undertake the attack on Lone Pine, and consisted of about 3,000 men, under the command of a British officer, Colonel Nevill Smyth. Along with the 2nd and 3rd Infantry Brigades, the 1st Infantry Brigade was part of the Australian 1st Division. The division's commander was Brigadier General Harold Walker, a British officer who had replaced Major General William Bridges as temporary commander after Bridges had been killed by a sniper in May. Walker did not like the idea of launching an attack at Lone Pine, let alone a mere diversion, but when General Sir Ian Hamilton, the commander of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, insisted the attack proceed, through thorough planning, Walker endeavoured to give his troops the best chance of success possible on such an unfavourable battleground.

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