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The Maritz Rebellion: Armed Insurrection in South Africa

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  • The Maritz rebellion, also known as the Boer revolt or Five Shilling rebellion, was an armed insurrection in South Africa in 1914.
  • Led by Boers who supported the reestablishment of the South African Republic, the rebellion failed and the ringleaders received heavy fines and terms of imprisonment.
  • This rebellion occurred at the start of World War I and involved former Boers who had fought against the British in the Second Boer War.

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  • Nakay702
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>The German advance then changed direction, moving from southerly to south-west. By 24 September, the town of Saint-Mihiel was captured and villages of Flirey, Seicheprey and Xivray recaptured. More French reinforcements arrived on 27 September but as the Germans were now firmly entrenched, French counter-attacks between Flirey and Apremont resulted in little change in the front line. French counter-attacks continued until 11 October. The battle created a salient projecting into the French lines south of Verdun, named the St Mihiel Salient. ⇒その後ドイツ軍の前進は方向を変え、南から南西に移動した。9月24日までに、セント・ミヒェルの町は占領されたが、フリレイ、セイシェプリー、シヴライの村々が奪還された。9月27日にはさらにフランス軍の増援隊が到着したが、ドイツ軍もしっかりと塹壕に定着したため、フランス軍がフリレイとアプルモンの間で反撃するも、前線はほとんど変わっらなかった。フランス軍の反撃は10月11日まで続いた。この戦闘で、ヴェルダン南のフランス軍戦線の中に突き出すセント・ミヒェル突出部が生み出された。 >Of the two roads and one railway that led to Verdun, all but a minor road were closed, which imposed severe supply difficulties on the French troops in the RFV. The city was enveloped on three sides and neutralised as a base for French offensive operations. The area was to see much fighting over the rest of the war. Despite attempts by the French to reduce the salient in the First Battle of Woëvre in early 1915, the First Offensive Battle of Verdun in late 1916 and the Second Offensive Battle of Verdun in 1917, the salient was not reduced until the Battle of Saint-Mihiel in September 1918. ⇒ヴェルダンにつながる2本の道路と1本の鉄道のうち、小さな道路を除いてすべてが閉鎖されたため、RFV(ヴェルダン要塞地域)のフランス軍に深刻な補給困難が課された。この都市は三方の側面を包囲され、フランス軍にとっては、攻撃作戦の拠点として無力化された。この地域は、残りの戦争を通して、多くの闘いを経験することとなった。1915年初頭の「第1次ヴェーヴルの戦い」、1917年後半の「第1次ヴェルダン攻勢の戦い」、そして1917年の「第2次ヴェルダン攻勢の戦い」で、突出部を減らすためのフランス軍の試みにもかかわらず、それは1918年9月の「セント・ミヒェルの戦い」まで減ることはなかった。 >The Maritz rebellion, also known as the Boer revolt or Five Shilling rebellion was an armed insurrection which occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I, led by Boers who supported the reestablishment of the South African Republic in the Transvaal. Many members of the government were themselves former Boers who had fought with the Maritz rebels against the British in the Second Boer War, which had ended twelve years earlier. The rebellion failed, and the ringleaders received heavy fines and terms of imprisonment. ⇒「ボーア人の反乱」または「5シリングの反乱」としても知られる「マリッツ反乱」は、第一次世界大戦開始時の1914年に南アフリカで起こった武装暴動であった。トランスバール(地方)に南アフリカ共和国の再建を支持するボーア人が主導した。政府の多くの成員は、12年前に終わった「第2次ボーア戦争」でマリッツの反政府勢力をもって英国と闘った元ボーア人であった。反乱は失敗して、首謀者は重い罰金と投獄の条件を受けた。 >At the end of the Second Boer War twelve years earlier, all former Boer combatants had been asked to sign a pledge that they would abide by the peace terms. Some, like Deneys Reitz, refused and were exiled from South Africa. Over the following decade many returned home, and not all of them signed the pledge upon returning. At the end of the second Boer War, those Boers who had fought to the end were known as "Bittereinders" ("bitter enders"); by the time of the rebellion, those who had not taken the pledge and wanted to start a new war had also become known as the "bitter enders." ⇒「第2次ボーア戦争」の終わりに、すべての元ボーア戦闘員が平和条項を守るという誓約書に署名するよう求められていた。デニーズ・ライツなど何人かはそれを拒否して南アフリカから追放された。続く10年間のうちにその多くは帰国したが、帰国の際に彼ら全員が誓約書に署名したわけではなかった。「第2次ボーア戦争」の終わりに最後まで戦ったボーア人は、「ビターラインダーズ」(「苦いエンダー」〈終わり渋る人〉)として知られていた。反乱の時までに誓約書を受理せず、戦争を始めたがっていた人々も「苦いエンダー」として知られるようになった。 > A German journalist who interviewed the former Boer general J.B.M. Hertzog for the Tägliche Rundschau wrote: ⇒元ボーア軍将軍J.B.M.ヘルツォグにインタビューしたあるドイツ人ジャーナリストが、「日常評論」紙にこう書いている。  Hertzog believes that the fruit of the three-year struggle by the Boers is that their freedom, in the form of a general South African Republic, will fall into their laps as soon as England is involved in a war with a Continental power.  曰く、ボーア人による3年間の闘争の成果として、英国が大陸での戦争に巻き込まれるとすぐに、総体的な「南アフリカ共和国」の形で自由が彼らの膝の上に落ちる(自分のものになる)とヘルツォグは信じている、と。

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