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The first French offensive of the war, known as the Battle of Mulhouse, began on 7 August. Joffre had directed the First and Second armies to engage as many German divisions as possible to assist French forces operating further north. The French VII Corps with the 14th and 41st divisions, under the command of General Bonneau, advanced from Belfort to Mulhouse and Colmar 35 kilometres (22 mi) to the north-east. The French quickly seized the border town of Altkirch 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south of Mulhouse with a bayonet charge. On 8 August Bonneau cautiously continued the advance and occupied Mulhouse shortly after its German occupants had left the town. The First Army commander General Auguste Dubail preferred to dig in and complete the army mobilisation but Joffre ordered the advance to continue. With the arrival of two corps of the German 7th army from Strasbourg, the Germans mounted a counter-attack on the morning of 9 August at nearby Cernay. Mulhouse was recaptured on 10 August and Bonneau withdrew towards Belfort, to escape a German encirclement.

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以下のとおりお答えします。 フランス軍とドイツ軍の、戦闘開始の場面を描いています。 >The first French offensive of the war, known as the Battle of Mulhouse, began on 7 August. Joffre had directed the First and Second armies to engage as many German divisions as possible to assist French forces operating further north. The French VII Corps with the 14th and 41st divisions, under the command of General Bonneau, advanced from Belfort to Mulhouse and Colmar 35 kilometres (22 mi) to the north-east. The French quickly seized the border town of Altkirch 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south of Mulhouse with a bayonet charge. ⇒この戦争の最初の、「ミュルーズの戦い」として知られるフランスの攻撃は、8月7日に始まった。ジョフルは、第1、第2方面軍に対して、北方で作戦行動しているフランス軍を補助するために、できる限り多くのドイツ軍師団を(戦闘に)従事させるように命じた。第14師団と第41師団を伴ったフランス軍第7軍団は、ボノー将軍の指揮下、ベルフォールから北東へ35キロ(22マイル)のミュルーズとコルマールへ向けて進軍した。フランス軍は、ミュルーズの15キロ(9.3マイル)南のアルキルクの町境界辺を銃剣突撃によって迅速に奪取した。 >On 8 August Bonneau cautiously continued the advance and occupied Mulhouse shortly after its German occupants had left the town. The First Army commander General Auguste Dubail preferred to dig in and complete the army mobilisation but Joffre ordered the advance to continue. With the arrival of two corps of the German 7th army from Strasbourg, the Germans mounted a counter-attack on the morning of 9 August at nearby Cernay. Mulhouse was recaptured on 10 August and Bonneau withdrew towards Belfort, to escape a German encirclement. ⇒8月8日、ボノー将軍は、注意深く進軍を続け、ドイツ占有軍が町を去った直後にミュルーズを占領した。第1方面軍の司令官オーギュスト・デュベーユ将軍は、塹壕を掘って身を隠し、軍隊動員を完遂することを好んだが、ジョフルは行軍を続けるように命じた。ストラスブールからドイツ軍第7方面軍のうち2個軍団が到着したので、8月9日の朝、ドイツ軍はセルネ付近で反撃をしかけた。ミュルーズは8月10日に再奪回されて、ボノー将軍は、ドイツ軍の包囲を免れるためベルフォールに撤退した。

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  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    On 8 August, Bonneau cautiously continued the advance and occupied Mulhouse, shortly after its German defenders had left. the First Army commander General Auguste Dubail preferred to dig in and wait for mobilization of the army to be completed but Joffre ordered the advance to continue. In the early morning of 9 August, parts of the XIV and XV Corps of the German 7th Army arrived from Strasbourg and counter-attacked at Cernay. The German infantry then emerged from the Hardt forest and advanced into the east side of the city. French command broke down and the defenders fought isolated actions before pulling back as best they could, as the German attackers exploited their advantage. Mulhouse was recaptured on 10 August and Bonneau withdrew towards Belfort. Further north, the French XXI Corps made costly attacks on mountain passes and were forced back from Badonviller and Lagarde, where the 6th army took 2,500 French prisoners and eight guns; civilians were accused of attacking German troops and subjected to reprisals.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The Battle of Mulhouse or Mülhausen, also called the Battle of Alsace (French: Bataille d'Alsace), which began on August 7, 1914, was the opening attack of World War I by the French army against Germany. The battle was part of a French attempt to recover the province of Alsace, which France ceded to the newly formed German Empire following France's defeat by Prussia and other independent German states in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. The French occupied Mulhouse on 8 August and were then forced out by German counter-attacks on 10 August. The French retired to Belfort, where General Bonneau the VII Corps commander and the 8th Cavalry division commander were sacked. Events further north led to the German XIV and XV corps being moved away from Belfort and a second French offensive by the French VII Corps, reinforced and renamed the Army of Alsace under General Paul Pau, began on 14 August.

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    A few border skirmishes took place after the declaration of war and German reconnaissance patrols found that the French had a chain of frontier posts, supported by larger fortified positions further back; after 5 August more patrols were sent out as French activity increased. French troops advanced from Gérardmer to the Schlucht Pass, where the Germans retreated and blew up the tunnel. Joffre had directed the First and Second armies to engage as many German divisions as possible, in order to assist French forces operating further north. The French VII Corps with the 14th and 41st divisions, under the command of General Bonneau, advanced from Belfort to Mulhouse and Colmar 35 kilometres (22 mi) to the north-east. The French advance was hampered by the breakdown of the supply service and many delays but seized the border town of Altkirch 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south of Mulhouse with a bayonet charge.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    On 8 August, Bonneau cautiously continued the advance and occupied Mulhouse, shortly after its German defenders had left. the First Army commander General Auguste Dubail preferred to dig in and wait for mobilization of the army to be completed but Joffre ordered the advance to continue. In the early morning of 9 August, parts of the XIV and XV Corps of the German 7th Army arrived from Strasbourg and counter-attacked at Cernay. The German infantry then emerged from the Hardt forest and advanced into the east side of the city. French command broke down and the defenders fought isolated actions before pulling back as best they could, as the German attackers exploited their advantage. Mulhouse was recaptured on 10 August and Bonneau withdrew towards Belfort. Further north, the French XXI Corps made costly attacks on mountain passes and were forced back from Badonviller and Lagarde, where the 6th army took 2,500 French prisoners and eight guns; civilians were accused of attacking German troops and subjected to reprisals.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The two French invasions and captures of Mulhouse by the French VII Corps (General Louis Bonneau) and then the Army of Alsace (General Paul Pau), were repulsed by the German 7th Army (Generaloberst Josias von Heeringen). Both sides then stripped the forces in Alsace to reinforce the armies fighting on the Marne, Aisne and further north. For the rest of 1914 and 1915, both sides made intermittent attempts to capture and re-capture Hartmanswillerkopf. The operations were costly and eventually after another period of attack and counter-attack that lasted into the new year of 1916, both sides accepted a stalemate, with a fairly stable front line along the western slopes that lasted until 1918. A few border skirmishes took place after Germany declared war on France; and after 5 August, more German patrols were sent out as French attacks increased. French troops advanced from Gérardmer to the Col de la Schlucht (Schlucht Pass), where the Germans retreated and blew up the tunnel. The French VII Corps (General Louis Bonneau with the 14th and 41st divisions) advanced from Belfort to Mulhouse and Colmar 35 km (22 mi) to the north-east, were delayed by supply difficulties but seized the border town of Altkirch, 15 km (9.3 mi) south of Mulhouse, with a bayonet charge. On 8 August, Bonneau cautiously continued the advance and occupied Mulhouse, shortly after its German defenders had left. In the early morning of 9 August, parts of the XIV and XV Corps of the German 7th Army arrived from Strasbourg and counter-attacked at Cernay; Mulhouse was liberated by German troops on 10 August and Bonneau withdrew towards Belfort. French General Paul Pau was put in command of a new Army of Alsace to re-invade Alsace on 14 August, as part of a larger offensive by the First and Second armies into Lorraine. The Army of Alsace began the new offensive against four Landwehr brigades, which fought a delaying action as the French advanced from Belfort with two divisions on the right passing through Dannemarie at the head of the valley of the Ill river. On the left flank, two divisions advanced with Chasseur battalions, which had moved into the Fecht valley on 12 August. On the evening of 14 August, Thann was captured and the most advanced troops reached the western outskirts of the city, by 16 August. On 18 August, VII Corps attacked Mulhouse and captured Altkirch on the south-eastern flank.

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    Joseph Joffre, who had been Commander-in-Chief of the French army since 1911 and the Minister of War, Adolphe Messimy met on 1 August, to agree that the military conduct of the war should exclusively be the responsibility of the Commander-in-Chief. On 2 August, as small parties of German soldiers crossed the French border, Messimy told Joffre that he had the freedom to order French troops across the German but not the Belgian frontier. Joffre sent warning orders to the covering forces near the frontier, requiring the VII Corps to prepare to advance towards Mühlhausen (French: Mulhouse) to the north-east of Belfort and XX Corps to make ready to begin an offensive towards Nancy. As soon as news arrived that German troops had entered Luxembourg, the Fourth Army was ordered to move between the Third and Fifth armies, ready to attack to the north of Verdun. Operations into Belgium were forbidden, to deny the Germans a pretext until 4 August, when it was certain that German troops had already violated the Belgian border. To comply with the Franco-Russian Alliance, Joffre ordered an invasion of Alsace-Lorraine on for 14 August, although anticipating a German offensive through Belgium.

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    The Second Army had to attack methodically after artillery preparation but managed to push back the German defenders. Intelligence reports identified a main line of resistance of the German 6th Army and 7th Army, which had been combined under the command of Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria, close to the advanced French troops and that a counter-offensive was imminent. On 16 August, the Germans opposed the advance with long-range artillery fire and on 17 August, the First Army reinforced the advance on Sarrebourg. When the Germans were found to have left the city Joffre ordered the Second Army to incline further to the north, which had the effect of increasing the divergence of the French armies.

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    On 5 August, Joffre ordered an offensive by the VII Corps, on the right flank of the First Army, to begin on 7 August towards Mulhouse. The capture of the 2nd Army order of battle on 7 August, convinced Joffre that the strength of the German forces on the flanks had left the centre weak and vulnerable to an offensive towards Neufchâteau and Arlon. On 8 August, Joffre issued General Instruction No. 1, containing his strategic intent, which was to destroy the German army rather than capture ground. The offensive into Alsace and that by the First and Second armies into Lorraine, would pin down German forces and attract reinforcements, as the main offensive further north drove in the German centre and outflanked the German forces in Belgium from the south. Joffre expected that the attack into the German centre would meet little resistance. The First and Second armies would advance south of the German fortified area from Metz–Thionville, with the Fourth Reserve Group guarding the northern flank near Hirson, to watch the Chimay Gap and deflect a German attack from the north or east. The strategy assumed that the main German force would be deployed around Luxembourg and from Metz–Thionville, with smaller forces in Belgium. On 9 August, an intelligence report had one German active corps near Freiburg close to the Swiss border, three near Strasbourg, four in Luxembourg to the north of Thionville and six from Liège in Belgium, towards the north end of Luxembourg, which left five corps un-located. The French general staff inferred that they were between Metz-Thionville and Luxembourg, ready to advance towards Sedan or Mézières.

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    The Second Army had to attack methodically after artillery preparation but managed to push back the German defenders. Intelligence reports identified a main line of resistance of the German 6th Army and 7th Army, which had been combined under the command of Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria, close to the advanced French troops and that a counter-offensive was imminent. On 16 August, the Germans opposed the advance with long-range artillery fire and on 17 August, the First Army reinforced the advance on Sarrebourg. When the Germans were found to have left the city Joffre ordered the Second Army to incline further to the north, which had the effect of increasing the divergence of the French armies. A German counter-attack on 20 August forced separate battles on the French armies, which were defeated and forced to retreat in disorder. The German pursuit was slow and Castelnau was able to occupy positions east of Nancy and extend the right wing towards the south, to regain touch with the First Army. During 22 August, the right flank was attacked and driven back 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the position where the offensive had begun on 14 August. The First Army withdrew but managed to maintain contact with the Second Army and on 24 August, both armies began a counter-offensive at the Trouée de Charmes and regained the line of 14 August by early September.

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    The German defenders were forced back from high ground to the west of Mulhouse on both banks of the Doller and into the Mulhouse suburbs, where a house-to-house battle took place. The streets and houses of Dornach were captured systematically and by the evening of 19 August the French had recaptured the city. After being overrun, the Germans withdrew hastily through the Hardt forest to avoid being cut off and crossed the Rhine pursued by the French, retreating to Ensisheim, 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the north. The French captured 24 guns, 3,000 prisoners and considerable amounts of equipment. With the capture of the Rhine bridges and valleys leading into the plain, the Army of Alsace had gained control of upper-Alsace. The French consolidated the captured ground and prepared to continue the offensive but on 23 August preparations were suspended, as news arrived of the defeats in Lorraine and Belgium; instead the French withdrew and consolidated the ridge line beyond the Fortified region of Belfort. On 26 August the French withdrew from Mulhouse to a more defensible line near Altkirch, to provide reinforcements for the French armies closer to Paris. The Army of Alsace was disbanded and the VII Corps was transferred to the Somme. The 8th Cavalry Division was attached to the First Army and two more divisions were sent later.