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The Bergmann Offensive (Turkish: Bergmann Atağı; Russian: Берхманнский прорыв; in Russian literature Russian: Кёприкейская операция, "Köprüköy operation") was the first engagement of the Caucasus Campaign during World War I. General Georgy Bergmann, commander of I Caucasian Army Corps, took the initiative against the Ottoman Empire. At the outbreak of war, the Russians decided to occupy the Eleşkirt valley as a defensive measure to prevent the incursion of Kurdish Hamidiye units. The Russians considered the Turkish forces to be too weak to mount any offensive before winter weather would make any such offensive impossible, and no other offensive moves were intended by the Russian high command of the Caucasian army - their strategy envisaged an active defense against a locally superior force. However, local Russian commanders had the authority to authorize limited advances. On 2 November, Bergmann's troops crossed the border in the general direction of Köprüköy. The primary aim was to secure the Eleșkirt valley. On the right flank, 20th Infantry Division under Istomin moved from Oltu in the direction of İd. On the left flank a Cossack division under Baratov moved into the Eleșkirt valley towards Yuzveran, after it crossed the Aras River. By 5 November Bergmann had completed the objectives expected of him. However, he expanded his mission by ordering further advances into Ottoman territory. By 6 November contact was made between the opposing armies, and heavy fighting continued into the 7th, with temporary Russian successes. Further Russian advances were held in check as a result of heavy fighting between 7 and 10 November. On 11 November Ottoman forces counterattacked and the Russian flanks quickly became at risk, forcing a Russian retreat. By the 12th they had retreated back to the lines they occupied on the 4th, and still at risk of being outflanked, further retreats followed. Only the arrival of Russian reinforcements headed by General Przevalski checked the situation and halted the Russian retreat. On 16–17 November Przevalski crossed the Aras river and at dawn attacked part of the Turkish XI Corps, halting their advance. After two more days the fighting finally petered out. Russian losses were 1,000 killed and 4,000 wounded, 1,000 men died of exposure (with the Bakinski regiment suffering 40% losses), while the Ottomans lost 1,983 men killed, 6,170 wounded, 3,070 were taken prisoner, and 2,800 deserted. Yudenich and his staff were disappointed by the unsuccessful attack. Turkish forces then crossed the border and, advancing into the lower Choruh valley, destroyed on 15 November a Russian column sent to protect the copper mines at Borçka, forcing the Russians to evacuate Borçka, Artvin and Ardanuç. Turkish success during these first engagements encouraged Enver Pasha in his plan to attack at Sarıkamıș.

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>The Bergmann Offensive ~ against the Ottoman Empire. ⇒「ベルクマン攻勢」(トルコ語:Bergmann Atağı;ロシア語:Берхманнскийпрорыв、ロシアの文献上ではКёприкейская операция,「ケプリコイ作戦活動」)は、第一次世界大戦間の「コーカサス野戦」の最初の交戦であった。第Iコーカサス方面軍の軍団指揮官ゲオルギー・ベルクマン将軍が、オスマン帝国に対抗する戦いを主導した。 >At the outbreak of war, ~ against a locally superior force. ⇒戦争が勃発したとき、ロシア軍はクルド軍ハミディエ部隊の侵入を防ぐための防御策として、エレシュキルト渓谷を占領することを決めた。トルコ軍はあまりに弱いので、冬の天候でそのような攻撃が不可能になる前に攻撃を仕かけてくることはないだろうとロシア軍は考えていたので、コーカサス方面軍のロシア軍最高指揮層はそれ以外の攻撃行動は意図していなかった。彼らの戦略としては、地域の最高軍団に対する積極的防衛を予想していたのである。 >However, local Russian commanders ~ crossed the Aras River. ⇒しかし、地元のロシア軍司令官らは、一定限度内の進軍を承認する権限を持っていた。11月2日、ベルクマンの部隊は漠然とケプルコイ方向に進んで国境を越えた。主な目的はエレシュキルト渓谷を確保することであった。右側面には、イストミン麾下の第20歩兵師団がオルツからイドの方向に移動した。左側面では、バラトフ麾下のコサック師団がアラス川を渡った後、ユズベラン方向のエレシュキルク渓谷に移動した。 >By 5 November Bergmann ~ forcing a Russian retreat. ⇒ベルクマンは、彼に期待された目的を11月5日までに完了した。しかし彼は、オスマン帝国領土へのさらなる前進を命じることで、彼の任務を拡大した。11月6日までには、対立する軍隊間の接触が行われて7日まで激戦が続いたが、一時的にロシア軍の成功があった。(ただし)11月7日から10日までの間の激しい戦闘の結果として、さらなるロシア軍の前進は抑制された。11月11日にオスマン帝国軍が反撃に出ると、たちまちロシア軍の側面隊が危険にさらされ、ロシア軍は後退を余儀なくされた。 >By the 12th they had ~ finally petered out. ⇒12日までに、4日時点で彼らが占拠していた戦線に後退したが、それでも包囲される危険性があるので、さらに後退した。プルゼバルスキ将軍が率いるロシア軍増援隊の到着を待ってはじめて、状況が点検され、ロシア軍の後退が止められた。11月16~17日、プルゼバルスキはアラス川を渡り、夜明けにトルコ第XI軍団の一部を攻撃し、その前進を止めた。さらに2日後、戦いはようやく小止みになった。 >Russian losses were ~ to attack at Sarıkamıș. ⇒ロシア軍の損失は、死者1,000人と負傷者4,000人、低体温症で1,000人の兵士が死亡した(バキンスキ連隊がその40%の損害を被った)一方、オスマン軍は1,983人の兵士を失った。ユデニッチと彼の配下の将校らは攻撃不成功に落胆した。その後トルコ軍団は国境を越えてチョルフ渓谷を進んで、11月15日にボルスカで銅鉱山を守るために派遣されたロシア軍の縦隊を破壊し、ロシア軍にボルスカ、アルトビン、アルダヌスからの避難を余儀なくさせた。これら最初の交戦間におけるトルコ軍の成功は、サリカミッシュ攻撃を計画するようエンベル・パシャを元気づけた。

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