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On February 12, Fort Kara-gobek was taken. On the 13th, the Russians continued their attacks. On February 14, Fort Tafet was taken, and with that the Russians had penetrated through both rings of the cities's defenses. By February 15, the remaining forts surrounding Erzurum were evacuated. Early in the morning of February 16, Russian cossacks were among the first to enter the city. Turkish units had successfully withdrawn and avoided encirclement, however casualties were already high. 327 pieces of artillery were lost to the Russians. Support units of the Third Army and around 250 wounded at the hospital of Erzurum were taken prisoner. While aerial reconnaissance revealed that the Turks were retreating, the Russian pursuit was not effective as it could have been. Meanwhile remnants of the X and XI Corps established another defensive line, 8 kilometers east of Erzurum.

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以下のとおりお答えします。エルズルム陥落の過程が述べられています。 >On February 12, Fort Kara-gobek was taken. On the 13th, the Russians continued their attacks. ⇒2月12日に、カラ-ゴベク要塞が奪取された。13日、ロシア軍は彼らの攻撃を続行した。 >On February 14, Fort Tafet was taken, and with that the Russians had penetrated through both rings of the cities's defenses. ⇒2月14日、タフェト要塞が奪取され、それによってロシア軍が都市防御線用の両側面リング(土塁)を通って侵入していた。 >By February 15, the remaining forts surrounding Erzurum were evacuated. ⇒2月15日までに、エルズルムを取り囲む残りの要塞が一掃された。 >Early in the morning of February 16, Russian cossacks were among the first to enter the city. Turkish units had successfully withdrawn and avoided encirclement, however casualties were already high. 327 pieces of artillery were lost to the Russians. Support units of the Third Army and around 250 wounded at the hospital of Erzurum were taken prisoner. ⇒2月16日早朝、ロシアのコサック隊が市街入場の1番手の中にあった。トルコの諸部隊は首尾よく退去し、包囲(孤立化)を避けたが、すでに死傷者数は多数に達し、327門の大砲がロシア軍の手に握られた。第3方面軍の支援部隊と、傷害を受けてエルズルム病院にいた約250人は、囚人として捕縛された。 >While aerial reconnaissance revealed that the Turks were retreating, the Russian pursuit was not effective as it could have been. Meanwhile remnants of the X and XI Corps established another defensive line, 8 kilometers east of Erzurum. ⇒空中偵察によってトルコ軍が退却中であることが明らかにされたが、ロシア軍の追跡は、想定されるほど効果的ではなかった。その間、第10. 11軍団の残党兵がエルズルムの8キロメートル東に別の防御線を設置した。

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  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    The Fortress was under Russian threat, both from north and east. With the victories, the Russian Army had cleared the approaches to Erzurum. The Russians were now planning to take Erzurum, a heavily fortified stronghold. Erzurum was considered as the second best defended town in the Ottoman Empire. The Fortress was defended by 235 pieces of artillery. The fortifications covered the city on a 180 degree arc in two rings. There were eleven forts and batteries covering the central area. The flanks were guarded by a group of two forts on each flank. The Ottoman 3rd Army lacked the soldiers to adequately man the perimeter. Also, casualties totaled 10,000 and an additional 5,000 had been taken prisoner, 16 pieces of artillery had been lost and 40,000 men had found refuge in Erzurum Fortress. On February 11, Russians began to shell the fortified formations around Erzurum. Fierce fighting erupted. Turkish battalions of 350 men had to defend against Russian battalions of 1,000 men. There were few reinforcements for the beleaguered Turks. In three days Russians managed to reach the heights overlooking the Erzurum plain. It was now obvious for the command of the Turkish Third Army that the town was lost. Turkish units began to retreat from the fortified zones at the front and also evacuate the town of Erzurum.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    On January 3, IX Corps were driven out to the same direction, in which the remnants of the X Corps were also retreating. Hafız Hakkı was hoping for reinforcements. He did not order his units to retreat as he believed it could be still possible to take Sarikamish. Meanwhile, around 40 km south, the XI Corps led by Galip was renewing attacks on Russian lines in an attempt to relieve the pressure on the IX and X Corps positioned in front of Sarikamish. The Russians were advancing and the circle was getting narrower. On January 4, Hafız Hakkı toured the front line. He told İhsan that the battle was over unless some of the troops on the Allahüekber Mountains were still alive. Retreat, January 4–15 On January 6, the 3rd Army headquarters found itself under fire. The Russians captured the entire 28th Division. The 17th and 29th Divisions were taken prisoner. Eight senior officers including İhsan surrendered to the Russians. Among the captives, 108 officers and 80 soldiers transferred to Sarikamish. Hafız Hakkı managed to safely reach the headquarters of X Corps. He was told that IX Corps had fallen into the hands of Russians and ordered a total retreat. On January 7, the remaining forces began their march towards Erzurum. Ukrainian poster commemorating the battle. On January 11, after four days of travel, Enver and the German officers reached Erzurum. They had stipulated in their original plan that the same route could be taken by the advancing 3rd Army in two days. The transports dispatched from Constantinople which attempted to land troops and provisions at Trabzon were sunk by a Russian Black Sea squadron and warships. The escorts SMS Goeben and TCG Hamidieh were chased back to the Bosporus. On January 17, the remnants of the Ottoman forces in the woods outside Sarikamish were collected, which signaled the end of fighting on this front. The Russian right wing cleared the Choruk Valley. Enver's project ended in failure after three weeks of struggle amid high mountains and deep snowdrifts. For a time, at least, Russia was secure from attack in the Caucasus. Hafız Hakkı expected that the Russians would use this success to capture the Erzurum Fortress. The 3rd Army immediately tried to take measures, but this proved to be nearly impossible as all the local reserves were depleted. On February 12, Hafız Hakkı died of typhus at the age of 36. Otto Liman von Sanders, who had been asked before, rejected the position again. Mahmut Kamil took the command of the Army. War minister Enver never commanded troops in battle again. A German officer attached to the army wrote later, the Ottoman 3rd army had "suffered a disaster which for rapidity and completeness is without parallel in military history."

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The Battle of Erzincan (Russian: Эрзинджанское сражение, Turkish: Erzincan Muharebesi) was a Russian victory over the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. In February 1916, Nikolai Yudenich had taken the cities of Erzurum and Trabzon. Trabzon had provided the Russians with a port to receive reinforcements in the Caucasus. Enver Pasha ordered the Third Army, now under Vehip Pasha, to retake Trabzon. Vehip's attack failed and General Yudenich counterattacked on July 2. The Russian attack hit the Turkish communications center of Erzincan forcing Vehip's troops to retreat as well as losing 34,000 men, half taken as POWs. As a result, the Third Army was rendered ineffective for the rest of the year.

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  2月12日、フォートカラ - gobekを採取しました。 13日、ロシア人は彼らの攻撃を続けました。 2月14日、フォートTafetを採取し、そしてそれとロシアは都市の防御の両方のリングを貫通していました。 2月15日では、エルズルムを取り巻く残りの砦が避難しました。初期の2月16日の午前中に、ロシアのコサックは、都市を入力する最初の中にありました。トルコのユニットが正常しかし、犠牲者はすでに高く、引き出され、包囲を避けていました。大砲の327個は、ロシア人のために失われました。エルズルムの病院で負傷した第三軍と250の周りのサポートユニットは、捕虜になりました。空中偵察は、トルコ人が後退したことを明らかにしたものの、それがされている可能性として、ロシアの追求は効果的ではなかったです。一方、XおよびXI隊の残党は8キロ東エルズルムの別の守備ラインを設立しました。  

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