• ベストアンサー
  • 困ってます

英文を日本語訳して下さい。

A local ceasefire agreement was reached at Soly on 4 December (21 November O.S.) between the Russians and Germans on the Eastern Front (Russia's "Western Front"). It superseded any local ceasefires or truces already agreed to—without specifying what these were—and was to be in effect from 6–17 December. Notice of the agreement was published in Izvestia on 8 December (25 November O.S.). A fuller ceasefire encompassing all the Central Powers was signed at Brest-Litovsk on 5 December (22 November O.S.), the day after the agreement with Germany at Soly. This ceasefire came into effect a day later (7 December [24 November O.S.]), but expired on the same date as the local agreement of 4 December. It was published in Izvestia on the day it came into effect. In Soviet historiography there is some dispute about whether any agreement was signed on 5 December, and the explicit reference in the text of the armistice to a ceasefire of that date is dismissed as an error. That the 5 December agreement is historical is generally agreed. One of the Russian negotiators, L. B. Kamenev, wrote about the details of the agreement in Izvestia on 9 December (26 November O.S.); and the German general Max Hoffmann discussed it in his war diary.[3The negotiations were organized by General Max Hoffmann, chief of staff of the Eastern Armies. His negotiating team consisted of five Germans, four Austro-Hungarians, three Ottomans and two Bulgarians. Russian overtures to their French, Italian, and British allies to join in were rejected with "an, angry stony silence". Foreign minister Leon Trotsky assembled a Russian delegation of twenty eight, which one of them described as a menagerie because they were chosen to represent the social groups supporting the revolution, including soldiers, sailors, and factory workers. On the way to the railway station they realized that they lacked a peasant— one was recruited from the street. The female representative was celebrated for having assassinated a general. They were led by Adolph Joffe, an experienced Bolshevik who had studied medicine in Berlin, supported by a tsarist lieutenant colonel as military adviser and the experienced revolutionaries Kamenev and Lev Karakhan.

共感・応援の気持ちを伝えよう!

  • 回答数1
  • 閲覧数102
  • ありがとう数1

質問者が選んだベストアンサー

  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.1
  • Nakay702
  • ベストアンサー率81% (8082/9974)

>A local ceasefire agreement was reached at Soly on 4 December (21 November O.S.) between the Russians and Germans on the Eastern Front (Russia's "Western Front"). It superseded any local ceasefires or truces already agreed to—without specifying what these were—and was to be in effect from 6–17 December. Notice of the agreement was published in Izvestia on 8 December (25 November O.S.). ⇒東部前線(ロシアの「西部戦線」)におけるロシア軍とドイツ軍との間で、12月4日(旧暦11月21日)にソリーで局地的な停戦協定に達した。それは、すでに同意されているいかなる地域停戦、または休戦-具体的に指定しないが-にも取って代り、実際には12月6日-17日から実効することになっていた。協定の通達は、12月8日(旧暦11月25日)にイズベスチアにおいて公示された。 >A fuller ceasefire encompassing all the Central Powers was signed at Brest-Litovsk on 5 December (22 November O.S.), the day after the agreement with Germany at Soly. This ceasefire came into effect a day later (7 December [24 November O.S.]), but expired on the same date as the local agreement of 4 December. It was published in Izvestia on the day it came into effect. In Soviet historiography there is some dispute about whether any agreement was signed on 5 December, and the explicit reference in the text of the armistice to a ceasefire of that date is dismissed as an error. ⇒すべての中央同盟国間を含むより十全な停戦は、ソリーにおけるドイツ軍との協定後の12月5日(旧暦11月22日)にブレスト=リトフスクで調印された。この停戦は、1日後(12月7日〔旧暦11月24日〕)に発効したが、12月4日調印の局地協定と同じ日付に期限切れになった。それは、発効した同日にイズベスチアで公示された。ソビエト連邦の修史(史料編纂)では、協定が12月5日に調印されたかについては若干の論争があり、その日付をもって停戦に入るという停戦協定の、文書における明示的な出典は間違いとして退けられている。 >That the 5 December agreement is historical is generally agreed. One of the Russian negotiators, L. B. Kamenev, wrote about the details of the agreement in Izvestia on 9 December (26 November O.S.); and the German general Max Hoffmann discussed it in his war diary.[3The negotiations were organized by General Max Hoffmann, chief of staff of the Eastern Armies. ⇒12月5日の協定が史実であることについては、一般に同意されている。ロシアの協議者のうちの1人L. B.カーメネフは、イズベスチアの協定の詳細について12月9日(旧暦11月26日)と書いたが、ドイツ軍のマックス・ホフマン将軍は彼の戦争日誌の中でそれを議論した。協議交渉は、東部方面軍の参謀長マックス・ホフマン将軍によって組織されたのであった。 >His negotiating team consisted of five Germans, four Austro-Hungarians, three Ottomans and two Bulgarians. Russian overtures to their French, Italian, and British allies to join in were rejected with "an, angry stony silence". Foreign minister Leon Trotsky assembled a Russian delegation of twenty eight, which one of them described as a menagerie because they were chosen to represent the social groups supporting the revolution, including soldiers, sailors, and factory workers. ⇒彼の交渉チームは、5人のドイツ人、4人のオーストリア・ハンガリー人、3人のオスマントルコ人、および2人のブルガリア人から成っていた。フランス、イタリア、および英国の連合国からの参加に関するロシアの申し入れは、「怒れる無表情な沈黙」によって拒絶された。外務大臣レオン・トロツキーは、28人のロシアの代表団を集めたが、革命を支持する社会グループを代表すべく選ばれて、兵士、船員、および工員を含んでいたので、彼らのうちの1人が(みずから)動物サーカス団と評した。 >On the way to the railway station they realized that they lacked a peasant— one was recruited from the street. The female representative was celebrated for having assassinated a general. They were led by Adolph Joffe, an experienced Bolshevik who had studied medicine in Berlin, supported by a tsarist lieutenant colonel as military adviser and the experienced revolutionaries Kamenev and Lev Karakhan. ⇒鉄道駅へ行く途中で彼らは小作農民が欠如することに気がついたので-通りで募集された。その女性の代表者は、将軍を暗殺したことで有名であった。彼らの主導者アドルフ・ジョフィはベルリンで医学を勉強した経験豊かなボルシェビキで、軍事相談役として専制政治支持者の一中佐、および経験豊かな革命家カーメネフとレフ・カラハンによる支援を得ていた。

共感・感謝の気持ちを伝えよう!

質問者からのお礼

回答ありがとうございました。

関連するQ&A

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The Sykes–Picot Agreement /ˈsaɪks pi.ko/, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the French Third Republic, with the assent of the Russian Empire, defining their proposed spheres of influence and control in Southwestern Asia should the Triple Entente succeed in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I. The negotiation of the treaty occurred between November 1915 and March 1916, the agreement was signed on 16 May 1916, and was exposed to the public in Izvestia and Pravda on 23 November 1917 and in the British Guardian on November 26, 1917. The Agreement is considered to have shaped the region, defining the borders of Iraq and Syria and leading to the current conflict between Israelis and Palestinians.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Hindenburg's Ninth Army, under General August von Mackensen, was on the border between Poland and Silesia. Intercepted, decoded Russian wireless messages revealed that Silesia would be invaded on 14 November. Hindenburg and Ludendorff decided not to meet the attack head-on, but to seize the initiative by shifting their Ninth Army north by railway to the border south of the German fortress at Thorn, where they would be reinforced with two corps transferred from Eighth Army. The enlarged Ninth Army would then attack the Russian right flank. In ten days Ninth Army was moved north by running 80 trains every day. Conrad von Hotzendorf, the Austrian commander, transferred the Austrian Second Army from the Carpathians to take over the German Ninth Army's former position. General Nikolai Ruzsky had recently assumed command of the Russian Northwest Army Group defending Warsaw. Ruzsky had under his command General Paul von Rennenkampf's Russian First Army, most of which was on the right bank of the Vistula River; only one corps was on the left bank. Ruzsky also directed the Russian Second Army, under General Scheidemann, which was positioned in front of the city of Łódź. Both armies were still in summer clothing, and the Russians were short of artillery ammunition. The Russians had no inkling that the Germans had moved north, so they were stunned on November 11 when Mackensen's German Ninth Army struck V Siberia Corps of Rennenkampf's First Army, his only unit on the left bank of the Vistula. The Siberians were routed; 12,000 were taken prisoner. The Siberians were unable to dig effective defensive positions because they had few shovels and the ground froze at night. The Germans were forcing open a corridor between Łódź and Warsaw, creating a 50 km (31 mi) gap between the Russian First and Second Armies. Scheidemann's Russian Second Army retreated eastward towards Łódź, they were threatened with encirclement. Rennenkampf wanted to support V Siberia Corps by moving more men across the Vistula, but Ruzsky suspected that the target was Warsaw, so First Army remained in place. Grand Duke Nicholas's primary objective was saving Second Army and avoiding a repeat of the disaster at Tannenberg. On 16 November he ordered Wenzel von Plehve's Russian Fifth Army to abandon the proposed offensive into Silesia and to move northward towards Łódź; they marched 116 km (72 mi) in only two days. As soon as Hindenburg saw the transcript of this order, he knew that his maneuver had succeeded. Now seven Russian corps were defending the city. Plehve smashed into Mackensen's right flank on November 18 in bitter winter conditions (at times the temperature dropped as low as 10 °F (-12 °C).

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The prisoners of war were used by the Germans as porters for the 250,000 rounds of ammunition, six machine guns and several hundred rifles that were also captured. With this equipment, the Germans managed to completely resupply their force. Von Lettow-Vorbeck abandoned and destroyed the majority of his force's German weaponry for which he had no ammunition and armed his troops with Portuguese and British weapons. Portuguese uniforms seized from the captured prisoners were used to replace the ragged old German ones that the force had previously worn. Von Lettow-Vorbeck did not stay at Ngomano for long and soon marched his force south to attack more Portuguese positions, leaving only one company at Ngomano as a rearguard in case the British decided to follow him into Portuguese East Africa. His force won several more victories while seizing even more supplies and ammunition before moving back into German East Africa in 1918. The Battle of El Burj (1 December 1917) was an engagement fought during the Battle of Jerusalem in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign. It was fought between the forces of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force on one side and the Yildirim Army Group on the other. The Battle of Jerusalem resulted in the occupation of Jerusalem on 9 December 1917. Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers On 15 December 1917, an armistice was signed between the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) on the one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the German Empire and the Ottoman Empire—the Central Powers—on the other. The armistice took effect two days later, on 17 December. (These were 2 December and 4 December, respectively, in the Old Style [O.S.] calendar in use in Russia at the time.) By this agreement Russia de facto exited World War I, although fighting would briefly resume before the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed on 3 March 1918 and Russia made peace.The Bolsheviks came to power with the slogan "Bread and Peace". On 26 November (13 November O.S.) 1917 three Russian emissaries under a white flag entered the German lines to arrange for negotiations which they agreed would be held at the headquarters of the Central Powers Armies at Brest-Litovsk.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The Bergmann Offensive (Turkish: Bergmann Atağı; Russian: Берхманнский прорыв; in Russian literature Russian: Кёприкейская операция, "Köprüköy operation") was the first engagement of the Caucasus Campaign during World War I. General Georgy Bergmann, commander of I Caucasian Army Corps, took the initiative against the Ottoman Empire. At the outbreak of war, the Russians decided to occupy the Eleşkirt valley as a defensive measure to prevent the incursion of Kurdish Hamidiye units. The Russians considered the Turkish forces to be too weak to mount any offensive before winter weather would make any such offensive impossible, and no other offensive moves were intended by the Russian high command of the Caucasian army - their strategy envisaged an active defense against a locally superior force. However, local Russian commanders had the authority to authorize limited advances. On 2 November, Bergmann's troops crossed the border in the general direction of Köprüköy. The primary aim was to secure the Eleșkirt valley. On the right flank, 20th Infantry Division under Istomin moved from Oltu in the direction of İd. On the left flank a Cossack division under Baratov moved into the Eleșkirt valley towards Yuzveran, after it crossed the Aras River. By 5 November Bergmann had completed the objectives expected of him. However, he expanded his mission by ordering further advances into Ottoman territory. By 6 November contact was made between the opposing armies, and heavy fighting continued into the 7th, with temporary Russian successes. Further Russian advances were held in check as a result of heavy fighting between 7 and 10 November. On 11 November Ottoman forces counterattacked and the Russian flanks quickly became at risk, forcing a Russian retreat. By the 12th they had retreated back to the lines they occupied on the 4th, and still at risk of being outflanked, further retreats followed. Only the arrival of Russian reinforcements headed by General Przevalski checked the situation and halted the Russian retreat. On 16–17 November Przevalski crossed the Aras river and at dawn attacked part of the Turkish XI Corps, halting their advance. After two more days the fighting finally petered out. Russian losses were 1,000 killed and 4,000 wounded, 1,000 men died of exposure (with the Bakinski regiment suffering 40% losses), while the Ottomans lost 1,983 men killed, 6,170 wounded, 3,070 were taken prisoner, and 2,800 deserted. Yudenich and his staff were disappointed by the unsuccessful attack. Turkish forces then crossed the border and, advancing into the lower Choruh valley, destroyed on 15 November a Russian column sent to protect the copper mines at Borçka, forcing the Russians to evacuate Borçka, Artvin and Ardanuç. Turkish success during these first engagements encouraged Enver Pasha in his plan to attack at Sarıkamıș.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    To guard the crossings for their Fourth and Ninth Armies, on the west bank of the Vistula the Russians deployed the 75th Reserve Division (Fourth Army) at Radom, as well as the group of General Delsalle, consisting of the Guard Rifle Brigade, 2nd Rifle Brigade and 80th Reserve Division, at Opatów-Klimontów. Both groups were screened by the Cavalry divisions of the Corps Nowikow. On 28 September German Ninth Army began a meticulously planned advance toward the Vistula River. German XI, Guard and Austro-Hungarian I Corps marched in heavy rain toward Delsalle's group. Because German Army wagons were too heavy for the woeful Polish roads, submerged in several feet of mud, they used light Polish carts hired along with their peasant drivers. As they advanced they improved the roads and bridges so they could support heavy artillery and adjusted the rails to the narrower European gauge. (The Vienna-Warsaw line was already European gauge.) Explosives were cached at road and railway bridges so they could be destroyed if necessary. On 3 October at Klimontów the 3rd and 7th Austrian Cavalry Divisions engaged the Russian Guard cavalry Brigade along with infantry from the 80th Reserve Division and drove them back. In response to the Austro-German threat, the Russian screen was ordered to fall back. Nowikow's cavalry obeyed, but General Delsalle believed that he could hold his position. The next day, his group was destroyed by the much superior enemy. The Central Powers captured 7,000 prisoners, only a few Russians escaped. The Germans lost 571 men—Austro-Hungarian casualties are not known. The Germans reached the Vistula River on 9 October. The few Russian bridgeheads on the west bank were invested. Their left flank, August von Mackensen’s XVII Corps, continued to march north until it was 19 km (12 mi) from Warsaw. Only small Russian pockets remained on the west bank; they were excellent targets for the German artillery. General Nikolai Ruzsky, commander of the Russian Northwest Front, sent troops from Warsaw to attack XVII Corps on the German left flank. Orders found on the body of a Russian officer revealed that 14 Russian divisions were concentrating against Mackensen’s 5 divisions. The Germans were also privy to Russian movements from intercepted wireless messages. Unlike the messages sent in the clear during the first weeks of the war, now they were in the new Russian code, which by the end of September had been broken by a German reserve officer, Professor Deubner. Three Russian armies were concentrating against German Ninth Army, relieving the pressure on the Austro-Hungarians in the south. The Germans were impressed by the plan, which they attributed to the Grand Duke, to encircle Ninth Army by the thrust from the north into their rear. To prevent this XVII Corps must be reinforced. The Germans wanted the Austro-Hungarians to provide troops to be hurried to the threatened flank, but the Austro-Hungarians did not want to mingle their men with the Germans, so instead they agreed to take over the line on the German right flank.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Lord Grey had been the Foreign Secretary during the McMahon–Hussein negotiations. Speaking in the House of Lords on 27 March 1923, he made it clear that, for his part, he entertained serious doubts as to the validity of the British Government's (Churchill's) interpretation of the pledges which he, as Foreign Secretary, had caused to be given to the Sharif Hussein in 1915. He called for all of the secret engagements regarding Palestine to be made public. Many of the relevant documents in the National Archives were later declassified and published. Among them were various assurances of Arab independence provided by Secretary of War, Lord Kitchener, the Viceroy of India, and others in the War Cabinet. The minutes of a Cabinet Eastern Committee meeting, chaired by Lord Curzon, held on 5 December 1918 to discuss the various Palestine undertakings makes it clear that Palestine had not been excluded from the agreement with Hussein. General Jan Smuts, Lord Balfour, Lord Robert Cecil, General Sir Henry Wilson, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, and representatives of the Foreign Office, the India Office, the Admiralty, the War Office, and the Treasury were present. T. E. Lawrence also attended. According to the minutes Lord Curzon explained:

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The cavalry, always the most honored branch of the army in Austria, was top notch, and the commanders Auffenberg relegated command to were very capable of deploying them to full effectiveness. Three of the Five Generals under his command were General der Kavallerie. The Infantry were also dependable, led by the professional soldiers brought into the military before the outbreak of the war. It was a dependable army and would prove so in the course of the first months of the war. Von Plehve's forces were superior in numbers. In fact all along the front the Russians were in numerical superiority, this made the position on Auffenberg's flanks dangerous. Plehve had the trusty Russian Cossacks, recruited from loyal monarchist families in the Urals and well trained, they could hold their own easily against their counterparts across the front. The infantry, however, was a weak point. While the Austro-Hungarians were properly supplied and trained, even Russian peacetime formations had supply problems from the beginning of mobilization. The Russian strength was in their numbers. The Austro-Hungarians moved forward in good order on 26 August and smashed into the Russian lines. Von Plehve's right flank was already shaken by the defeat of the Russian Fourth Army at the Battle of Kraśnik a few days earlier, and despite his typical quick action, he could do nothing to oppose a superior enemy. By the 31st, the Austro-Hungarians had taken approximately 20,000 prisoners, a huge amount for the first month of the war. These prisoners were some of Russia's best soldiers, despite their inferior supply they were loyal. The conscripts that would fill the ranks of Russia's armed forces in the coming years of war would be lacking in proper training and far less willing to fight and by the time of the Kerensky Offensive in 1917 loyal soldiers were few and far between on the Russian line. The first two battles (Kraśnik and Komarow) of Conrad's invasion of Poland had been crushing successes, and it seemed as though the Russian might not be able to prevent a crisis in Poland and conduct their invasion of East Prussia simultaneously, particularly with the conclusion of the Battle of Tannenberg a few days later. Russia lost 20,000 of its better soldiers. The two Austro-Hungarian armies were poised to move farther into Poland, and the Austro-Hungarians received a huge boost to morale. Despite the remaining lack of security in the east the triple victory of Kraśnik-Komarow-Tannenberg and the successful advance in France gave the Germans and Austro-Hungarians their greatest hope of a victorious Schlieffen Plan. However, this would be proved false hope in a matter of days - not only due to the German defeat at the Battle of the Marne.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    A large number of German casualties were caused by the change in the wind direction and the decision to go ahead against protests by local officers, which were increased by British troops, who fired on German soldiers as they fled in the open. The gas used by the German troops at Hulluch was a mixture of chlorine and phosgene, which had first been used against British troops on 19 December 1915 at Wieltje, near Ypres. The German gas was of sufficient concentration to penetrate the British PH gas helmets and the 16th Division was unjustly blamed for poor gas discipline.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    During the afternoon De la Rey was mistakenly shot and killed by a policeman, at a road block set up to look for the Foster gang and many Afrikaners believed that De la Rey had been assassinated. After the funeral the rebels condemned the war but when Botha asked them to volunteer for military service in South-West Africa they accepted. Maritz, at the head of a commando of Union forces on the border of German South-West Africa, allied with the Germans on 7 October and issued a proclamation on behalf of a provisional government and declared war on the British on 9 October. Generals Beyers, De Wet, Maritz, Kemp and Bezuidenhout were to be the first leaders of a new South African Republic. Maritz occupied Keimoes in the Upington area. The Lydenburg commando under General De Wet took possession of the town of Heilbron, held up a train and captured government stores and ammunition. By the end of the week De Wet had a force of 3,000 men and Beyers had gathered c. 7,000 more in the Magaliesberg. General Louis Botha had c. 30,000 pro-government troops. The government declared martial law on 12 October and loyalists under General Louis Botha and Jan Smuts repressed the uprising. Maritz was defeated on 24 October and took refuge with the Germans, the Beyers commando was dispersed at Commissioners Drift on 28 October, after which Beyers joined forces with Kemp and then was drowned in the Vaal River on 8 December. De Wet was captured in Bechuanaland on 2 December and Kemp, having crossed the Kalahari desert and lost 300 of 800 men and most of their horses on the 1,100-kilometre (680 mi) journey, joined Maritz in German South-West Africa and attacked across the Orange river on 22 December. Maritz advanced south again on 13 January 1915 and attacked Upington on 24 January and most of the rebels surrendered on 30 January.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    By this time however general Below had decided to abandon Monastir and on 18 November, while the heavy fighting was still going on, General der Infanterie Winckler ordered the Eleventh Army to retreat to new positions to the north of Monastir. The Bulgarian commander in chief General Nikola Zhekov protested this decision but in the end he couldn't stop its execution. On 19 of November French and Russian soldiers entered the town. The Bulgarians established a new position on the Chervena Stena - height 1248 - height 1050 - Makovo - Gradešnica defensive line.