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Alexandre-Félix-Joseph Ribot (French pronunciation: ​[alɛksɑ̃dʁ ʁibo]; 7 February 1842 – 13 January 1923) was a French politician, four times Prime Minister.Ribot was born in Saint-Omer, Pas-de-Calais. After a brilliant academic career at the University of Paris, where he was lauréat of the faculty of law, he rapidly made his mark at the bar. He was secretary of the conference of advocates and one of the founders of the Sociéte de legislation comparée. During 1875 and 1876 he was successively director of criminal affairs and secretary-general at the ministry of justice. In 1877 he entered politics, playing a conspicuous part on the committee of legal resistance during the Brogue ministry; in the following year he was returned to the chamber as a moderate republican member for Boulogne, in his native département of Pas-de-Calais. His impassioned yet reasoned eloquence gave him an influence which was increased by his articles in the Parlement in which he opposed violent measures against the unauthorized congregations.

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前回の回答の一部に誤りがありましたので、訂正の上再送いたします。 >Alexandre-Félix-Joseph Ribot (French pronunciation: [alɛksɑ̃dʁ ʁibo]; 7 February 1842 – 13 January 1923) was a French politician, four times Prime Minister.Ribot was born in Saint-Omer, Pas-de-Calais. After a brilliant academic career at the University of Paris, where he was lauréat of the faculty of law, he rapidly made his mark at the bar. He was secretary of the conference of advocates and one of the founders of the Sociéte de legislation comparée. ⇒アレクサンドル‐フェリス‐ジョセフ・リボー(フランス語の発音:[alɛksɑ̃dʁʁibo]〔アレクサーンドリボー〕、1842年2月7日 – 1923年1月13日)は、フランスの政治家で、4回首相になった。リボーは、パ‐ド‐カレーのサン・トメールで生まれた。パリ大学法学部で学んで表彰されたすばらしい学歴の後、法廷に入って名をあげた。彼は弁護士団体会議の書記官で、「比較法協会」(Sociéte de legislation comparée)の創始者の1人になった。 >During 1875 and 1876 he was successively director of criminal affairs and secretary-general at the ministry of justice. In 1877 he entered politics, playing a conspicuous part on the committee of legal resistance during the Brogue ministry; in the following year he was returned to the chamber as a moderate republican member for Boulogne, in his native département of Pas-de-Calais. ⇒1875年と1876年の間、彼は連続して犯罪部門の責任者と法務省の事務局長であった。1877年には政界に入り、ブローグ政権にいる間に、法的抵抗問題委員会の一員として顕著な役割を果たした。その翌年には出身地パ-ド-カレー県の、ブーローニュ代表の穏健共和政党の議員として、議院に戻った。 ※(全体的に言えますが)特にこのあたりはフランス語まじり文でよく分かりません。きっと訳文に間違いがあると思いますので、あらかじめお詫び申しあげます。 >His impassioned yet reasoned eloquence gave him an influence which was increased by his articles in the Parlement in which he opposed violent measures against the unauthorized congregations. ⇒彼の情熱的ではあるが筋の通った弁舌は彼自身に影響を与え、未公認の集会に対抗する暴力的な手段に反対した議会での論説によってそれが増幅された。

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    In 1902, after several unsuccessful attempts, he was elected deputy. He declared himself a strong partisan of the union of the Left in what was known as the Bloc, in order to check the reactionary Deputies of the Right. From the beginning of his career in the Chamber of Deputies, Briand was occupied with the question of the separation of church and state. He was appointed reporter of the commission charged with the preparation of the 1905 law on separation, and his masterly report at once marked him out as one of the coming leaders. He succeeded in carrying his project through with but slight modifications, and without dividing the parties upon whose support he relied. He was the principal author of the law of separation, but, not content with preparing it, he wished to apply it as well. The ministry of Maurice Rouvier was allowing disturbances during the taking of inventories of church property, a clause of the law for which Briand was not responsible. Consequently, he accepted the portfolio of Public Instruction and Worship in the Sarrien ministry (1906).

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    He was elected, at the end of 1898, president of the important commission on education, in which he advocated the adoption of a modern system of education. The policy of the Waldeck-Rousseau ministry on the religious teaching congregations broke up the Republican party, and Ribot was among the seceders; but at the general election of 1902, though he himself secured re-election, his policy suffered a severe check. He actively opposed the policy of the Combes ministry and denounced the alliance with Jean Léon Jaurès, and on 13 January 1905 he was one of the leaders of the opposition which brought about the fall of the cabinet. Although he had been most violent in denouncing the anti-clerical policy of the Combes cabinet, he now announced his willingness to recognize a new régime to replace the Concordat of 1801, and gave the government his support in the establishment of the Associations culturelles, while he secured some mitigation of the seventies attending the separation. He was re-elected deputy for St. Omer in 1906.

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    In 1916 the territory was divided into separate British and French administrative zones, and this was formalized in 1922 with the creation of British Togoland and French Togoland.The colony was established towards the end of the period of European colonization in Africa generally known as the "Scramble for Africa". Two separate protectorates were established in 1884. In February 1884, the chiefs of the town of Aného were kidnapped by German soldiers and forced to sign a treaty of protection.

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>Alexandre-Félix-Joseph Ribot (French pronunciation: [alɛksɑ̃dʁ ʁibo]; 7 February 1842 – 13 January 1923) was a French politician, four times Prime Minister.Ribot was born in Saint-Omer, Pas-de-Calais. After a brilliant academic career at the University of Paris, where he was lauréat of the faculty of law, he rapidly made his mark at the bar. He was secretary of the conference of advocates and one of the founders of the Sociéte de legislation comparée. ⇒アレクサンドル-フェリス-ジョセフ・リボー(フランスの発音:[alɛksɑ̃dʁʁibo]〔アレクサーンドル リボ〕、1842年2月7日 – 1923年1月13日)は、フランスの政治家で、4回首相になった。リボーは、パ-ド-カレーのサン-トメールで生まれた。パリ大学法学部で学んで表彰されるすばらしい学歴の後、法廷に入って名をあげた。彼は弁護士団体会議の書記官であって、「比較法協会」(Sociéte de legislation comparée)の創始者の1人でもあった。 >During 1875 and 1876 he was successively director of criminal affairs and secretary-general at the ministry of justice. In 1877 he entered politics, playing a conspicuous part on the committee of legal resistance during the Brogue ministry; in the following year he was returned to the chamber as a moderate republican member for Boulogne, in his native département of Pas-de-Calais. ⇒1875年と1876年の間、彼は連続して犯罪局の責任者と法務省の事務局長であった。1877年に彼は政界に入り、法務省にいる間に法的抵抗問題委員会の一員として顕著な役目を果たした。次の年には、出身地パ-ド-カレー県、ブーローニュ代表の穏健共和政党の議員として、議院に戻った。 ※(全体的に言えますが)特にフランス語まじり文のこのあたりはよく分かりません。きっと訳文に間違いがあると思いますので、あらかじめお詫び申しあげます。 >His impassioned yet reasoned eloquence gave him an influence which was increased by his articles in the Parlement in which he opposed violent measures against the unauthorized congregations. ⇒彼の情熱的ではあるが筋の通った弁舌は、未公認の集会に対抗する暴力的な手段に反対した議会での論説によって、増幅された影響を彼自身に与えた。

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    In the same year he became a member of the Académie française in succession to the duc d'Audiffret-Pasquier; he was already a member of the Academy of Moral and Political Science. In justification of his policy in opposition he published in 1905 two volumes of his Discours politiques. Ribot was brought in as prime minister for a few days in June 1914 following the collapse of the Doumergue government, and returned to power again in March 1917, following the fall of Briand. Ribot's final ministry was during the most dismal part of the First World War, seeing the failure of the Nivelle Offensive and the famous mutiny of the French soldiers which followed. Dismissed in September and replaced by minister of war Paul Painlevé, Ribot continued as foreign minister for a month before resigning in October. The main grammar school (lycée) in Saint Omer, the Lycée Alexandre Ribot, bears his name today.

  • 日本語訳にしていただけませんか・

    日本語訳にしていただけませんか・ Businessman Shin Sato’s dream came true last November. It was at the 15th hole of a course in Chiba Prefecture. The wind was pushing, and he chose a 7 iron for his tee shot at the 158-yerd home. He knew he struck the ball well in terms of its direction and carry. Then, he was it drop on the green, bounce ? and roll into the cup.

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    上手な日本語訳にしてください。 Businessman Shin Sato’s dream came true last November. It was at the 15th hole of a course in Chiba Prefecture. The wind was pushing, and he chose a 7 iron for his tee shot at the 158-yerd home. He knew he struck the ball well in terms of its direction and carry. Then, he was it drop on the green , bounce ? and roll into the cup.

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    Afflerbach used the same source in 2000 to give 336,000 German and 365,000 French casualties at Verdun, from February to December 1916. In 2013, Jankowski wrote that since the beginning of the war, French army units had produced états numériques des pertes every five days for the Bureau of Personnel at GQG. The health service at the Ministry of War received daily counts of wounded taken in by hospitals and other services but casualty data was dispersed among regimental depots, GQG, the État Civil, which recorded deaths, the Service de Santé, which counted injuries and illnesses and the Renseignements aux Familles, which communicated with next of kin. Regimental depots were ordered to keep fiches de position to record losses continuously and the Première Bureau of GQG began to compare the five-day field reports with the records of hospital admissions.

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    Forests planted in the 1930s have grown up and hide most of the Zone rouge (Red Zone) but the battlefield remains a vast graveyard, where the mortal remains of over 100,000 missing soldiers lie, unless discovered by the French Forestry Service and laid in the Douaumont ossuary. Pétain praised what he saw as the success of the fixed fortification system at Verdun in La Bataille de Verdun published in 1929 and in 1930, while construction of the Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot) began along the border with Germany. At Verdun, French field artillery in the open outnumbered turreted guns in the Verdun forts by at least 200:1. It was the mass of French field artillery (over 2,000 guns after May 1916) that inflicted about 70 percent of German infantry casualties.

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    He retained his post in Émile Loubet's ministry (February–November 1892), and on its defeat he became president of the council, retaining the direction of foreign affairs. The government resigned in March 1893 over the refusal of the chamber to accept the Senate's amendments to the budget. On the election of Félix Faure as president of the Republic in January 1895, Ribot again became premier and minister of finance. On 10 June he was able to make the first official announcement of a definite alliance with Russia. On 30 October the government was defeated on the question of the Chemin de fer du Sud, and resigned office. The real reason of its fall was the mismanagement of the Madagascar expedition, the cost of which in men and money exceeded all expectations, and the alarming social conditions at home, as indicated by the strike at Carmaux. After the fall of Jules Méline's ministry in 1898 M. Ribot tried in vain to form a cabinet of "conciliation."

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    This exaggeration may have been because he wore a huge Cossack fur hat, and tall boots which added a foot to his height. Although, if this was accurate, he would have been taller than Robert Wadlow, now cited as the world's tallest man. Machnow died in 1912 due to pneumonia and likely complications of Acromegaly although there are other versions of the story. Some believed he had been poisoned by rivals or envious competitors (Machnow was a rather well known wrestler), but no evidence for this is available. He was the father of four children none of whom reached a height greater than two meters. John Middleton (1578–1623) was an English giant who was born in the village of Hale and is commonly known as the Childe of Hale. Legend tells that he slept with his feet out of the window of his small house. Tales also credit him with great strength. John Middleton was born in the village of Hale, near Liverpool. According to contemporary accounts and his epitaph, Middleton grew to the height of 9 feet 3 inches (2.82 m) and slept with his feet hanging out the window of his house. Because of his size the landlord and sheriff of Lancashire, Gilbert Ireland, hired him as a bodyguard. When King James I stopped by in 1617 to knight Ireland he heard about Middleton and invited both of them to the court, which they accepted in 1620. Middleton beat the King's champion in wrestling and in doing so broke the man's thumb. He received £20, a large amount of money in those times. Unfortunately, jealous of his wealth, Middleton's companions mugged him or swindled him out of his money while he was returning to Hale. John Middleton died impoverished in 1623. He was buried in the cemetery of St Mary's Church in Hale. The epitaph reads, "Here lyeth the bodie of John Middleton the Childe of Hale. Nine feet three. Borne 1578 Dyed 1623." There have been numerous local uses and commemorations of Middleton; a pub in Hale, named "The Childe of Hale", bears a copy of the Brasenose College portrait as its sign. Previously situated across the road from the church was a large tree trunk. In 1996 it was carved with representations of John Middleton, Hale Lighthouse and other local symbols. In 2011, due to disease and in the interests of public safety the tree trunk was removed by Halton Borough Council. In April 2013, the wooden sculpture was replaced by a bronze statue 3 m tall by local sculptor, Diane Gorvin. Brasenose College, Oxford, possesses one life-sized portrait, two smaller paintings and two life-sized representations of his hands. Another life-sized portrait can be seen at Speke Hall in Liverpool, a National Trust property. Speke Hall is located near to the village of Hale and incorporates a woodland trail depicting his house, feet, hands and other items.

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    Russian casualties were nearly as high, but easier to replace, and balanced out more by the surrender of 117,000 Austro-Hungarian troops at the end of the siege. All told, the siege and the attempts to relieve it cost the Austro-Hungarian army over a million casualties and inflicted on it significant damage from which it would never recover. The Bombardment of Madras was an engagement of the First World War, at Madras (now Chennai), British India. The bombardment was initiated by the German light cruiser Emden at the outset of the war in 1914. With Captain Karl von Müller in command, on the night of 22 September 1914, SMS Emden quietly approached the city of Madras on the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. As he later wrote, "I had this shelling in view simply as a demonstration to arouse interest among the Indian population, to disturb English commerce, to diminish English prestige." After entering the Madras harbour area, Müller illuminated six large oil tanks belonging to the Burmah Oil Company with his searchlights, then fired at a range of 3,000 yards. After ten minutes of firing, Emden had hit five of the tanks and destroyed 346,000 gallons of fuel, and the cruiser then successfully retreated. The Bombardment of Madras マドラス砲撃 The Bombardment of Papeete occurred in French Polynesia when German warships attacked on 22 September 1914, during World War I. The German armoured cruisers SMS Scharnhorst and Gneisenau entered the port of Papeete on the island of Tahiti and sank the French gunboat Zélée and freighter Walküre before bombarding the town's fortifications. French shore batteries and a gunboat resisted the German intrusion but were greatly outgunned. The main German objective was to seize the coal piles stored on the island, but these were destroyed by the French at the start of the action. The German vessels were largely undamaged but the French lost their gunboat. Several of Papeete's buildings were destroyed and the town's economy was severely disrupted. The main strategic consequence of the engagement was the disclosure of the cruisers' positions to the British Admiralty, which led to the Battle of Coronel where the entire German East Asia Squadron defeated a Royal Navy squadron. The depletion of Scharnhorst's and Gneisenau's ammunition at Papeete also contributed to their subsequent destruction at the Battle of the Falklands. Word of war reached Admiral Maximilian von Spee—of the German East Asia Squadron—while at Ponape (17 July – 6 August). He concentrated the majority of his squadron at Pagan Island in the nearby Mariana Islands, and then steamed off into the Pacific with the Scharnhorst-class armored cruisers SMS Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, the Königsberg-class light cruiser SMS Nürnberg, the auxiliary cruiser SMS Titania, and several colliers at his disposal. Nürnberg and Titania were sent to gather intelligence at Hawaii and raid the cable station at Fanning Island. Bombardment of Papeete パペーテ砲撃

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    At this point Laverdure ordered one company of his Senegalese infantry to leave the column with a convoy of wounded soldiers which he sent back to Khénifra. However many of his other troops, seeing the Senegalese leaving, broke ranks and followed in panic. Laverdure attempted to continue his withdrawal but, just having crossed the Chbouka river, his rearguard was surrounded and attacked repeatedly from all sides, being quickly overrun. The gun batteries soon suffered the same fate, their crews also being killed. The Zaian assembled on the ridges surrounding the remaining French troops, who had formed a defensive square, before launching a final attack with "several thousand" men. This attack lasted just a few minutes and, after a desperate struggle, the square was broken and the remainder of the column was wiped out. The Zaian chased down and killed any of the survivors who attempted to hide in the scrub. The wounded and their escort struggled into Khénifra at about noon, narrowly outpacing the Zaian who had stopped to loot the bodies of the French dead. These men, numbering 171 men and five officers wounded and 426 men and five officers able bodied, were the only French survivors of the battle. A total of 623 French troops had died, along with around 182 of the Zaian. French losses amounted to 218 Algerian or Tunisian Tirailleurs, 210 French soldiers and 33 French officers, 125 Senegalese Tirailleurs and 37 Moroccan Goums killed. The French officers suffered the highest casualty rate of any group with 90% of them being killed or wounded (including Laverdure who died in the final attack); four of the five unwounded officers belonged to the cavalry. Around 65% of the entire force had been killed or wounded and the French were forced to abandon 4 machine guns, 630 small arms, 62 horses, 56 mules, all of their artillery and camping equipment and much of their personal belongings on the battlefield. Hammou took much of this with him when he escaped to the mountains of the Middle Atlas. The disaster left Captain Pierre Kroll as the senior officer of the remnants of the Khénifra garrison, some three companies of tirailleurs (one of which was an ad hoc unit made up from the partially equipped and shaken survivors of the battle). Having secured the defences he immediately telegraphed Lyautey and Henrys to inform them of events, the first they had heard of Laverdure's foray. Lyautey was briefly of the opinion that the event would cause the loss of the whole of Morocco. The next morning Zaian horsemen appeared on the hilltops to the south and east of the city. Khénifra soon came under constant siege from the tribes.

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    The Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing commemorates those of all Commonwealth nations, except New Zealand who died in the Ypres Salient and have no known grave. In the case of the United Kingdom only casualties before 16 August 1917 are commemorated on the memorial. United Kingdom and New Zealand servicemen who died after that date are named on the memorial at Tyne Cot Cemetery. There are numerous tributes and memorials all over Australia and New Zealand to ANZAC soldiers who died in the battle, including plaques at the Christchurch and Dunedin railway stations. The Canadian Corps participation in the Second Battle of Passchendaele is commemorated with the Passchendaele Memorial located at the former site of the Crest Farm on the south-west fringe of Passchendaele village. One of the newest monuments to be dedicated to the fighting contribution of a group is the Celtic Cross memorial, commemorating the Scottish contributions and efforts in the fighting in Flanders during the Great War. This memorial is located on the Frezenberg Ridge where the Scottish 9th and 15th Divisions, fought during the Battle of Passchendaele. The monument was dedicated by Linda Fabiani, the Minister for Europe of the Scottish Parliament, during the late summer of 2007, the 90th anniversary of the battle.