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Generaloberst Arthur Freiherr Arz von Straußenburg (16 June 1857 – 1 June 1935) was an Austro-Hungarian Colonel General and last Chief of the General Staff of the Austro-Hungarian Army. At the outbreak of the First World War, he commanded the 15th Infantry Division. Soon, he was promoted to the head of the 6th Corps and the First Army. He participated on the Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive in 1915 and the countryside of Romania in 1916. In March 1917, he became Chief of the General Staff until his resignation on 3 November 1918.Born among the ancient Saxon settlers of east Transylvania, Arz was the product of a noble "Siebenbürger" family. His father, Albert Arz von Straußenburg, served as an evangelical preacher and curate as well as a member of the House of Magnates. Schooled in Dresden and Hermannstadt, Arz graduated "with great achievement", and went on to read law at a university, during which time he volunteered for one year's service in a Hungarian Feldjäger battalion during 1876–1877.

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>Generaloberst Arthur Freiherr Arz von Straußenburg (16 June 1857 – 1 June 1935) was an Austro-Hungarian Colonel General and last Chief of the General Staff of the Austro-Hungarian Army. At the outbreak of the First World War, he commanded the 15th Infantry Division. Soon, he was promoted to the head of the 6th Corps and the First Army. He participated on the Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive in 1915 and the countryside of Romania in 1916. In March 1917, he became Chief of the General Staff until his resignation on 3 November 1918. ⇒アルトゥール男爵こと、総司令官アルツ・フォン・シュトラウシェンブルク(1857年6月16日 – 1935年6月1日)は、オーストリア-ハンガリー軍大佐、将軍、そして、最後にオーストリア-ハンガリー方面軍の参謀幕僚長になった。第一次世界大戦が勃発したとき、彼は第15歩兵師団を指揮した。まもなく彼は、第6軍団と第1方面軍の長官に昇進した。彼は、1915年にゴルリチェ-タルノウ攻撃に、1916年にルーマニアの田園地方のそれに参戦し、1917年3月から参謀幕僚長となり、1918年11月3日の辞任までその任にあった。 >Born among the ancient Saxon settlers of east Transylvania, Arz was the product of a noble "Siebenbürger" family. His father, Albert Arz von Straußenburg, served as an evangelical preacher and curate as well as a member of the House of Magnates. Schooled in Dresden and Hermannstadt, Arz graduated "with great achievement", and went on to read law at a university, during which time he volunteered for one year's service in a Hungarian Feldjäger battalion during 1876–1877. ⇒アルツは、東部トランシルヴァニアの古代サクソン人入植者の間に生まれた、高貴な「七賢の民」(Siebenbürger)という家系の出であった。彼の父、アルベルト・アルツ・フォン・シュトラウシェンブルクは、福音書の伝道者・副牧師にして、有力な下院議員として奉職した。アルツは、ドレスデンとヘルマンシュタットで教育を受け、「卓越した成績で」卒業し、大学で法律を専攻し続け、その1876–1877年の間にハンガリー・フェルトイェーガー(「野戦戦闘機」)大隊で1年間の兵役に志願した。

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    “ Dear Generaloberst Baron Arz, I appoint you to be my supreme commander. Karl ” Not wanting responsibility for handling the armistice, Arz declined the appointment, and Kövess took up appointment as commander-in-chief instead. Arz however undertook the position de facto until Field Marshal Kövess could take up his office.After the collapse, Arz lived in Vienna. With Transylvania and the Bukovina awarded to Romania after the war, he refused to return to his home in a country in the defeat of which he had played a significant role only a few years earlier. Technically a Hungarian citizen, although he was an ethnic German, Arz was initially denied a pension by the Hungarian government and lived almost in poverty, surviving on stipends from a support fund organized by former officer comrades to help officers in such situations. In 1926, Hungary granted him a pension on condition that it be collected in person from Budapest at all times. During this time, Arz wrote of his experiences during the war. His memoirs, unlike those of many of his contemporaries, contained no element of self-justification or political statement. On 1 July 1935, during a visit to Budapest to collect his pension, Arthur Baron Arz von Straussenburg suffered a heart attack and died. He was buried with the highest military honours at the Kerepesi cemetery in Budapest.

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    Austria's army had since then longed to achieve these strategic prizes and force Italy into an armistice. Straußenburg's army group commanders, Conrad von Hötzendorf (the former Austrian Chief of Staff) and Svetozar Boroević von Bojna, both wished to make a decisive assault against the Italians, but could not agree about the location of the attack. Conrad wanted an attack from the South Tyrolean Alps towards the Asiago Plateau and Vicenza. Boroević first favored a defensive action, but then when pressed preferred a frontal attack along the Piave River. Straußenburg himself was in favour of an attack on the western part of the front (the "Giudicarie" sector) leading to Brescia. Conrad and Boroević had a dislike for each other, and Straußenburg and the emperor, unable to decide between these two strong personalities, divided the army equally between them, reserving only a small part of the forces for a diversionary action on the Giudicarie sector. The preparation of the offensive began in February 1918, after a meeting in Bolzano between the Austrian and German high commands. It was strongly recommended by the Germans, as Ludendorff hoped that it could force the increasing American forces in France to be diverted to the Italian front, so Straußenburg modeled the attack after Erich Ludendorff's offensive on the Western Front. The Austro-Hungarians, differently from their previous success at Caporetto and from the subsequent attempts to breakthrough on Monte Grappa, did not prepare the attack as a pinpoint one, but as an all-out frontal attack, employing the entire residual strength of their army all along the front. The Austro-Hungarian formations were trained to employ the tactics developed by the Germans on the Western Front for Operation Michael, as Austrian officers returning from the Eastern Front were extensively trained alongside their German counterparts. There were also innovations on the Italian side. Analyzing the defeat of Caporetto, the staff of Armando Diaz concluded that the main tactical causes of it were the lack of mobility of Italian units, caught in a too rigid defensive scheme, the too centralized command and control system, and the lack of depth of Italian defences, where too many soldiers were simply stuck on the frontline. The new schemes prepared for the battle led to the abolition of the continuous entrenchment and in the development of a highly mobile defence system, in which even the smaller units were allowed to freely move between previously recognized strongpoints, independently decide to retreat or counterattack, or directly call the support of the artillery.

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    In cooperation with the German 9th Army, the Romanian invasion was repelled and its forces were thrown back across the border within eight weeks, leading to Arz receiving the respect and appreciation of the new Austro-Hungarian emperor, Karl I. Other commanders also hailed his achievements during the campaign, with Conrad writing that he had "proved to be an energetic resolute leader in the most difficult situations..." and Boroević stating that Arz was an "Honourable, noble character....outstanding general." Arz was to remain in charge of the 1st Army until February 1917, after major operations in Romania ended, with help from Falkenhayn's 9th German Army and from the German Army of the Danube under Mackensen.Karl I of Austria succeeded Franz Joseph as Emperor on 21 November 1916, bringing with him a wave of change across the upper echelons of the government and military command.

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    In early July 1914, in the aftermath of the assassination of Austro-Hungarian Franz Ferdinand and the immediate likelihood of war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, Kaiser Wilhelm II and the German government informed the Austro-Hungarian government that Germany would uphold its alliance with Austria-Hungary and defend it from possible Russia intervention if a war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia took place. When Russia enacted a general mobilization, Germany viewed the act as provocative.

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    On 1 May 1902 he was promoted to Oberst and appointed to the managing bureau of the General Staff, of which department he was appointed head in May 1903. The same year, he married Stefanie Tomka von Tomkahaza und Falkusfalva, a Hungarian noblewoman, with whom he had a daughter. In 1908, Arz was again promoted, this time to the rank of Generalmajor, and was given command of the 61st Infantry Brigade. Having been steadily promoted and seen as a promising and competent officer, he received an "outstanding" evaluation from his old commander, Archduke Eugen, during 1911's fall maneuvres. 1912 saw him promoted to command a division, the 15th infantry at Miskolc. Soon afterwards Arz attained the rank of Feldmarschall-Leutnant and in 1913 was reassigned to the war ministry in Vienna to head up a section.At the outbreak of war in the Summer of 1914, Arz von Straussenburg requested a transfer to a field assignment and was again given command of the 15th infantry division, which participated in the closing stages of Komarów.

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    The Austro-Hungarian forces retreated and Gorizia fell to the Italians. They, however, didn't succeed in forcing their way to Trieste, and were stopped northwest of Duino.Fighting culminated on 6 August, when Italian forces under general Luigi Capello launched an attack on Austro-Hungarian positions guarding the main transport road leading from the coast town of Duino to Gorizia. The main objective of the attack was to secure the transport road, thus securing their advance to Gorizia from the south. A plan was drafted by Italian general Luigi Capello, to split the army in half, with one side attacking straight at Austrian positions and the other to attack from the rear.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    The memoirs of General of Artillery Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein were published in 2001 in German language in Tbilisi, Georgia - Editor Dr. David Paitschadse, publishing house Samschoblo, ISBN 99928-26-62-2, online version can be found here The Second Battle of the Piave River, fought between 15 and 23 June 1918, was a decisive victory for the Italian Army against the Austro-Hungarian Empire during World War I. Though the battle proved to be a decisive blow to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and by extension the Central Powers, its full significance was not initially appreciated in Italy. Yet Erich Ludendorff, on hearing the news, is reported to have said he 'had the sensation of defeat for the first time'. It would later become clear that the battle was in fact the beginning of the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. With the exit of Russia from the war in 1917, Austria-Hungary was now able to devote significant forces to the Italian Front and to receive reinforcements from their German allies. The Austro-Hungarian emperor Karl had reached an agreement with the Germans to undertake a new offensive against Italy, a move supported by both the chief of the general staff Arthur Arz von Straußenburg and the commander of the South Tyrolean Army Group Conrad von Hötzendorf. In the autumn of 1917, the Germans and Austrians had defeated the Italians at the Battle of Caporetto. After Caporetto, the Italians fell back to the Piave and were reinforced by six French infantry divisions and five British infantry divisions as well as sizeable air contingents.Italy's defeat at Caporetto led to General Luigi Cadorna's dismissal and General Armando Diaz replaced him as Chief of staff of the Italian Army. Diaz set up a strong defense line along the Piave. Up until this point in the war, the Italian army had been fighting alone against the Central Powers; with the defeat at Caporetto, France and Britain sent small reinforcements on the Italian front. These, besides accounting for less than a tenth of the Italian forces in theater, had however to be redirected for the major part to the Western Front as soon as the German Spring Offensive began in March 1918.The Austro-Hungarian Army had also recently undergone a change in command, and the new Austrian Chief of Staff, Arthur Arz von Straußenburg, wished to finish off the Italians. After Caporetto, the Austro-Hungarian offensive had put many Italian cities, including Venice and Verona, under the threat of the Central Powers. The Second Battle of the Piave River 第二次ピアーヴェ川の戦い

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