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Consequently, Nivelle dispatched Ferdinand Foch to meet with Cadorna and discuss their possible options. In the event the British and French agreed to rush aid to the Italians only in the event of an emergency - for example, large-scale German military assistance to the Austro-Hungarians; a contingency plan was thus developed to meet with such an eventuality. The agreed plan was duly invoked - too late - in late October 1917 in the wake of the Italians' disastrous performance at Caporetto in the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo. With the contingency plan arranged the French pressed Cadorna to launch a major offensive of his own along the Soča (Isonzo) to generally co-ordinate with their own large-scale Aisne Offensive (deployed in April 1917). Cadorna agreed and the tenth Isonzo offensive was launched with a preliminary artillery bombardment on 10 May 1917.The Italians, deploying 38 divisions - against only 14 of the Austro-Hungarians - switched tactics once again. The previous three Isonzo battles had seen Cadorna concentrate short, sharp initiatives against closely defined targets, generally aimed at extending their sole bridgehead east of Gorizia. This time the Italians returned to the Kras plateau south-east of Gorizia, setting in train an infantry advance along a 40 km front in order to achieve a breakthrough towards Trieste. The second aim of the offensive was to conquer Mount Škabrijel, thus opening the way to the Vipava Valley. Initially success appeared likely. By the close of May the Italian army had advanced to within 15 km of Trieste almost reaching the coastal town of Duino, although subsidiary attacks elsewhere failed. Nevertheless, a major Austro-Hungarian counter-offensive launched on 3 June reclaimed virtually all lost ground and by the time the battle was called off by Cadorna on 8 June little territory had been gained. Some fighting also took place in the northern sections of the front in the Julian Alps, where the Austro-Hungarians strengthened their positions along the Vršič mountain ridge. Casualties continued to be high: 157,000 Italian losses were sustained, with a further 75,000 Austro-Hungarian casualties. With morale in the Italian army plunging Cadorna planned one further breakthrough attempt as he massed the greatest number of divisions and artillery yet along the Soča (Isonzo) river. Accordingly, the Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo was initiated some two months later on 19 August 1917.

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>Consequently, Nivelle dispatched Ferdinand Foch to meet with Cadorna and discuss their possible options. In the event the British and French agreed to rush aid to the Italians only in the event of an emergency - for example, large-scale German military assistance to the Austro-Hungarians; a contingency plan was thus developed to meet with such an eventuality. ⇒(英国やフランスの資源をイタリア軍に融通することが困難なので)従って、ニヴェーユはフェルディナント・フォッシュに文書を送り、カドルナと会談して考え得る選択肢を検討するように依頼した。結局、英国軍とフランス軍は、非常事態 ― 例えば、ドイツ軍によるオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍への大規模な軍事援助 ― が生じた場合のみイタリア軍に援助を急送することに同意した。こうして、そのような不測の事態に応じるために非常事態計画が仕上げられた。 >The agreed plan was duly invoked - too late - in late October 1917 in the wake of the Italians' disastrous performance at Caporetto in the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo. With the contingency plan arranged the French pressed Cadorna to launch a major offensive of his own along the Soča (Isonzo) to generally co-ordinate with their own large-scale Aisne Offensive (deployed in April 1917). ⇒同意された案は、1917年10月下旬、「第12回イゾンツォの戦い」でのイタリア軍の惨憺たる成績に続いて、その後を追って、然るべく ― あまりに遅く ― 発動された。 準備された非常事態計画によって、フランス軍はカドルナに彼ら(に共通の)大規模な「エーン攻撃」(1917年4月に展開される)とおおよそ調和するように、ソーチャ(イゾンツォ)に対する自前の大攻撃を開始するよう迫った。 >Cadorna agreed and the tenth Isonzo offensive was launched with a preliminary artillery bombardment on 10 May 1917. The Italians, deploying 38 divisions - against only 14 of the Austro-Hungarians - switched tactics once again. The previous three Isonzo battles had seen Cadorna concentrate short, sharp initiatives against closely defined targets, generally aimed at extending their sole bridgehead east of Gorizia. ⇒カドルナは同意して、1917年5月10日、予備砲撃をもって第10回イゾンツォ攻撃が開始された。 イタリア軍は、 ― オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍のわずか14個師団に対して ― 38個師団を配備して、再度戦術を変えた。先行の3回のイゾンツォ戦争は、カドルナが綿密に限定した目標に対する、短くも鋭い率先攻撃に集中するのを見たが、それは通常ゴリツィア東の、彼らの唯一の橋頭堡を広げることを目的としていた。 >This time the Italians returned to the Kras plateau south-east of Gorizia, setting in train an infantry advance along a 40 km front in order to achieve a breakthrough towards Trieste. The second aim of the offensive was to conquer Mount Škabrijel, thus opening the way to the Vipava Valley. ⇒今回、イタリア軍はゴリツィア南東のクラース台地に戻り、トリエステ方向への突破を果たすために40キロの前線に沿って歩兵連隊の進軍の手はずを整えた。攻撃の第2の狙いは、スカブリジェル山を征服することであり、かくしてヴィパヴァ渓谷に道を開くことであった。 >Initially success appeared likely. By the close of May the Italian army had advanced to within 15 km of Trieste almost reaching the coastal town of Duino, although subsidiary attacks elsewhere failed. Nevertheless, a major Austro-Hungarian counter-offensive launched on 3 June reclaimed virtually all lost ground and by the time the battle was called off by Cadorna on 8 June little territory had been gained. Some fighting also took place in the northern sections of the front in the Julian Alps, where the Austro-Hungarians strengthened their positions along the Vršič mountain ridge. ⇒最初のうちは、成功がありそうに見えた。5月の終りまでには、イタリア方面軍は、他の場所での補助攻撃は失敗したが、トリエステから15キロの範囲内まで進軍して、ほとんどドゥニオの沿岸の町に到着しかかっていた。とはいえ、6月3日に開始された大きなオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の反撃で、彼らは失われた土地のほとんどすべてを実質的に取り戻していて、6月8日にカドルナによって戦いが取り消される時に至っても、領土はほとんど得られていなかった。 数回の戦いがジュリアン・アルプス前線の北地区で起こり、そこでオーストリア‐ハンガリー人軍はヴルシッチ山に沿って彼らの位置を強化した。 >Casualties continued to be high: 157,000 Italian losses were sustained, with a further 75,000 Austro-Hungarian casualties. With morale in the Italian army plunging Cadorna planned one further breakthrough attempt as he massed the greatest number of divisions and artillery yet along the Soča (Isonzo) river. Accordingly, the Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo was initiated some two months later on 19 August 1917. ⇒犠牲者数は、高い数値が続いた。すなわち、イタリア軍は157,000人の損失を、さらにオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍は75,000人の犠牲者をそれぞれ被った。イタリア軍の士気が急落しているのを見て、カドルナはさらに1つの飛躍的な試みを練って、ソーチャ(イゾンツォ)川に沿って膨大な数の師団と砲兵隊を集めた。ということで、「第11回イゾンツォの戦い」は、約2ヵ月後の1917年8月19日に始められた。 ※すみません、順序が反転しました。分量が多いと途中で飽きて、1回で終らず、一旦保存してほかのことをすることがよくあるのですが、今回もそれをしているうちに、忘れてしまいました。

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  • 和訳をお願いします。

    The Austro-Hungarian forces had to retreat on the line east of Gorizia (Mount Škabrijel), leaving the heavily damaged town to the Italians.On 8 August, Gorizia fell to Cadorna and a bridgehead was finally established across the Soča (Isonzo) River. The Austro-Hungarians shifted troops to the Gorizia sector to prevent a breakthrough. Content with having established the bridgehead, Cadorna ended the offensive on 17 August.The attack on Gorizia was the most successful Italian offensive along the Isonzo lines and greatly boosted Italian morale - especially since Gorizia, whatever its actual value, had been promoted as a desirable objective, unattainable in earlier battles.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    Italian Chief-of-Staff Luigi Cadorna made good use of railroads to quickly shift troops from Trentino back to the Isonzo line for an offensive against the weakened Austro-Hungarian defenses.On 6 August the offensive was launched against Gorizia. The offensive was concentrated in two zones: the hilly area west of the Soča (Isonzo) river near Gorizia the westernmost edge of the Kras plateau near Doberdò del Lago. In the Battle of Doberdò, the Italians managed to conquer the main transport road leading from the coast town of Duino to Gorizia, thus securing their advance to Gorizia from the south.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Nevertheless Cadorna's continued offensives along the Soča (Isonzo) did succeed in wearing away at Austro-Hungarian resources, both in terms of manpower and in crucial artillery availability. As each battle proceeded the Italians' war of attrition seemed ever more likely to wear the Austro-Hungarians into defeat, short of assistance from their German allies. The Eighth Battle of the Isonzo followed on 10 October 1916.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The Ninth Battle of the Isonzo was an Italian offensive against Austria-Hungary in the course World War I. Including a triumvirate of battles launched after the Italians' successful seizure of Gorizia in August 1916 to extend their bridgehead to the left of the town, it ended in further failure for the Italian Chief of Staff Luigi Cadorna. The battle started with an attack on Vrtojba and the northern and central areas of the Karst Plateau.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo was a World War I battle fought by the Italian and Austro-Hungarian Armies on the Italian Front between 18 August and 12 September 1917.On the Soča (Isonzo) River, Luigi Cadorna, the Italian Chief of Staff, concentrated three quarters of his troops: 600 battalions (52 divisions) with 5,200 guns.The attack was carried forth from a front from Tolmin (in the upper Isonzo valley) to the Adriatic Sea. The Italians crossed the river at several points on temporary bridges, but the main effort was exerted on the Banjšice Plateau, whose capture was to further the offensive and break the Austro-Hungarian lines in two segments, isolating the strongholds of Mount Saint Gabriel and Mount Hermada. After fierce and deadly fightings, the Italian Second Army, led by General Capello, pushed back Boroević's Isonzo Armee, conquering the Bainsizza and Mount Santo. Other positions were taken by the Duke of Aosta's Third Army. However, Mount Saint Gabriel and Mount Hermada turned out to be impregnable, and the offensive wore out. After the battle, the Austro-Hungarians were exhausted, and could not have withstood another attack. Fortunately for them (and unfortunately for their opponents), so were the Italians, who could not find the resources necessary for another assault, even though it might have been the decisive one. So the final result of the battle was an inconclusive bloodbath. Moreover, the end of the battle left the Italian Second Army (until then the most successful of the Italian Armies) split in two parts across the Soča (Isonzo), a weak point that proved to be decisive in the subsequent Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo. To commemorate the participation of the Royal Bavarian Infantry Lifeguards Regiment, Georg Fürst wrote the March "Isonzo-Marsch". Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo 第十一次イゾンツォの戦い

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    The Fifth Battle of the Isonzo was fought from March 9–15, 1916 between the armies of the Kingdom of Italy and those of Austria-Hungary. The Italians, under immense pressure from the French commanders, had decided to launch another offensive on the Soča (Isonzo) River.After four attempts to cross the Soča (Isonzo) river and invade Austro-Hungarian territory, Luigi Cadorna, the Italian commander-in-chief, organized a strong new offensive following the winter lull in fighting which had allowed the Italian High Command to regroup and organize 8 new divisions for the front.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    The Tenth Battle of the Isonzo was an Italian offensive against Austria-Hungary during World War I.With nine largely unsuccessful Isonzo battles conducted within an eighteen-month period to date, Italian Chief of Staff Luigi Cadorna - responsible for launching all nine - became increasingly uncomfortable at the prospect of German intervention to aid their weakening Austro-Hungarian ally on the Italian Front. For while it was clear that the Austro-Hungarian Army was suffering in what had become a war of attrition, the same could be said of Cadorna's army. Casualties suffered to date were tremendous and with each renewed battle tended to be higher on the Italian attackers side. The UK's new Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, had long believed that the war could not be won on the Western Front alone. Dubbed an "easterner" at home Lloyd George was nevertheless in favour of diverting British and French resources from the Western Front to the Italians along the Soča (Isonzo), to "knock the props out" from under the Central Powers. However Lloyd George's own field commanders, including Commander in Chief Douglas Haig - along with the French - disagreed, arguing that resources could not be spared from the Western Front, particularly with French Commander-in-Chief Robert Nivelle's upcoming Aisne Offensive, aimed at ending the war in the west within 48 hours. 第十次イゾンツォの戦い(Tenth Battle of the Isonzo)

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The Austro-Hungarian forces retreated and Gorizia fell to the Italians. They, however, didn't succeed in forcing their way to Trieste, and were stopped northwest of Duino.Fighting culminated on 6 August, when Italian forces under general Luigi Capello launched an attack on Austro-Hungarian positions guarding the main transport road leading from the coast town of Duino to Gorizia. The main objective of the attack was to secure the transport road, thus securing their advance to Gorizia from the south. A plan was drafted by Italian general Luigi Capello, to split the army in half, with one side attacking straight at Austrian positions and the other to attack from the rear.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    In the wake of the battle Italy finally declared war against Germany, on 28 August.In later years, historians maintained that that battle (with 21,000 dead on the Italian side) was a useless and limited conquest, perhaps Cadorna's only victory. In reality, the Austrians, who were short on troops (having to fight on two fronts), retreated to Slovene territory where Cadorna sacrificed thousands of soldiers in futile attempts to advance toward Ljubljana and Trieste. The Austrians, who were better equipped, preferred to preserve their forces. The Italian generals, in an attempt to make up for their poor equipment, committed the Italians to frontal assaults, resulting in massive casualties.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    While Austrian generals wanted to preserve their troops (having to fight on two fronts), which gave them fewer men to defend their border with Italy. In all, this was a strategically important victory for the Italians despite the outcome of the battle. The Sixth Battle of the Isonzo also known as the Battle of Gorizia was the most successful Italian offensive along the Soča (Isonzo) River during World War I.Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf had reduced the Austro-Hungarian forces along the Soča (Isonzo) front to reinforce his Trentino Offensive.