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After the battle, Lettow-Vorbeck continued to occupy positions to the south of Kondoa for two months, launching sporadic raids on Van Deventer's supply columns and communications, and shelling Kondoa with artillery - including two heavy guns salvaged from SMS Königsberg. Van Deventer was unable to attempt an advance due to a lack of horses and the exhaustion of his whole division. General Smuts sent three further South African Regiments - the 10th, 7th and 8th, to secure the position. These men arrived on May 23.


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>After the battle, Lettow-Vorbeck continued to occupy positions to the south of Kondoa for two months, launching sporadic raids on Van Deventer's supply columns and communications, and shelling Kondoa with artillery - including two heavy guns salvaged from SMS Königsberg. ⇒この戦いの後、レトウ‐フォルベックは2か月の間コンドアの南方に陣地を占有し続け、ヴァン・デーヴェンターの供給縦陣と通信機関への散発的急襲を開始し、大砲 ― SMS(帝国艦船)ケーニヒスベルク号から引き上げられた2門の大型砲を含む ― による砲火をコンドアに打ち込んでいた。 >Van Deventer was unable to attempt an advance due to a lack of horses and the exhaustion of his whole division. General Smuts sent three further South African Regiments - the 10th, 7th and 8th, to secure the position. These men arrived on May 23. ⇒ヴァン・デーヴェンターは、騎馬不足と全師団の消耗により進軍を試みることができなかった。(そこで)スマッツ将軍は、位置を守るためさらに南アフリカ3個連隊 ― 第10、第7、第8連隊 ― を派遣した。これらの兵士は、5月23日に到着した。





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    Meanwhile the 2nd Division under Major General J.L. Van Deventer had marched on a broad front from Kondoa Irangi, cutting the Central Railway in three places west of Morogoro. South of Morogoro lay the steep and rugged Uluguru Mountains and General Smuts planned to cut the Central Railway to the east and block the routes on both sides of the Ulugurus, thus forcing the Schutztruppe to stand and fight near Morogoro. On 21st August 1916 General Smuts ordered the 2nd South African Mounted Brigade from 3rd Division to move from Dakawa to Mkata on the railway line to support 2nd Division’s advance from the west that was nearing Kilosa.

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    The Battle of Kondoa Irangi was a battle of the East African Campaign of World War I.Following successes at the battles of Latema Nek and Kahe, Entente forces under the overall command of General Jan Smuts continued their advance southwards into German East Africa. By April 17, 1916, General Van Deventer's 2nd Division had reached the vicinity of the town of Kondoa Irangi - where they made contact with a unit of German Schutztruppe. The 2nd Division succeeded in pushing the enemy back, and captured the town on April 19. Entente casualties were minimal, whilst 20 Askari and 4 Germans were killed and 30 Askaris captured. Also found were 80 modern rifles with ammunition and a large herd of cattle. Despite low casualties, Van Deventer told the high command that the 2nd Division was exhausted and would be unable to continue the advance for some time.

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    With the Portuguese proving unable to defeat the German forces, the British had to bear the brunt of the fighting in Mozambique, and thus began to aggressively pursue Lettow-Vorbeck's small army. By August 1918, the Schutztruppe was heading north to return to German East Africa, while the British under Jacob van Deventer had begun to concentrate their forces in the area of Regone and Lioma in an attempt to encircle their enemy. Though Lettow-Vorbeck had received intel about the British plans, his forces were once again in dire need of supplies and Regone harbored a large supply depot. As result, the German commander planned a quick assault against the vulnerable village in order to capture as many supplies as possible: Speed was crucial for this plan, as Lettow-Vorbeck would have to outrace the British before they could reinforce Regone or catch up with him. Rough terrain, rain and fog hindered and delayed the Schutztruppe, however, so that when it reached Regone on 26 August, the British had already fortified and reinforced it. At this point, the Germans could only have taken Regone by a prolonged siege for which they had no time, so that Lettow-Vorbeck chose to call off the attack. His forces bypassed Regone and instead began to march to Lioma, another supply depot. Unknown to the Germans, a British battalion (1/1st KAR) already managed to reinforce the village on 28 August, while two other battalions also force-marched toward Lioma. Between the British forces at Regone and the units that gathered at Lioma the Schutztruppe would be trapped, and if everything went according to van Deventer's plans, destroyed. While British skirmishers harassed the approaching German forces, the 1/1st KAR under Maj Alexander Charles Masters dug in at Lioma: They formed a square defensive perimeter south of the village, and three small platoon outposts were also set up west, east and south of the British positions. Thus prepared, the Lioma garrison waited for the Schutztruppe, which would arrive in the area on 30 August. By 1918, the once strong Schutztruppe, which had successfully resisted the allies for four years, was much depleted and exhausted. Of its peak strength of around 15,000 soldiers in 1916 just about 1,600 were left. Many African as well as European soldiers had deserted or surrendered as the allies overran their home areas in German East Africa, wages were no longer paid, and life in the army became harder and more brutal.

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    Once Königsberg came within 9,000 yd (8,200 m) of Pegasus, she began firing salvos. Pegasus sat at anchor in Zanzibar Harbour, preparing steam and at that moment, was helpless. For about 20 minutes while Königsberg fired, Pegasus remained stationary. Pegasus did raise the White Ensign and began firing, but her shells splashed into the water well short of Königsberg. The light cruiser slowly continued forward and fired until the range had closed to within 7,000 yd (6,400 m). One of the first British sailors wounded was gunnery officer Lieutenant Richard Turner, who suffered both of his legs being mangled by shrapnel. Despite his injuries, Turner rallied his men, telling them; "Keep it up, lads, we’re outclassed and done for; but damn them, and keep it up!" The British continued their futile fight for around 20 minutes more, taking additional hits from Königsberg, the majority landing on Pegasus' deck. Her ensign was shot away during the fight. Also, because the Germans were always at least 2,000 yd (1,800 m) beyond the range of Pegasus' guns, no British rounds struck Königsberg. Pegasus became holed near her waterline and began taking on water. All hope of defeating the Germans having gone, Ingles struck his colours and gave the order to abandon ship. Pegasus later sank. After Königsberg had finished with Pegasus, she fired a few parting shots at Helmuth, whose crew managed to abandon ship before one of the German cruiser's salvos struck the tug. Having achieved a clear victory, Königsberg turned around and headed back for the Rufiji Delta. The Royal Navy's losses were Pegasus sunk and Helmuth damaged. Thirty-eight British sailors on Pegasus had died; another 55 sailors were wounded, most of whom had been top-side when hit. Staff Surgeon Alfred J. Hewitt was on the deck of Pegasus from the beginning to the end of the battle, aiding wounded sailors and marines. Captain Ingles later recognized Hewitt's courageous behaviour in a report on the action. Although Helmuth had taken a hit from Königsberg, the damage to the tug was relatively minor and her crew managed to reboard her after Königsberg had sailed off. Only one man on board Helmuth died, a non-enlisted native working in the engine room. The hospital ship Gascon and the Scottish merchant ship SS Clan Macrae rescued the survivors of Pegasus. Twenty-four of the British sailors that died in the battle were buried in a mass grave in the naval cemetery on Grave island, Zanzibar, while 14 others were laid to rest at the town's cemetery before being moved in 1971 to the Dar es Salaam war cemetery. The British salvaged six of Pegasus' guns from the wreck and later used them in the East African land campaign.

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    Its proximity to the border of German East Africa, and the belief that it was defended by only a small detachment of just 300 men without artillery made it an attractive initial objective for Smuts' offensive. The advance into German East Africa was conducted by the 2nd South African Division, commanded by Brigadier General Wilfrid Malleson. Malleson had little combat experience, having served on the staff of British Field Marshal Kitchener and as part of the British military mission to Afghanistan prior to the outbreak of the First World War.

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    In East Africa, the Congo Act was first broken by the British. On 5 August 1914, troops from the Uganda protectorate assaulted German river outposts near Lake Victoria, and on 8 August a direct naval attack commenced when the Royal Navy warships HMS Astraea and Pegasus bombarded Dar es Salaam from several miles offshore. In response, the commander of the German forces in East Africa, Lieutenant Colonel Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, bypassed Governor Schnee, nominally his superior, and began to organize his troops for battle. At the time, the German Schutztruppe in East Africa consisted of 260 Germans of all ranks and 2,472 Askari and was approximately numerically equal with the two battalions of the King's African Rifles (KAR) based in the British East African colonies.

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    General Koos de la Rey, under the influence of Siener van Rensburg a "crazed seer", believed that the outbreak of war foreshadowed the return of the republic but was persuaded by Botha and Smuts on 13 August not to rebel and on 15 August told his supporters to disperse. At a congress on 26 August, De la Rey claimed loyalty to South Africa, not Britain or Germany. The Commandant-General of the Union Defence Force, Brigadier-General Christiaan Frederick Beyers, opposed the war and with the other rebels, resigned his commission on 15 September. General Koos de la Rey joined Beyers and on 15 September they visited Major JCG (Jan) Kemp in Potchefstroom, who had a large armoury and a force of 2,000 men, many of whom were thought to be sympathetic. The South African government believed it to be an attempt to instigate a rebellion, Beyers claimed that it was to discuss plans for a simultaneous resignation of leading army officers, similar to the Curragh incident in Britain.

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    German aircraft intercepted the first pair of bombing aircraft and forced them to turn back but the next two from I Brigade, managed to bomb Busigny station. Two aircraft sent to bomb St. Quentin were intercepted and chased back to the British lines and the next pair was caught by anti-aircraft fire at Brie, one pilot turning back wounded and the other disappearing. Of five aircraft which attacked Cambrai, two were shot down, one was damaged by return fire from a train being attacked and the other two failed to hit moving trains. An offensive patrol by 60 Squadron during the bombing raids, lost one aircraft to a Fokker.

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    During its advance from Moshi, the division had lost more than 2,000 horses, mostly due to the Tsetse fly. Smuts then ordered van Deventer to consolidate his position at Kondoa Irangi, and reinforcements were brought up to aid this process. During this period, the rainy season began. This caused huge supply problems for the Entente force, as railway bridges were washed away by swollen rivers and roads became impassable. The 2nd Division was completely cut off, and was forced to scavenge for supplies around Kondoa. The result was a fall in health and morale.While Van Deventer was stuck in Kondoa, German commander Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck used the delay to hurriedly reinforce his positions around the town - bringing a large proportion of his total force in from Tjsambara.

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    Lieutenant-Colonel Freeth (with 18 men) and Major Thompson (with 170 men) held onto the summits of Latema and Reata. Tighe was unable to follow the events of the battle and fearing heavy casualties and possible counterattack, ordered a withdrawal at 4:20am. However, as patrols reached the Nek to order the retreat, they found Freeth and Thompson in command of the heights and the Germans in full retreat. Smuts ordered the 8th South African Regiment to the field in order to consolidate the position. Following the battle the Germans retreated to Lake Kahe in order to prepare further defences. Freeth and Thompson were both awarded the Distinguished Service Order for their decisive roles in the engagement. General Tighe retained his command of the 2nd Division as Mallesons replacement.