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Romania begun its World War I in August 1916, when Romanian forces invaded Transylvania passing the border on the Carpathian Mountains. The Romanian forces quickly defeated the small number of Austro-Hungarian forces based in the border area and started their advance into Austro-Hungarian territory, but they were halted soon. Meanwhile, a Central Powers force comprising Bulgarian, German and Turkish troops and led by August von Mackensen entered Dobruja in southeastern Romania. Facing more serious threats than expected, the Romanian Crown Council decided to reinforce the 3rd Army, led by General Alexandru Averescu, by 150,000 men.


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>Romania begun its World War I in August 1916, when Romanian forces invaded Transylvania passing the border on the Carpathian Mountains. The Romanian forces quickly defeated the small number of Austro-Hungarian forces based in the border area and started their advance into Austro-Hungarian territory, but they were halted soon. Meanwhile, a Central Powers force comprising Bulgarian, German and Turkish troops and led by August von Mackensen entered Dobruja in southeastern Romania. ⇒ルーマニア軍団がカルパチヤ山脈の国境を通ってトランシルバニアに侵入した1916年8月に、ルーマニアは第一次世界大戦を開始した。ルーマニア軍団は、国境地域に基地を置く少数のオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍団を速やかに破って、オーストリア‐ハンガリー領域への進軍を始めたが、まもなく食い止められた。一方、ブルガリア、ドイツおよびトルコの軍隊から成る中央同盟国軍は、アウグスト・フォン・マッケンゼンの指揮によって、南東ルーマニアのドブルージャに侵入した。 >Facing more serious threats than expected, the Romanian Crown Council decided to reinforce the 3rd Army, led by General Alexandru Averescu, by 150,000 men. ⇒予想より深刻な脅威に直面して、ルーマニアの王室議会は、アレクサンドル・アヴェレスク将軍麾下に、150,000人の兵士による第3方面軍の補強を決定した。





  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    On the night of 27 August, three Romanian armies crossed the largely undefended Carpathian passes, meeting only sporadic resistance by Austro-Hungarian border units. The Romanian plan (Hypothesis Z) called for a rapid advance to the strategically important Mureş River with Budapest as the ultimate target.The main advance was carried on by the Second Army, with the First and Fourth on its flanks. The second Army crossed the border on the night of 27–28 August and advanced into Transylvania. In the first phase of the offensive (27 August-2 September), the Second Army conquered the Lepșa, Putna, Năruja and Zăbala Vallyes and advanced towards Covasna.

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    The Prunaru Charge (Romanian: Şarja de la Prunaru) was one of the most daring actions of the Romanian Armed Forces in World War I. The cavalry charge took place on November 28 [O.S. November 15] 1916 in Prunaru (today part of Bujoreni commune, Teleorman County), and was a component operation of the Battle of Bucharest.After the Danube was breached by German, Bulgarian and Ottoman troops under the command of General August von Mackensen, and after German-Austro-Hungarian forces under the command of General Erich von Falkenhayn crossed the Carpathians, the Central Powers planned to trap and annihilate the Romanian forces between these two natural barriers and, by implication, remove Romania from the war.

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    An Austro-Hungarian coal barge was also shelled and damaged by Romanian artillery. Due to the deteriorating situation in Transylvania, General Averescu decided to cancel the offensive, ordering his troops back to the Romanian side of the river on October 3, after repairing the damaged parts of the bridge. Two Austro-Hungarian barges were blown up and destroyed by Romanian forces on the night of that same day. The Austro-Hungarian flotilla finally left the scene in the early hours of 4 October, after being informed that the Romanian river monitors were approaching the area. The Danube remained a barrier to military operations until half of Mackensen's army crossed it in late November, 1916.

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    The Austro-Hungarian forces retreated and Gorizia fell to the Italians. They, however, didn't succeed in forcing their way to Trieste, and were stopped northwest of Duino.Fighting culminated on 6 August, when Italian forces under general Luigi Capello launched an attack on Austro-Hungarian positions guarding the main transport road leading from the coast town of Duino to Gorizia. The main objective of the attack was to secure the transport road, thus securing their advance to Gorizia from the south. A plan was drafted by Italian general Luigi Capello, to split the army in half, with one side attacking straight at Austrian positions and the other to attack from the rear.

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    In cooperation with the German 9th Army, the Romanian invasion was repelled and its forces were thrown back across the border within eight weeks, leading to Arz receiving the respect and appreciation of the new Austro-Hungarian emperor, Karl I. Other commanders also hailed his achievements during the campaign, with Conrad writing that he had "proved to be an energetic resolute leader in the most difficult situations..." and Boroević stating that Arz was an "Honourable, noble character....outstanding general." Arz was to remain in charge of the 1st Army until February 1917, after major operations in Romania ended, with help from Falkenhayn's 9th German Army and from the German Army of the Danube under Mackensen.Karl I of Austria succeeded Franz Joseph as Emperor on 21 November 1916, bringing with him a wave of change across the upper echelons of the government and military command.

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    Holding out against superior enemy forces, by August 30 the Romanian troops stemmed the advance of the Gerok Group, successively reinforced with numerous forces and means, which only managed to achieve 2–6 km-deep and 18–20 km-wide breakthrough in the defensive disposition of the Romanian Second Army. The definitive discontinuing of the Central Powers' general offensive on the Romanian front on September 3, 1917 therefore marked their strategic defeat and a considerable weakening of their forces on the South-Eastern front, the response given by the Romanian army being the strongest blow they were dealt in East Europe in 1917. Romania lost over 27,000 men, including 610 officers, while Germany and Austria-Hungary lost over 47,000. The Romanian heroine Ecaterina Teodoroiu was killed by machine gun fire on September 3. Five days later, Karl von Wenninger (de), a Major General in the German Army, was killed by artillery fire near the village of Muncelu.In March 1918, Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and Austrian-German forces advanced in Ukraine that May. This left Romania surrounded by the Central Powers, forcing them to sign the Treaty of Bucharest.

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    Violent fighting continued on August 10, exhausting the Romanians, who could not reinforce their lines properly due to the concurrent fighting at Mărăşeşti. Only the 1st Cavalry Division arrived on August 11, immediately entering combat and recapturing the area south of Mount Coṣna and Stibor Hill in the evening. German units which occupied the village of Oituz were pushed back by the mountain troops and armored cars of the 2nd Corps. On August 12, the newly arrived "Vânători de munte" (Mountain troops) Battalion, after a 160 kilometres (99 mi) march and a 20-minute rest, attacked Cireşoaia peak, in tandem with the 27th Regiment and one other Romanian and two Russian battalions. The mountain troops broke through the 70th Infantry Division's defenses, taking 417 prisoners, while suffering only 21 casualties. The Austro-Hungarian division suffered nearly 1,500 total casualties at Cireşoaia. On August 13, another Romanian reinforcement, the Grăniceri (Border Guards) Brigade, attacked Central Powers positions south of the Oituz river, losing more than 800 men while gaining little ground. The 1st Cavalry Division retook Coṣna Mountain and held it against German counterattacks. At Cireşoaia, the 7th Infantry Division attacked together with the Russian 2nd Infantry Division; after initial gains, the Russian 195th Infantry Regiment was repelled, and Austro-Hungarian troops threatened the Romanians' flanks. Subsequently, the advance was halted.

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    The Second Battle of Oituz was a confrontation between Romanian and, to a lesser extent, Russian forces on one side and German and Austro-Hungarian forces on the other, during the Romanian Campaign of World War I. The battle took place primarily in the Oituz valley in Bacău County, Romania, between August 8 and August 20, 1917.The Austro-Hungarian First Army planned to attack Romanian positions along the Oituz valley, primarily using the Gerock Group, which recently participated in the Battle of Mărăşti. The 8th Corps would undertake the main effort; it comprised one German and two Austro-Hungarian infantry divisions deployed between Valea Dofteanei and Măgura Caṣinului, and two Austro-Hungarian cavalry divisions in reserve. In front of them, the Romanian Second Army deployed the 2nd and 4th Corps, with a total of six infantry divisions (1st, 3rd, 6th, 7th, 9th, 12th) and two reserve battalions. The attack would be carried out on a 7 km front, and the Romanians were outnumbered 4 to 1. Several kilometres behind the Romanian lines was the Trotuş River valley, which led to the rear of the Romanian and Russian front; thus, a successful Central Powers offensive at Oituz could have had potentially disastrous effects for the Allied war effort in Romania.The attack began on August 8, after a violent four-hour artillery barrage. The fortified Pravila peak, held by the Romanian 27th Dorobanṭi Regiment "Bacău", was assaulted four times by the Austro-Hungarian 70th Infantry Division, without result. The German 117th Infantry division was more successful advancing 1-2 km around Ungureanu peak and inflicting heavy losses on the 16th Dorobanti Regiment "Baia". To the south, the 10th Dorobanṭi Regiment "Putna" managed to hold its ground. During the night, the Romanian 4th Corps counterattacked in the German-held areas, taking 200 prisoners and retaking some lost ground. The following afternoon, however, the Central Powers attacked in force, taking Pravila peak and advancing near Mount Coṣna. The Romanian 7th Infantry Division retreated to a new defensive line.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Indeed, on the Romanian declaration of war on 27 August, the 1st 'Army' comprised a mere 10,000 men (half a division). A slow Romanian advance combined with hysterical outcry from Budapest led to the 1st Army being considerably and rapidly strengthened to drive back the challenge from the south.Romanian forces crossed the frontier on 28 August 1916 with six separate forces pushing through the six Carpathian passes to converge on Braşov. By 4 September they had succeeded in pushing nearly as far as Sepsiszentgyörgy in the Szekler territories. In order to fend off these six separate invasions, Arz, now fighting on his home turf, ordered the 71st Infantry Division and 141st and 142nd Brigades to the sector. Simultaneously, the Romanian North Army sought to advance along the entire Moldavian front in the Eastern Carpathians, although in fact this amounted to an advance in the northern sector, where the Russian 9th Army was best placed to aid the advance. To counter this strike, Arz deployed the 16th, 19th and elements of the 61st divisions.

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    1 mountain brigade – the 8th Austro-Hungarian brigade reinforced with 2 battalions from the 71st Austro-Hungarian infantry division 1 cavalry brigade 2 infantry divisions In reserve: The 7th Austro-Hungarian cavalry division. The ratio of forces was as follows: Force categories     2nd Romanian Army     Gerok Group     Ratio of forces   Infantry battalions 56 28 2/1 Cavalry squadrons 14 36 1/2.6 Artillery pieces 228 142 1.6/1 In the summer of 1917, one of the largest concentrations of forces in the First World War was located in Romania: 9 armies, 80 infantry and 19 cavalry divisions, totalling 974 battalions, 550 squadrons and 923 artillery batteries. 800,000 combatants and 1,000,000 reservists were present.When the operation began the situation on the Mărăşti-Nămoloasa front was as follows: the 2nd Romanian Army was positioned between Arşiţa Mocanului hill and the commune of Răcoasa. The 9th Russian Army was on its right flank and the 7th Russian Army on its left flank. Each of the three divisions from the first-order vanguard of the 2nd Army covered some 12 km of the front. Facing the Romanians was the right flank of the First Austro-Hungarian Army; more specifically, these were elements of the Gerok Group. The main Austro-Hungarian forces were placed between Momâia hill and Arșița Mocanului hill. Again, each division covered 12 km of the front.The Romanian order for battle provided for the principal offensive to unfold in three phases. The first phase envisioned breaking through the enemy defenses between Încărcătoarea clearing and the village of Mărăşti with the aim of taking Teiuş hill. The 3rd Infantry Division and right-flank forces of the 6th Infantry Division were selected to break through, after which they were to hold the Încărcătoarea clearing–Câmpurile–Vizantea Mânăstirească–Găurile line.