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Although most old people do not live in poverty, most live below standard. Given their health problems, furthermore, they live further below standard than their dollar incomes would suggest (Bengtson & Haber, 1975). Another reason to question the value of the poverty index, or any index based on number of dollars of income, is that they are not satisfactory indexes of the relative quality of life. They are based on adequacy of income without taking into consideration preretirement income (see Walther, 1975). A person whose pension income is substantially below the preretirement income must suffer a substantial reduction in standard of living without additional funds. お願いします。


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    高齢者のほとんどが貧困生活をしている訳ではないが、標準以下の生活をしている。     しかも、既存の健康状態の如何によって、収入の金額が示しているよりも標準を下回る生活をしている(ベントン・へイバー1975) さらに貧困指数、あるいは収入額に基づくそれ以外の指数の価値を疑わせるものは、(単なる収入額は)比較的な生活水準の手がかりとしては不十分であるからである。これらは退職前の収入を考慮に入れないで、収入が十分かどうか決定する基礎にしている(ウオルター1975参照)。退職前の収入に比べて、それ以後のペンションが大幅に低い場合には、追加資金なしには、大幅の生活水準のの低下を覚悟しなければならない。    結局高齢者の場合医療費がかかるから、現役の時と同じドルで言う収入があっても、現役時代と同じレベルの生活が出来る訳ではない。また収入額だけを基礎にした色んな指数も、退職後の問題は違うのだから宛てにならない、退職前と後との差が大切なのだ。     といったことですね。



ありがとうござます。 助かりました。


  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Dependency Poverty is not common in old age, but it is far from rare, especially among nonwhite old people. In 1973, about one out of seven (14.4 percent) old whites were below the low-income level used to define poverty, while more than one-third (35.5 percent) of old nonwhites were poor. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Retirement can be successful, however. In one study of automobile workers who retired early or at the usual age, satisfaction with retirement was greater when: (1) they had planned the retirement, (2) their health was good, (3) their standard of living was at least as good as before retirement, (4) their income was high, (5) they were well educated, and (6) the company had a preretirement program. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Another problem is that the finding was based on a conception of “intelligence” that most developmental psychologists now reject. Specifically, the finding was from studies in which a single global IQ score was the only measure of a person’s intelligence. It is now known that intelligence is not a single unitary trait, but rather consists of several distinct and relatively independent skills or abilities, such as verbal fluency and numerical ability. The fact that these abilities are relatively independent suggests that they should not be limped together into one global score. Another reason not to combine them is that they seem to depend to different degrees on heredity. Finally, and of most importance to developmental psychologists, different abilities exhibit different patterns of change through the life span. お願いします。

  • わからない英文があります

    Antipersonnel mines are laid on or under the ground so that they explode when they are stepped on.They have only one purpose: to kill and injure people. Many of those injured by mines die a slow death. Those who survive often live lives of misery, poverty, and discrimination. この英文でThose who survive often live lives of misery, poverty, and discrimination.の survive often live lives...についてなんですが動詞surviveの後に再び動詞liveが来るなんてありえるのですか? Those who survive often live lives of misery, poverty, and discrimination.の英文はどのように日本語に訳せばいいでしょうか? あとdie a ~death という熟語はどういう意味ですか?

  • 英文の添削お願いします。

    課題文:Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?Young people should start to live on their own and become indepentent of their parents as early as possible.Give reasons to support your opinion. 解答: (1)I think young people should start to live on their own and become independent of their parents as early as possible. (2)I think so because,when they start working they will have to do everything by theirselves.Their parents won't help them any more.If they are not independent of their parents,they cannot work. (3)Second, if they start to live on their own,they will know that doing houseworks such as making meals,cleaning rooms is hard work. (4)And the most important reason is that,when they have their children,they have to teach their children a lot of things by them selves.If they are not indepentent of their parents,they can't raise their children properly. (5)I have friends who live on their own.They are doing everything by theirselves,so they look confident. (6)With above reasons I think young peole should start to live on their own and becomeindependent of their parents.約150words,30分 TOEFL対策の問題です。 後々読み直してみると、 firstがないのにsecondを使ったり、 一番大事な理由を述べているパラグラフの位置が中途半端だったり、 無駄にパラグラフを多くしてしまった点がよくなかったように思います。 文章構成・表現・文法なんでも稚拙な部分が多くあると思うので直したほうがよい所やアドバイスがあったらぜひ教えてください。 よろしくお願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    The picture is complicated because some persons carry over their work-related tasks into retirement, and some workers see the leisure after retirement as their just reward. Finally, “it seems entirely possible that, given sufficient income and transportation, the elderly who are in good health would willingly make use of whatever sources of leisure entertainment were available without longing for work” (Kalish,1975, p. 115). Retirement then is task for the society as well as for elderly persons. お願いします。

  • 次の英文の意味がわかりません。

    訳していただけないでしょうか? Imagine children being said during their childhood, that they shouldn't say that or that, because it's not polite (children are usually direct). Then, when they grow, they don't know how to act without hurting people. In some countries, for most of the people saying "no" it's challenging, because they want to pleased everybody. 何となくはわかる様な気がしますが、理解が不十分なので教えてください。 よろしくお願いします。

  • 英文和訳について、です。

    英文和訳についての質問です。 次の英文を和訳していただけないでしょうか? 宜しくお願い致します。 A sociologist named P. Townsend of England made an important discovery about poverty in a prosperous society. To summarize Townsend's argument in a very simple way: "There are people who can't do what everyone takes for granted, and that percentage rises rapidly below a certain income level." Will be. For example, let's say that there is a shared perception that having a bath at home is a matter of course for Japanese people. However, in rooms where households with incomes below a certain level live, the bathroom installation rate drops rapidly. Then, people with less than this income are "poor" in the sense that they are not enjoying what is taken for granted in society. Townsend called this relative deprivation (Relative Deprivation) and positioned it as an important feature of poverty in modern society.

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    First, wives tend to be younger than their husbands, by an average of two or three years (Troll, 1975), and thus would naturally be expected to outlive them. Second, women have a longer life expectancy than men all over the world. Finally, elderly widowers are more likely to remarry than elderly widows. Widowers have more to gain from remarrying than widows because husbands often depend entirely on their wives for males, housekeeping, and homemaking, hence their lives are disrupted in major ways by loss of their spouse (Lopata, 1975). In addition, wives often are responsible for maintaining contact with relatives, hence the widower loses contact with them. Finally, husbands do not expect to outlive their wives, hence are not psychologically prepared-socialized-for the loss (Treas, 1975). お願いします。

  • 英文を日本語に訳してください。よろしくお願いします

    ・Of the three categories, chronic hunger affects the most people. ・The poor tenants in India spend most of their income on their rent. ・Hunger exists only in the developing countries where agriculture is underdeveloped. ・Hidden hunger is not caused by lack of food, but by the fact that the victims cannot afford such expensive prices for it. ・Politicians could never reduce famine because they cannot change food distribution systems.