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Another problem is that the finding was based on a conception of “intelligence” that most developmental psychologists now reject. Specifically, the finding was from studies in which a single global IQ score was the only measure of a person’s intelligence. It is now known that intelligence is not a single unitary trait, but rather consists of several distinct and relatively independent skills or abilities, such as verbal fluency and numerical ability. The fact that these abilities are relatively independent suggests that they should not be limped together into one global score. Another reason not to combine them is that they seem to depend to different degrees on heredity. Finally, and of most importance to developmental psychologists, different abilities exhibit different patterns of change through the life span. お願いします。


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  • sayshe
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もう一つの問題は、ほとんどの発達心理学者が、現在では拒絶する「知能」の概念に、その発見が基づいていたということです。 具体的には、その発見は、一つの包括的なIQ得点がある人の知能の唯一の尺度であるという研究から出てきたものでした。知能が単一の統一された特徴ではなくて、むしろ、例えば、ことばの流暢さや数に関する能力と言う様な、いくつかの異なる比較的独立した技術や能力から成ると言うことが、現在では知られています。 これらの能力が比較的独立しているという事実は、それらが、無理に一つの包括的な得点になるべきではないと言うことを示唆しています。 それらを統合するべきではないもう一つの理由は、それらの遺伝への依存度が異なる様に思えると言うことです。 最後に、そして、発達心理学者にとって最も重要なのは、異なる能力は、一生を通じて異なる変化のパターンを示すと言うことです。



ありがとうございます。 助かりました。


  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    For many years, one of the best-established findings in developmental psychology was that intelligence declines in old age. It is now known, however, that this “finding” is partly false. The data were obtained in cross-sectional research, and apparently reflected differences between birth cohorts to a large extent, because the finding has not been entirely confirmed in research with longitudinal or sequential designs (see Chapter 6, pp, 166-168). お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Fluid abilities should change with changes in physiological characteristics of the person. Since marked physiological changes occur in old age, marked changes in fluid abilities should also occur. In contrast, crystallized intelligence should tend to be maintained, in spite of the mutual withdrawal of the elderly person and society, because contact with the culture is only reduced, not eliminated. The best estimates presently available support these predictions, in that crystallized abilities seem to be maintained during old age or even to increase, while fluid abilities decline. Thus, the “well-established finding” is now considered to be only partly correct for the individual. It is true that some intellectual abilities decline in old age-and more markedly than had been believed-but others are maintained until “terminal drop” begins. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくれる方はいませんか?

    Adulthood Developmental psychologists have disagreed about the age range that should define the stage of young adulthood. The word adult is derived from the past participle of the Latin verb adolescere, to grow up. Thus, by derivation an adolescent is one who is growing up, an adult is a “grown-up”. The problem of definition is that the adult is supposed to be grown up not only with respect to physical characteristics, but also with respect to psychological characteristics. He or she is supposed to be mature physically and psychologically. Physical maturity is difficult to measure, and psychological maturity is difficult even to define, especially because some psychological processes continue to improve until very old age. Because of the difficulty of measuring physical and psychological maturity, many developmentalist have by-passed the problem, and adopted a definition based only on age level. お願いします。

  • 英文解釈について

    just as clearly, unintelligence is not what most psychologists seem to suppose, the same thing as intelligence but not as much of it. 全く同じように明らかなことは、知性がないということは、たいていの心理学者が考えているように思えること、すなわち、知性と同じものだが知性ほどその量が多くない、ということではない。 as much of itの部分が全く分かりません。 省略か何かが起こってるんでしょうか?

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    According to another stereotype, a major crisis occurs in middle age, the “mid-life crisis.” However, psychologists have not been able to agree when it occurs, some arguing for the 20s, some for the 60s, and others for every age in between. Furthermore, they disagree about the nature of this crisis. One might suspect, then, that the concept lacks a firm basis of facts. Supporting this suspicion, a recent study showed that middle age is actually the best period of adulthood. Feelings of alienation, powerlessness, meaninglessness, and disengagement were most prevalent in young adulthood and least prevalent in middle age. The elderly group in the study was intermediate. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    The cycle ends Other things equal, the death of an old person disturbs us less than the death of a young person, apparently because early death is considered somehow unfair (Kastenbaum, 1975; Roth, 1977). The word death refers to both an event-dying-and the result of this event. It is difficult to distinguish between clinical death and biological death. Clinical death is defined by the absence of vital sings, but after the disappearance of vital sings some biological structures continue to function for an appreciable length of time, and different structures continue to “live” for different lengths of time. Biological death varies, in other words, for different structures in the body. Brain cells are among the first to die when oxygen in the blood is depleted, either because the blood is not oxygenated (as in drowning) or because the blood is not circulated (as in heart failure). Presumably, the mind ceases to function when the brain cells die, although this presumption is challenged in some religions. お願いします。

  • ある英文(二つ)について質問です。

    What surprised him was the unique shape of the statue. whatが関係代名詞の主格なのですが、文は「彼を驚かせたもの」であり「彼が驚いた」のではないのだから(意味上はそうですが)、what suprising him となぜならないのでしょうか? Just as clearly, unintelligence is not what most psychologists seem to suppose, the same thing as intelligence but not as much of it. この文なのですが構造がややこしくていまいちわかりません。訳を読めばなんとなくはわかりますが、絶対の自信を持って訳を当てはめることができないんです。 以上二点、どなかよろしくお願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Intelligence Neugarten (1976) has summarized the known facts about aging and intelligence as follows: a. Speed of responding declines with age. One consequence is that the elderly will perform especially poorly when the test is given under speeded conditions. b. Chronological age is not a good predictor of performance. c. Old people who remain physically and mentally active perform better than those who become inactive. d. Educational level predicts performance in old age; the higher the educational attainment, the better the performance. e. Intellectual decline seems to be inversely related longevity; the less bright die younger. f. Intellectual decline is greater in old men than in old woman. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文の和訳を教えてください。

    It's true that some people feel irrational guilt about things they don't have any independent reason to think are wrong—but that's not the way morality is supposed to work.

  • 下記の英文を訳してくれる方はいませんか?

    Developmental tasks The period of young adulthood begins with the completion of formal schooling and entry into the job and marriage market. For married parents it ends with departure of the children; for others the end is related to psychologically meaningful events which reveal they are no longer “promising” youngsters. Erikson identified the crisis of this period as intimacy vs. isolation. A major developmental task is the development of intimacy, especially with the opposite sex. During adolescence, the biology of sex is of more concern and interest than are interpersonal affection and intimacy (McCandless, 1970). During early adulthood, however, a failure to establish intimacy leads to isolation and stifles further psychological growth (Erikson, 1963). お願いします。