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The cycle ends Other things equal, the death of an old person disturbs us less than the death of a young person, apparently because early death is considered somehow unfair (Kastenbaum, 1975; Roth, 1977). The word death refers to both an event-dying-and the result of this event. It is difficult to distinguish between clinical death and biological death. Clinical death is defined by the absence of vital sings, but after the disappearance of vital sings some biological structures continue to function for an appreciable length of time, and different structures continue to “live” for different lengths of time. Biological death varies, in other words, for different structures in the body. Brain cells are among the first to die when oxygen in the blood is depleted, either because the blood is not oxygenated (as in drowning) or because the blood is not circulated (as in heart failure). Presumably, the mind ceases to function when the brain cells die, although this presumption is challenged in some religions. お願いします。


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  • sayshe
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周期が終了する 他のもの同等であれば、年をとった人の死は、若者の死ほど、我々を悩ませません、なぜならば、明らかに早死は、ともかくも不当であると思われるからです(カステンバウム、1975; ロス、1977)。死と言う語は、死と言う出来事とこの出来事の結果の両方を指しています。臨床死と生物学的死を区別することは、困難です。臨床死は、バイタルサイン(血圧や心拍数などのこと)が無くなることが特徴です、しかし、バイタルサインの消滅の後、いくつかの生物学的構造は、かなりの時間の間機能し続けます、そして、異なる構造は、異なる時間の長さの間「生き」続けます。言い換えると、体の異なる構造のために、生物学的死は変化すると言うことです。血中の酸素が減少するとき、脳細胞は最初に死ぬものの一つです、これは、(おぼれる場合のように)血液が酸素を与えられないためか、あるいは、(心臓麻痺の場合のように)血液が循環しないためのいずれかの理由によります。おそらく、脳細胞が死ぬとき、心は機能するのを停止します、ただし、この推定は、いくつかの宗教で疑問を呈されてはいます。



回答ありがとうございます。 助かりました。


  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Regarding the question of whether death is a life crisis, one noted authority concluded that it is not invariably a crisis for an individual person. “There are people among us who seldom give thought to death. Some of these people come to death before death has come to mind-accidents, foul play, sudden traumas of various kinds. A crisis was neither anticipated nor experienced in such instances. Others among us do think of death, but minus the doomsday visions. There are people who seem to view personal annihilation with equanimity, and others who are serene because, for them, death does not represent annihilation. Still others feel sorely troubled with the life they are experiencing, and death is seen as the solution rather than the problem” (Kastenbaum, 1975, p. 48). お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Physical and mental dependency are dealt with in different ways, depending on the resources available. If income is sufficient, the old person may continue to live “independently” in his or her own home. Often, however, monetary resources are too low, and the old person moves in with relatives, usually one of his or her children. If this resource is unavailable, because no child is willing or able to take in the aged and ailing parent, then the only recourse is institutionalization. Only a very small proportion of the aged population is institutionalized, however, amounting in 1970 to about 4 percent of white men, 6 percent of white women, and 3 percent of black men and women. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Death The process of dying may normally go through a sequence of stage. According to Kubler-Ross (1969), if death us not too sudden and if the dying person is aware of what is happening, dying progresses through five stages: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. In the first stage, the person denies that death is impending. In the second stage, the person is typically struggling with the question “Why me?” “Frustration builds and anger overflows as the question resists satisfactory answer” (Kastenbaum, 1975). In the third stage, the person tries to postpone death by making a bargain with God, the doctors, or others. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    In old age, in contrast, the usual cause of losing a spouse is death, and the death is likely to be gradual in onset. Consequently, in principle an old person should have time to prepare for the crisis of losing a spouse, who has become ill. In practice, it turns out that the warning signs are seldom heeded; after all, as pointed out earlier, we are not given the kinds of training-socialization-that would prepare us to meet normal life crises. Consequently, loss of a spouse in old age may be as psychologically sudden in onset as in early adulthood, in effect. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんんか?

    Loss of spouse During the early years of life, loss of souse is certainly not a normally encountered crisis. After adolescence, however, it becomes increasingly common with increasing age. During the early years of adulthood, divorce cause loss of a spouse much more often than death does. Incidentally, the crisis of losing a spouse is more likely to have a gradual onset in the early adult years than a sudden onset, because during these years divorce-the more usual cause of losing a spouse-is likely to result from a gradual buildup of tensions, while death-the less common cause of losing a spouse-is likely to have a sudden onset. The most common cause of death in early adulthood, as in adolescence, is accident. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくれる方はいませんか?

    Adulthood Developmental psychologists have disagreed about the age range that should define the stage of young adulthood. The word adult is derived from the past participle of the Latin verb adolescere, to grow up. Thus, by derivation an adolescent is one who is growing up, an adult is a “grown-up”. The problem of definition is that the adult is supposed to be grown up not only with respect to physical characteristics, but also with respect to psychological characteristics. He or she is supposed to be mature physically and psychologically. Physical maturity is difficult to measure, and psychological maturity is difficult even to define, especially because some psychological processes continue to improve until very old age. Because of the difficulty of measuring physical and psychological maturity, many developmentalist have by-passed the problem, and adopted a definition based only on age level. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Another problem is that the finding was based on a conception of “intelligence” that most developmental psychologists now reject. Specifically, the finding was from studies in which a single global IQ score was the only measure of a person’s intelligence. It is now known that intelligence is not a single unitary trait, but rather consists of several distinct and relatively independent skills or abilities, such as verbal fluency and numerical ability. The fact that these abilities are relatively independent suggests that they should not be limped together into one global score. Another reason not to combine them is that they seem to depend to different degrees on heredity. Finally, and of most importance to developmental psychologists, different abilities exhibit different patterns of change through the life span. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいますか?

    The menopause The word menopause is derived from the Greek menos, mouth, and paueis, to cause to cease. It refers to an abrupt period of time in which physiological changes in women result in natural termination of menstruation and the menstrual cycle. During the menopause, women sometimes experience “hot flashes”, and many women report that period is unpleasant. It signals the end of fertility, but it is not viewed by middle-aged women as a heavy crisis; only 4 percent checked “the menopause” in a question on the worst thing about middle age, and most women who are postmenopausal feel positively about it (Troll, 1975). お願いします。

  • 下記の英文について教えてください

    I am, actually. The essence of the African American experience is we’re hybrid people, because the concept of race in America is not just genetic; it’s cultural. It’s this notion of a people who look different than the mainstream, suffering discrimination and for many decades terrible oppression, but somehow being able to make out of that a music and a language and a faith and a patriotism and a belief in this project we call America that is unique. It’s this notion からの意味を教えてください。また、最後の関係代名詞の先行詞は何になりますか? オバマ元大統領のインタビューでの発言です。半分白人であるオバマ氏がアフリカ系アメリカ人と描写されることに納得はいきますか、という質問への答えです。よろしくお願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくれる方はいませんか?

    Other tasks of early adulthood are to establish and maintain a home and family; to enter and maintain a career; to become part of a congenial social group; and to discharge the obligations of citizenship (Troll, 1975). These general tasks are obviously not solvable by any single behavioral change, but rather require many adjustments in many behaviors. Resolution, in other words, requires adaptation to “large number s of detailed task-lets” (Havighrst. 1973, p, 10), which can be grouped in various ways. An example is the general tasks of establishing and maintaining a family. To accomplish this task, one must normally have a mate, which requires nit only selecting a duce and rear children (the average is still more than one per family), obtain and manage a home, etc. お願いします。