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Disengagement As people get older, they tend to withdraw gradually from society, and at the same time society tends to withdraw from them. This progressive, mutual withdrawal is called disengagement. Because of disengagement, old people are less interested in having social contacts, and have fewer social contacts, with less emotional involvement in them. Viewed positively, disengagement permits the old person to enjoy a more leisurely way of life, but working against this positive aspect of disengagement is the work ethic that requires activity, including social activity to maintain a sense of self-worth (Kalish, 1975). お願いします。


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離脱 人々が年を取るにつれて、彼らは徐々に社会から遠ざかってゆく傾向があります、そして、同時に、社会も彼らから遠ざかってゆく傾向があります。この漸進的な、相互撤回は、離脱と呼ばれています。離脱のために、高齢者は社会的な接触をすることにより興味をなくし、社会的な接触が少なくなりますし、社会的な接触に対する感情的な関与も減少します。前向きに見れば、離脱によって高齢者はよりのんびりした生活様式を楽しむことができます、しかし、離脱のこの前向きな面に悪く作用するのは、活動を要求する労働観であり、自尊心の感覚を維持するための社会的活動も含みます(カリシュ、1975)。 ☆disengagementの心理学における訳語は「離脱」でよいようです。検索ではPDFが多かったのでURLを参考として載せませんが、ご自身でも「disengagement とは 心理学」で検索してみて下さい。



ありがとうございます。 助かりました。


  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Dependency Poverty is not common in old age, but it is far from rare, especially among nonwhite old people. In 1973, about one out of seven (14.4 percent) old whites were below the low-income level used to define poverty, while more than one-third (35.5 percent) of old nonwhites were poor. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Loss of a spouse through death is relatively uncommon before middle age, but becomes increasingly more common after old age begins. An old person without a mate is much more likely to be a woman than to be a man. This fact has several important implications for old people, but before commenting on these implications, we might mention some of the causes of the sex difference. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくれる方はいませんか?

    The mature years According to a popular stereotype, the accumulated experience of the elderly makes them wise and valued advisers. However, research has shown that in fact the most highly valued adviser is the middle-aged person in the range from5 to 55 years of age. Even the old prefer the advice of the middle-aged. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    The same is true of studies of long-term rote memory, even though this type of memory is probably almost never required once a person has finished school. Once the years of formal schooling are over, test-taking days are largely past. An occasional test will need to be taken, for driver’s license renewal, for example, but by and large the need for long-term rote memory is reduced to zero in day-to-day adult life. People do not get much practice, if any, with the memory skills of bygone school years, and by the time they are old they can expect to be unable to use the old skills efficiently, and may be unable to use them at all. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Physical and social concerns Activity may be sharply curtailed in the old person, because of inadequate motivation, poor health, insufficient funds, or, simply, despair. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文について教えてください。

    When I think of old wives' tales and superstitions I think of childhood, which is naturally when I first encountered them, usually as warnings from adults. Whether from parents, grandparents, other people's parents, or even teachers, the authority of whomever told me that walking under a ladder was courting disaster, or that it was unlucky to tread on cracks in the pavement, or that if I broke a mirror it would bring seven years of misfortune, was enough to make me accept this unquestioningly. 出典 Black Cats & Four-Leaf Clovers whomever は文法的に間違いで、whoever です。文の骨格は the authority was enough to make me accept this unquestioningly. というのは分かるのですが、of whomever をどのように訳すと日本語らしくなるのかがわかりません。教えてください。

  • 和訳困っています><

    Insight Ritirement was originally introduced to give people a couple of year's rest before death. But people died younger in those days:nowadays, we can expect a healthy 20 or 30 years of life after retirement. Using that time constructively is one of the personal challenges of modern society. DISENGAGEMENT THEORY The first psychological theories about retirement tended to take a rather negative position. Cummings and Henry(1961) saw retirement as a gradual process of separating off from society. Old people might be numerous, but they were less visible than younger people, and less involved in social activities. Cummings and Henry saw this as part of a natural mechanism, similar to a weakend animal withdrawing from its herd to die. Cummings and Henry put forward a biological explanation for this. They proposed that, as people grow older, there is a kind of inherited biological mechanism which encourages them, gradually, to withdraw from society. They have fulfilled their evolutionary function by bringing up families and helping their offspring to survive and now, Commings and Henry argued, evolution has no place for them. As a cosequence, they become less and less involved in social affairs, leaving decision-making and social organization to younger people and become increasingly withdrawn into their own lives.

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Although this is common knowledge, it is not entirely correct. For example, an old person can recall a series of numbers as well as a younger person-provided the series is not too long, provided enough time is allowed for study, and provided no interfering material is presented between the study time and the test time. In short, if you do not hurry them or interfere with them, old people can remember a telephone number as well as anybody. They are less successful, even when allowed time to study, at other kinds of tasks used to study memory in the experimental laboratory, including paired-associate learning and serial and free recall of word lists. お願いします。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Close-up Life Expectancy: How Long Is Long? “There are groups of mountain people in the Soviet Union, India and Ecuador who claim to love very long lives. Some people say they’re 125 years old and going strong. “Robert R. Kohn, professor of pathology at Case Western University, says the claims aren’t true. “’They have every reason to claim old age-economic reasons, status reasons-and there are no records to back up the claims, ‘says Kohn. “While in the Soviet Union for a scientific meeting. Kohn found another reason: The old people in Georgia have become such a tourist attraction that he was offered the opportunity to see them for the sum of 50 American dollars. There’s no doubt these people are old and healthy and they would be worth studying, but when you read about Ivan who’s 146 tears old and his mother’s mad at him, don’t believe it. お願いします。

  • この英文の和訳お願いします。 難しいです。

    I have chosen to begin this book with a description of the life of this one individual because he typifies what so many observers regard as the social "problem" of old age. In his case we would find it impossible to ignore the crucial facts of bereavement, absence of children and other relatives, infirmity, and virtual social ostracism. If we mean anything by isolation from society he must be the sort of person we keep in mind. But is he exception or rule? Are there many others like him in our society? Many sociologists and administrators believe there are. One administrator expressed it in these terms: Provision for old age has emerged as a "problem" largely because of the loosening of family ties and insistence on individual rights and privileges to the exclusion of obligations and duties which has developed so markedly in recent years. Whereas families used to accept responsibility for their old people they now expect the State to look after them. The care and attention which the family used to provide for them must be provided in some other way. The separation from kin is supposed to be one of the features which serves to differentiate the industrial from the so-called primitive societies. But do old people in Britain lose touch with their married children and lead an isolated life? Are the bonds of kinship of little or no consequence especially in urban areas? We have only to pose these questions to realize the meed for more facts. What few there are do not confirm many current suppositions. Sheldon, in a pioneering study, drew attention to the important part played by relatives of old people in Wolverhampton and said that too little was known about their role.