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Insight Ritirement was originally introduced to give people a couple of year's rest before death. But people died younger in those days:nowadays, we can expect a healthy 20 or 30 years of life after retirement. Using that time constructively is one of the personal challenges of modern society. DISENGAGEMENT THEORY The first psychological theories about retirement tended to take a rather negative position. Cummings and Henry(1961) saw retirement as a gradual process of separating off from society. Old people might be numerous, but they were less visible than younger people, and less involved in social activities. Cummings and Henry saw this as part of a natural mechanism, similar to a weakend animal withdrawing from its herd to die. Cummings and Henry put forward a biological explanation for this. They proposed that, as people grow older, there is a kind of inherited biological mechanism which encourages them, gradually, to withdraw from society. They have fulfilled their evolutionary function by bringing up families and helping their offspring to survive and now, Commings and Henry argued, evolution has no place for them. As a cosequence, they become less and less involved in social affairs, leaving decision-making and social organization to younger people and become increasingly withdrawn into their own lives.



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  • 回答No.1

洞察 元々、死の前に年の2、3の休息を人々に与えるためにRitirementを導入しました。 しかし、人々は、その頃、若死にしました: この頃は、私たちは、20年か健康な30年の間、定年後の人生を期待できます。 その時を使用するのは、建設的に近代社会の個人的な挑戦の1つです。 離脱理論 引退に関する最初の心理学理論は、かなり否定的な立場を取る傾向がありました。 カミングとヘンリー(1961)は引退を社会から下に分離する緩やかなプロセスであるとみなしました。 高齢者は非常に多いかもしれませんが、彼らは、若者達ほど目に見えないで、また社会活動によりかかわっていませんでした。 カミングとヘンリーはこれを自然なメカニズムの一部であるとみなしました、死ぬように群れから撤退するweakend動物と同様です。 カミングとヘンリーはこれのための生物学的説明を進めます。 彼らは、人々が老いるとき、社会から引き下がるために徐々に彼らを奨励する一種の引き継いでいる生物学的メカニズムがあるよう提案しました。 家族を育てて、彼らの子が生き残るのを助けることによって、彼らは自分達の進化論の機能を実現させました、そして、Commingsとヘンリーは今、発展には彼らのための場所が全くないと主張しました。 cosequenceとして、それらは、意志決定的、そして、社会的な組織を若者達に任せて、社交の会にますますかかわらないようになって、それら自身の人生までますますよそよそしくなります




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洞察 退職は、死の前に人々に数年の休みを与えるために、当初持ち出されました。 しかし、当時は、人々はずっと若死にでした: この頃は、我々は退職以後20年から30年の健康な人生を期待することができます。 建設的にその時間を使うことは、現代の社会の個人的な挑戦の1つです。 離脱論 退職についての最初の精神的な理論は、むしろ否定的な立場をとる傾向がありました。 カミングズとヘンリー(1961)は、引退を社会から徐々に離れてゆくプロセスと、みなしました。 高齢者は非常に多かったかもしれません、しかし、彼らは若い人々ほど目立たず、社会的な活動により関与していませんでした。 カミングズとヘンリーは自然のメカニズムの一部としてこれを見なしました。そして、死ぬためにその群から抜けてゆく弱った動物と類似していると考えました。 カミングズとヘンリーは、これの生物学的説明を提案しました。 人々が年をとるにつれて、彼らが、徐々に、社会から退出するのを奨励する一種の遺伝的な生物学的メカニズムがあると、彼らは提唱しました。 家族を育て、子孫が生き残るのを援助することによって、彼らは進化の機能を成し遂げました、そして、今や、 進化には彼らの居場所がないのだと、カミングスとヘンリーは主張しました。 結果として、彼らは社会問題にだんだん関わらなくなり、より若い人々に意思決定と社会的組織を任せ、そして、彼ら自身の人生へとますます退いてゆくのです。



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    SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY In 1975, Dowd proposed a different way of explaining this question. Dowd proposed that retirement is actually a sort of social contract that the person makes with society.They obtain increased leisure time, and an 'honourable discharge' from the idea that all responsible members of society ought to work as hard as possible - the Protestant Work Ethic-and in return, they give up their involvement in how society's affairs are run. This social exchange is seen, according to Dowd, as a fair trade, both by society and by old people. More recently, however, people are showing sings of being less prepared to accept this type of social contract. After all, we live much longer now than we did when retirement was first introdused, and we keep our health for longer, too; so it is much more practical for people to continue to take an active part in society. Among business and professional people, it is not at all uncommon for retirement to signal the beginning of a second career, and a much more independent one that allows them to use their experience, such as working as a consultant. In other groups of society, too, people are beginning to see retirement as an opportunity to do new things. Organizations like the University of the Third Age encourage retired people to develop new hobbies and pursue new interests, and are becoming more popular and successful all the time. Many psychologists now take the view that successful retirement is all about making sure that you acquire new social roles, to replace the ones that you have lost through work, and activities of this sort are exactly the way that people do that. Insight Having responsibilities and being needed seem to be the core of successful retirement. That can take many forms: some people feel needed by their gardens, and devote much of their time to taking care of them; while others take on more social responsibilities.

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    This rather gloomy process is known as disengagement, based on the idea that there is an innate, biological tendency to disengage from society with age, rather like an animal creeping off to die by itself. It reflects a tendency of psychologists at that time to look for biological explanations for all human behavior. But there are many problems with this model. For one thing, the relative lack of social involvement of older people isn't anything like an animal creeping away to die, because the period of being 'an old person' or a pensioner is so very long. Nowadays, it isn't uncommon for people to live for 30 years or more after they have retired, and that's quite different from a couple of days of being ill and weak before dying-the normal state of affairs among wild animals. Activity theory That type of explanation also ignores the social factors involved in retirement. An alternative explanation for why older people don't seem to take as active a part in society as they might was put forward by Havinghurst, in 1964. Having hurst attributed it to the fact that older people have relatively few opportunities to play meaningful social roles in society. When someone is active and working, they play a large number of different social roles. These include various roles at work as well as roles to do with the family. In other words, as Hvinghurst put it, their role-count is high. But when someone retires from work, their role-count drops dramatically, because all the social roles that they played that were relevant to work -even ones as simple as being a commuter- vanish. All that is left are social roles to do with family and home. In other words, Havinghurst was arguing, people becomes less visible when they retire simply because they don't have as many opportunities to play a part in everyday social living. And this has personal consequences, as well as social ones, because people can easily come to feel apathetic and useless as a result. The way to counteract this, Havinghurst argued, is for people to replace their lost social roles deliberately, by adding new ones such as joining clubs and societies for older people, or working for organizations like Oxfam, which employ people over conventional retirement age. keeping up one's role-count, according to Havinghurst, is the way to ensure a positive experience of old age.

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    SOCIAL LABELLING Dyson(1980) interviewed a large number of people about their experiences of retirement, and challenged the idea that people see it as a fair exchange. Dyson's respondents saw it as fair for old people in general, but not in their own personal cases. They felt that, for the most part, sosiety had thrown them on the junk heap too early, when they were still perfectly capable of making an active and useful contribution to society. But they did think it was probably fair for other old people, and for old people in general. Dyson's research gave some interesting hints about the emergence of a new perspective on ageing, which developed during the 1980s. This view sees the lower visibility of older people in society as a product of old people are very strong-even though most of us are personally acquainted with individuals who don't fit those stereotypes at all. But it is very difficult for an individual to berak through the social stereotyping and be regarded as an intelligent person with something useful to contribute, because too often they are seen as someone who is old, and therefore useless. Or they think this is how they will be seen, and so they don't bother trying.

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    The stereotypes associated with old people are particularly unpleasant. They are often regarded as sick, stupid, or even dirty. Because a minority of old people become confused, or suffer from mental disorders such as Alzhimer's disease, it is assumed that any old person is likely to become mentally incapacitated -although, in fact, the evidence is very different. Because of this, the positive contributions which older people can make to social events and processes are often overlooked, or simply ignored. Recently, a number of organizations and individuals have begun to challenge these stereotypes about ageing, and there is some indication that attitudes are beginning to change. But there is still a long way to go. Insight The negative view that we have of old people is like other stereotypes, having a small grain of truth in some cases but a lot of exceptions. Interestingly , although old people also share this negative stereotype, they almost always see themselves as one of the exceptions. So who is left to fit the stereotype? RETIREMENT AND RESPONSIBILITY Some people who reach reach retiring age, though, still hold to the old negative ideas about retirement. Sometimes they feel that society has simply thrown them away, even though they are as fit as ever. But sometimes they interpret any aches and pains as being evidence that they are becoming old and useless, so they stop doing activities which would help them to keep fit. Anyone will grow infirm if they do nothing all day but sit in the house and watch TV- muscles need exercise to keep toned, and a healthy retirement means an active one. Also, feeling socially useless is a major source of stress and helplessness. Without another source of self-esteem, such as a hobby or voluntary work, people can become extremely depressed, and appear to give up on active living.

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    Other people may make more dramatic changes in their lives-perhaps moving to start a new life in a different country, or a different town, and taking up an entirely new occupation. Making such dramatic changes sometiimes doesn't work very well, but often people report increased feelings of well-being and confidence, and more positive life experiences. As we have seen, we continue to grow and develop throughout our lives, and the mid-life crisis can be seen as away of taking control of that growth and channelling it into new directions. Insight Some researchers see the mid-life cresis as a myth, arguing that people can engage in life changes at any time in their lives. That is true, but if we look at people who have re-evaluated their lives and make dramatic changes as a result, there is a majority in their 40s and 50s. Retirement Another major transition, of course, is retirement. In earlier times, the period of retirement used to be a brief interlude before old age and death. But in modern living, it has become quite defferent. Changes in diet, lifestyle and general health mean that most people continue to live an active, productive life for a long period after they finish formal working-as long as 30 years, or if they have taken early retirement, even 40. This period is very nearly as long as many people's working life, so the idea of retirement as a'restful interlude' isn't really very practical. Instead, life span psychologists nowadays see retirement as a way of developing in new and different ways, that weren't possible under the constraints of working life.

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    Disengagement As people get older, they tend to withdraw gradually from society, and at the same time society tends to withdraw from them. This progressive, mutual withdrawal is called disengagement. Because of disengagement, old people are less interested in having social contacts, and have fewer social contacts, with less emotional involvement in them. Viewed positively, disengagement permits the old person to enjoy a more leisurely way of life, but working against this positive aspect of disengagement is the work ethic that requires activity, including social activity to maintain a sense of self-worth (Kalish, 1975). お願いします。

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    Coming-of-Age Day Coming of Age Day is a national holiday which falls on January 15. This national holiday was created in 1948 and a described in the N ational Holidays Act as the day when young people are made aware of their achievement of adulthood and are congratulated. On this day large-scale ceremonies are held in all parts of Japan. The local cities and communities play host at the celbration ceremonies to all the young men and women who have had their twentieth birthday during the past year. The new adults gather together to hear congratulatory messages from the heads of their local government. Then one of the young people, speaking on behalf of the others, formally acknowledges that they have reached adulthood and pledges their determination to become good members of society. At the age of twenty young people receive the right to vote, smoke and drink, and obtain the freedom to marry without their parents' consent, but, at the same time, they must bear the responsibilities of adults.

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    訳をお願いします。 自分で訳そうと思ったのですが、全然分からなかったので 誰かお願いします…。 Participants were asked to respond to five statements about their happiness and give a rating on a scale of 1 to 7 according to how strongly they agreed. Previous studies have shown that people who possess attributes regarded as desirable by modern Western society,such as intelligence and money,are rewarded with higher social status and a more comfortable standard of living. 少し長いかもしれませんが宜しくお願いいたします。

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    People who take this view have been shown to be musch more likely to die in the first few years of retirement than those who take a more positive view. It seems that they find it much harder to find anything worth living for, because they feel so useless. This also helps to explain why women live loger than men (although there are other factors to be considered too). Women who are past retiring age now, grew up in a culture in which the home was considered to be a woman's primary responsibility. Even after they have retired, that responsibility still remains, so they still have something in their lives to be involved with. But men of the same age were usually brought up to believe that their primary responsibility was to work and be the breadwinner for the family. That responsibility vanishes with compulsory retirement and this can be emotionally devastating. Even people who have looked forward to retirement can find that, after the first few months, and they can become very depressed even, sometimes, to the point where they give up trying to live. This is why it is so important for retired people to make sure that they have some other interest in their life, and more than just one if at all possible. Many retired people take up another responsibility where they can still feel needed, such as voluntary work. Gardening is particularly popular, because a garden needs to be looked after-it can't be neglected or it will quickly turn wild. So gardeners know that their efforts are necessary and worthwhile. Some people develop hobbies such as travelling, or learn a new sport, such as golf or bowls. All these are ways for people to develop other sources of self-esteem, to compensant for being without paid employment.

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    和訳例をお願いします。  Imagine how people lived long before anyone knew of any sciences or of writing. Then, as now, they would try to answer fundamental questions about their existence. Where did the would comd from? How did people originate? Why is there evil in the world? What happens to people when they die? What forces control the weather, the seasons, the cycle of agriculture? Questions such as these have persisted throughout history in every culture. The stories made so long ago to try to offer answers to these questions, and to try to account for a society's customs and rituals, are called myths.  Traditionally, myths did not originate in written form. They developed slowly as an oral tradition that was handed down over generations. Early people looked around and tried to make sense of the confusing world around them. They tried to imagine how it cnuld have come into being.  The elders of society two were considered wise analyzed what they saw. They came up with their own conclusions about natural events and human behavior. They developed stories that explained how such things came to be. They had to account for everything that happenedーfrom the origin of the world up to and including the present. These accounts, passed down in story form, were eventually accepted as traditional truth. Much letter the stories were written down.  Although mythmaking is an ancient practice, it is not a practice limited to people who lived thousands of years ago. People continue to create myths to explain their world. The American West of the 19th century (a,been,favorite,has,on,subject,towhich) build modern myths.  Mythmaking has traditionally looked to the past to try to make sense out of the present. Some modern myths look instead to the future. Storytellers make use of the countless inventions of the last few centuries to give striking descriptions of what Earth may be like  hundreds of years from now. They imagine life on worlds billions of light-years away in space or far in the future. These stories also help cultures understand their world. 以上になります。