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Other people may make more dramatic changes in their lives-perhaps moving to start a new life in a different country, or a different town, and taking up an entirely new occupation. Making such dramatic changes sometiimes doesn't work very well, but often people report increased feelings of well-being and confidence, and more positive life experiences. As we have seen, we continue to grow and develop throughout our lives, and the mid-life crisis can be seen as away of taking control of that growth and channelling it into new directions. Insight Some researchers see the mid-life cresis as a myth, arguing that people can engage in life changes at any time in their lives. That is true, but if we look at people who have re-evaluated their lives and make dramatic changes as a result, there is a majority in their 40s and 50s. Retirement Another major transition, of course, is retirement. In earlier times, the period of retirement used to be a brief interlude before old age and death. But in modern living, it has become quite defferent. Changes in diet, lifestyle and general health mean that most people continue to live an active, productive life for a long period after they finish formal working-as long as 30 years, or if they have taken early retirement, even 40. This period is very nearly as long as many people's working life, so the idea of retirement as a'restful interlude' isn't really very practical. Instead, life span psychologists nowadays see retirement as a way of developing in new and different ways, that weren't possible under the constraints of working life.

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他の人々は彼らの人生でより劇的な変化を行うかもしれません-おそらく異なる国または異なる町での新生活を始めるために引っ越したり、まったく新しい仕事を始めたりします。 そのような劇的な変化を行うことが、あまりうまく行かない時もあります、しかし、しばしば、人々は幸福と自信の感情が増加したとかより前向きな人生経験をしたとか報告します。 ここまで見てきたように、我々は成長して、一生を通じて育ち続けます、そして、その成長のコントロールすることを離れ、それを新しい方向に向けることとして、中年の危機を見ることができます。 洞察 一部の研究者は中年の危機を神話とみなします。そして、人々がいつでも彼らの人生の変化に係わる可能性があると主張します。 それは真実です、しかし、我々が彼らの人生を再評価し、その結果劇的な変更をした人々を見ると、その大多数が40代と50代にいます。 引退 もう一つの大きな移り変わりは、もちろん、引退です。 昔は、引退の期間は、老年と死の前の短い合間であったものです。 しかし、現代の生活においては、それは全く異なるようになりました。 食生活、ライフスタイル、公衆衛生の変化は、人々が正規の仕事を終えたあと、大部分の人々が長い期間の間、活発で生産的な人生を送り続けることを意味します- そしてその期間は、30年間、あるいは、彼らが早期退職をしたならば、40年間にさえ及びます。 この期間は、多くの人々の勤労期間とほとんど同じほどの長さがあるので、『落ち着いた合間』としての引退についての考え方は本当はあまり実際的ではありません。 その代わりに、寿命心理学者は、最近では、引退を、勤労期間の制約の下では可能でなかった、新しくて異なる方向に発展する方法なのだとみなしています。

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    SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY In 1975, Dowd proposed a different way of explaining this question. Dowd proposed that retirement is actually a sort of social contract that the person makes with society.They obtain increased leisure time, and an 'honourable discharge' from the idea that all responsible members of society ought to work as hard as possible - the Protestant Work Ethic-and in return, they give up their involvement in how society's affairs are run. This social exchange is seen, according to Dowd, as a fair trade, both by society and by old people. More recently, however, people are showing sings of being less prepared to accept this type of social contract. After all, we live much longer now than we did when retirement was first introdused, and we keep our health for longer, too; so it is much more practical for people to continue to take an active part in society. Among business and professional people, it is not at all uncommon for retirement to signal the beginning of a second career, and a much more independent one that allows them to use their experience, such as working as a consultant. In other groups of society, too, people are beginning to see retirement as an opportunity to do new things. Organizations like the University of the Third Age encourage retired people to develop new hobbies and pursue new interests, and are becoming more popular and successful all the time. Many psychologists now take the view that successful retirement is all about making sure that you acquire new social roles, to replace the ones that you have lost through work, and activities of this sort are exactly the way that people do that. Insight Having responsibilities and being needed seem to be the core of successful retirement. That can take many forms: some people feel needed by their gardens, and devote much of their time to taking care of them; while others take on more social responsibilities.

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