• ベストアンサー
※ ChatGPTを利用し、要約された質問です(原文:和訳 お願いします><)

The Mid-Life Crisis and Retirement: Exploring Life Changes

このQ&Aのポイント
  • People often make dramatic changes in their lives, such as moving to a new country or town and starting a new occupation. While these changes may not always work out, they often lead to increased well-being and positive experiences.
  • The mid-life crisis is sometimes seen as a way for people to take control of their growth and channel it into new directions. While some argue that life changes can happen at any time, many people who make significant changes do so in their 40s and 50s.
  • Retirement is another major transition that has changed in modern times. With improved health and longer life expectancies, retirement can span as long as 30 or 40 years. Instead of being a restful interlude, retirement is now seen as an opportunity for new and different development outside of the constraints of working life.

質問者が選んだベストアンサー

  • ベストアンサー
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5904)
回答No.1

他の人々は彼らの人生でより劇的な変化を行うかもしれません-おそらく異なる国または異なる町での新生活を始めるために引っ越したり、まったく新しい仕事を始めたりします。 そのような劇的な変化を行うことが、あまりうまく行かない時もあります、しかし、しばしば、人々は幸福と自信の感情が増加したとかより前向きな人生経験をしたとか報告します。 ここまで見てきたように、我々は成長して、一生を通じて育ち続けます、そして、その成長のコントロールすることを離れ、それを新しい方向に向けることとして、中年の危機を見ることができます。 洞察 一部の研究者は中年の危機を神話とみなします。そして、人々がいつでも彼らの人生の変化に係わる可能性があると主張します。 それは真実です、しかし、我々が彼らの人生を再評価し、その結果劇的な変更をした人々を見ると、その大多数が40代と50代にいます。 引退 もう一つの大きな移り変わりは、もちろん、引退です。 昔は、引退の期間は、老年と死の前の短い合間であったものです。 しかし、現代の生活においては、それは全く異なるようになりました。 食生活、ライフスタイル、公衆衛生の変化は、人々が正規の仕事を終えたあと、大部分の人々が長い期間の間、活発で生産的な人生を送り続けることを意味します- そしてその期間は、30年間、あるいは、彼らが早期退職をしたならば、40年間にさえ及びます。 この期間は、多くの人々の勤労期間とほとんど同じほどの長さがあるので、『落ち着いた合間』としての引退についての考え方は本当はあまり実際的ではありません。 その代わりに、寿命心理学者は、最近では、引退を、勤労期間の制約の下では可能でなかった、新しくて異なる方向に発展する方法なのだとみなしています。

noname#136221
質問者

お礼

ご回答ありがとうございます^^ また夜に質問させていただきます><!!

全文を見る
すると、全ての回答が全文表示されます。

関連するQ&A

  • 和訳困っています><

    SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY In 1975, Dowd proposed a different way of explaining this question. Dowd proposed that retirement is actually a sort of social contract that the person makes with society.They obtain increased leisure time, and an 'honourable discharge' from the idea that all responsible members of society ought to work as hard as possible - the Protestant Work Ethic-and in return, they give up their involvement in how society's affairs are run. This social exchange is seen, according to Dowd, as a fair trade, both by society and by old people. More recently, however, people are showing sings of being less prepared to accept this type of social contract. After all, we live much longer now than we did when retirement was first introdused, and we keep our health for longer, too; so it is much more practical for people to continue to take an active part in society. Among business and professional people, it is not at all uncommon for retirement to signal the beginning of a second career, and a much more independent one that allows them to use their experience, such as working as a consultant. In other groups of society, too, people are beginning to see retirement as an opportunity to do new things. Organizations like the University of the Third Age encourage retired people to develop new hobbies and pursue new interests, and are becoming more popular and successful all the time. Many psychologists now take the view that successful retirement is all about making sure that you acquire new social roles, to replace the ones that you have lost through work, and activities of this sort are exactly the way that people do that. Insight Having responsibilities and being needed seem to be the core of successful retirement. That can take many forms: some people feel needed by their gardens, and devote much of their time to taking care of them; while others take on more social responsibilities.

  • 和訳困っています><

    Insight Ritirement was originally introduced to give people a couple of year's rest before death. But people died younger in those days:nowadays, we can expect a healthy 20 or 30 years of life after retirement. Using that time constructively is one of the personal challenges of modern society. DISENGAGEMENT THEORY The first psychological theories about retirement tended to take a rather negative position. Cummings and Henry(1961) saw retirement as a gradual process of separating off from society. Old people might be numerous, but they were less visible than younger people, and less involved in social activities. Cummings and Henry saw this as part of a natural mechanism, similar to a weakend animal withdrawing from its herd to die. Cummings and Henry put forward a biological explanation for this. They proposed that, as people grow older, there is a kind of inherited biological mechanism which encourages them, gradually, to withdraw from society. They have fulfilled their evolutionary function by bringing up families and helping their offspring to survive and now, Commings and Henry argued, evolution has no place for them. As a cosequence, they become less and less involved in social affairs, leaving decision-making and social organization to younger people and become increasingly withdrawn into their own lives.

  • 和訳 お願いします><!

    The mid-life crisis One of the more popular ideas in recent years is that of the mid-life crisis. In many societies, adults simply work from the time that they are grown (or in some cases before) until they become too old. But in modern Western societies, it is no longer the case that we stay doing the same job throughout our woking lives. Temporary work, redundancies, adult re-training schemes and a greater emphasis on job satisfaction mean that many people hit a period in their 40s or 50s when they being to re-evaluate their lives, and decide that they want to do something which is more personally meaningful for them. Sometimes, this crisis simply takes the form of the person looking for different job. But in the modern world, such decisions usually mean re-training, and some people go back into full-time education to achieve this. Universities have growing numbers of numbers of adult students, as do colleges and training schemes, and even people who left school feeling that they were too 'thick' to gain qualifications find that this is not so, and that they can learn as effectively as anyone else.

  • 英語の短文を和訳して下さい。

    As mentioned above, the reasons for freeters and NEETs are complex. Economic and structural changes are not the only forces acting on society. Social forces also play a role. For example, in a recent government poll of young people, only 16 percent said that they thought their parents’lives were worth living. This may be because children have grown up seeing their fathers working long hours with long commutes without much free time or joy in their lives.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    Pericles' Funeral Oration 431 BC: "...In the fighting, they thought it more honourable to stand their ground and suffer death than to give in and save their lives. So they fled from the reproaches of men, abiding with life and limb the brunt of battle, and in a small moment of time, the climax of their lives, a culmination of glory, not of fear, were swept away from us." 後半が分かりません。 よろしくお願い致します。

  • 和訳してほしいです。 年齢差別についてです。

    Our analysis of data from the Health Interview Survey since 1961 found that all measures of illness and disability showed decreasing disability for successive cohorts of people 65 and over relative to younger persons. Are these gains due primarily to reductions in ageism, to improved support and services for elders, or to cohort changes? They are probably due to a combination of these factors, but primarily to cohort changes. What are cohort changes? For our purposes, a cohort is a category of people born during a certain period. For example, the cohort of people born between 1920 and 1930 will be 60 to 70 years old in 1990. They are a more affluent, better educated, and healthier cohort than cohorts born before 1920. This is because the newer cohorts had more fortunate life experiences. They had more education as youth; did not suffer from loss of savings and unemployment during the Depression; and had better nutrition, sanitation, and health care throughout their lives. Thus, as the newer cohorts replace the older cohorts among those over 65. the average income, education, and health of elders improves. This is the primary explanation for the improvement in characteristics of elders.

  • 英文和訳をお願いします。

    Since the early 18th century, however, the force of the rule of law has fostered standards of living that rose by 20 times in that part of the world that embraced competitive markets. Life expectancy more than doubled. And in the developing countries that have abandoned central planning for markets since the end of the Cold War, hundreds of millions of people have been elevated from subsistence poverty. Other hundreds of millions are now experiencing a level of affluence that people born in developed nations have experienced all their lives.

  • 和訳 困っています><

    People who take this view have been shown to be musch more likely to die in the first few years of retirement than those who take a more positive view. It seems that they find it much harder to find anything worth living for, because they feel so useless. This also helps to explain why women live loger than men (although there are other factors to be considered too). Women who are past retiring age now, grew up in a culture in which the home was considered to be a woman's primary responsibility. Even after they have retired, that responsibility still remains, so they still have something in their lives to be involved with. But men of the same age were usually brought up to believe that their primary responsibility was to work and be the breadwinner for the family. That responsibility vanishes with compulsory retirement and this can be emotionally devastating. Even people who have looked forward to retirement can find that, after the first few months, and they can become very depressed even, sometimes, to the point where they give up trying to live. This is why it is so important for retired people to make sure that they have some other interest in their life, and more than just one if at all possible. Many retired people take up another responsibility where they can still feel needed, such as voluntary work. Gardening is particularly popular, because a garden needs to be looked after-it can't be neglected or it will quickly turn wild. So gardeners know that their efforts are necessary and worthwhile. Some people develop hobbies such as travelling, or learn a new sport, such as golf or bowls. All these are ways for people to develop other sources of self-esteem, to compensant for being without paid employment.

  • 和訳困っています><

    -Ageing- As we've seen, many people live healthy, happy and productive lives for many years after the standard retirement age. But sooner or later, barring accidents, we all become old. It used to be thought that ageing was a steady decline in functioning, with people going inevitably downhill from the age of 50 or so. But now we know that is not so. But now we know that is not so. The research evidence which suggested this pattern of ageing was seriously flawed in the way that it was done, and modern experiences show that ageing occurs quite differently. The general pattern seems to be that we have only a very gradual decline in our older years, and that decline can be slowed down by exercise and activity, but that eventually we reach a period of more rapid physical decline, which rarely lasts for more than about five years. Usually, the person dies at some point during the five-year period. In some old people, that decline is brought about by an accident-a fall or some similar event- which damages them physically but, more importantly, shakes their confidence and makes them feel unable to cope with life as they once did. How inevitable the decline is, once it has begun, is something nobady knows. We do know, though, that even old bodies can respond surprisingly well to exercises were found to be putting on muscle mass as a result - in other words, their muscles were responding to the exercise and becoming stronger. This finding has been repeated a number of times now, and it shows that the saying " it's never too late " may be even truer than we realize. The real danger in ageing, more than any other, seems to be the person's own beliefs about it. Someone who expects to decline and become incapable as they grow older is not likely to face their body or mind with extra challenges. Without exercise, our bodies have no incentive to grow stronger or to maintain their normal levels of strength; so they become weaker. This, to the person who expects to be weak as a result of age, is 'proof 'that they were right, and their belief in inevitable decline is confirmed. But really, it began as a self-fulfilling prophecy.

  • 和訳困っています><

    This rather gloomy process is known as disengagement, based on the idea that there is an innate, biological tendency to disengage from society with age, rather like an animal creeping off to die by itself. It reflects a tendency of psychologists at that time to look for biological explanations for all human behavior. But there are many problems with this model. For one thing, the relative lack of social involvement of older people isn't anything like an animal creeping away to die, because the period of being 'an old person' or a pensioner is so very long. Nowadays, it isn't uncommon for people to live for 30 years or more after they have retired, and that's quite different from a couple of days of being ill and weak before dying-the normal state of affairs among wild animals. Activity theory That type of explanation also ignores the social factors involved in retirement. An alternative explanation for why older people don't seem to take as active a part in society as they might was put forward by Havinghurst, in 1964. Having hurst attributed it to the fact that older people have relatively few opportunities to play meaningful social roles in society. When someone is active and working, they play a large number of different social roles. These include various roles at work as well as roles to do with the family. In other words, as Hvinghurst put it, their role-count is high. But when someone retires from work, their role-count drops dramatically, because all the social roles that they played that were relevant to work -even ones as simple as being a commuter- vanish. All that is left are social roles to do with family and home. In other words, Havinghurst was arguing, people becomes less visible when they retire simply because they don't have as many opportunities to play a part in everyday social living. And this has personal consequences, as well as social ones, because people can easily come to feel apathetic and useless as a result. The way to counteract this, Havinghurst argued, is for people to replace their lost social roles deliberately, by adding new ones such as joining clubs and societies for older people, or working for organizations like Oxfam, which employ people over conventional retirement age. keeping up one's role-count, according to Havinghurst, is the way to ensure a positive experience of old age.

このQ&Aのポイント
  • ブラザープリンターのDCP-J987Nでの紙詰まりと印刷の遅さに関するトラブルについて相談します。
  • 紙詰まりが頻発し、1枚のプリントに非常に時間がかかるという問題が発生しています。
  • パソコンやスマートフォンのOS、接続方法、関連ソフト・アプリ、電話回線の種類などについて教えていただけますか?
回答を見る