The Impact of Rule of Law on Standard of Living: A Historical Perspective

  • The force of the rule of law since the early 18th century has led to a significant increase in standards of living in countries that embraced competitive markets.
  • Life expectancy has more than doubled in these countries, thanks to the influence of the rule of law.
  • The adoption of markets in developing countries after the Cold War has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty and brought them to a level of affluence comparable to that of developed nations.
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Since the early 18th century, however, the force of the rule of law has fostered standards of living that rose by 20 times in that part of the world that embraced competitive markets. Life expectancy more than doubled. And in the developing countries that have abandoned central planning for markets since the end of the Cold War, hundreds of millions of people have been elevated from subsistence poverty. Other hundreds of millions are now experiencing a level of affluence that people born in developed nations have experienced all their lives.

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しかし、18世紀前半から、法の支配力は、生活水準を発展させ、それを、競争が厳しい市場を含む世界のその地域で、20倍以上に上げました。 寿命は2倍以上になりました。そして、冷戦終結以来、市場に対する中央計画(中央指令型経済)を断念した発展途上国では、数億人もが、自給自足的貧困から向上しました。 他の何億人もが、現在、先進国で生まれた人々が生涯ずっと経験したレベルの豊かさを経験しています。





  • 英文解釈

    Since goats can survive on kinds of vegetation, such as bushes and desert scrub, which are unsuitable for other domesticated herd animals, they're a logical means of subsistence for millions of rural inhabitants the world over. の文ですが、とくに最後のthey're a logical means of subsistence for millions of rural inhabitants the world over. がよくわかりません。 詳しい構文解説と最後のoverの意味を教えてください お願いします。

  • この英文の和訳が分かりません教えて下さい。

    Millions of people are using cell phones today. In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one. In many countries, cell phones are very popular with young people. They find that the phones are more than a means of communication-having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected. The explosion around the world in mobile phone use has some health professionals worried. Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones. In England, there has been a serious debate about this issue. Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas. They say that there is no proof that mobile phons are bad for your health. この英文の和訳が分かりません教えて下さい。できればいやくはしないでください。

  • この英文を和訳してほしいです。

    There is some evidence that these improvements in the characteristics of elders have resulted in more positive views of aging. Tibbitts claimed that during the past 30 to 40 years, U.S. society has moved from holding negative stereotypes of old people to holding positive views in which elders are seen as being able to contribute to the quality of life for themselves, their communities, and society as a whole. Schonfield even argued that the assumption of negative attitudes toward old people is a "social myth" perpetuated by the gerontological literature. We will be examining these attitudes in derail in Chapter 2, but there does appear to be a substantial shift from negative to positive attitudes. The improvements in the physical, mental,social, and economic characteristics of elders have been so marked, and there have been so many programs and services developed for elders only, that many have begun to criticize these programs as discrimination in favor of the aged, or positive ageism. We will be discussing examples of positive ageism throughout this book; but the ones that have drawn most criticism so far are the Medicare program and some features of the Social Security System, such as the automatic cost of living increases in benefits and the tax-exemption of Social Security benefits for most elders. Perhaps these programs have been criticized the most because they involve the most money. Critics are beginning to argue that since elders are no longer deprived economically and since they are now much better off mentally, physically, and socially than they were in the past, it is no longer necessary or fair to continue the enormous expense of these special supports and programs available only to elders. Some argue that the way to reduce positive ageism is to make these supports and programs available to all ages on the basis of need. For example, they recommend that the national health insurance, which only elders now enjoy, be extended to all ages. It is clear that positive ageism is becoming an important issue and promises to become even more important as we are faced with more older people and more expensive programs for "seniors only."

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    But he postulated a change of human nature fostered by communism. It took many generations to prove him wrong. With the exception of a few diehards, none of today’s communist leaders hold to that orthodoxy. In the West, the moral validity of property rights is accepted, or at least acquiesced in, by virtually the whole of the population. This is true even in societies which are disdainful of competition. Attitudes toward property ownership are passed from one generation to the next through family values and education. These attitudes derive from the deepest values governing social interaction that people hold.

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    和訳をお願いします。 1.People may protest that they have no religion , yet everybody in practice worships something,be it only himself or money or dog-racing. 2.When George Lucas first approached john Williams for an epic score,little did he imagine that the result would sell millions of copies and spawn a disco-era hit. 3.In this book I am going to try to sort out my thoughts on the subjects that have chiefly interested me during the course of my life. 4.In the wake of the Industrial Revolution,new social relationships appeared. Man no longer treated men as men, but as a commodity which could be bought and sold on the open market. それと、この英文が解けるには、中学or高校のどの範囲の参考書を使えば良いか、わかる方は是非とも解答よろしくお願いします。

  • 英文の和訳で困っています 和訳を助けてください

    英文の和訳で困っています 和訳を教えていただきたいです よろしくお願いします!! More plausible in Paul Zanker’s suggestion that the building, whose auditorium would have held between 1,500 and 2,000 people, may have served as an assembly chamber for meetings of the colonists. Its architectural form tallies well enough with that of assembly-halls or council-chambers in certain Hellenistic cities in the Aegen area, notably Priene and Miletus in Asia Minor. The fact that it was situated next to the large theatre does not imply that it, too, was intended for public entertainments. The position of both buildings was dictated by the convenience of a hill-slope in which the auditoria could be hollowed.

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    In the age of abundance, the apparent availability of virtually all material necessities tended to lead people to expect speedy gratification of their desires and to have little sense of the length of time over which people in other times and places had had to wait in order to have some of their more basic material needs satisfied. お願いしますm(__)m

  • 英文和訳

    以下の英文を分かりやすい日本語にするとどのようになるでしょうか。 よろしくお願い致します。 This is not a one day thing... this has been building for a while... people have been worried about markets... commodity markets have been doing better but at the moment everything is going down because everybody is afraid of everything. But certainly in the next year or two, we are going to witness terrible sell-off because the world is in terrible trouble... America has quadrupled its debts in the last 3 years overall situation has gotten worse not better.

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    Regrettably, the notion of rights of ownership of capital and other income-earning assets remains conflicted, especially in societies that still believe that profit seeking is not quite moral. A key purpose of property rights, after all, is to protect assets in order to use them to profit or personally benefit. Such rights are not supportable in a society that holds any significant remnant of the view of property as “theft.” That notion embraced by Karl Marx rests on the presumption that gained wide acceptance in the first half of the twentieth century that wealth created under a division of labor is produced jointly, and hence should be owned collectively.

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    For planets to grow in size from their humble beginnings ,they must be continually bombarded by smaller bodies for tens to hundreds of millions of years. すみません、お願いします。