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-Ageing- As we've seen, many people live healthy, happy and productive lives for many years after the standard retirement age. But sooner or later, barring accidents, we all become old. It used to be thought that ageing was a steady decline in functioning, with people going inevitably downhill from the age of 50 or so. But now we know that is not so. But now we know that is not so. The research evidence which suggested this pattern of ageing was seriously flawed in the way that it was done, and modern experiences show that ageing occurs quite differently. The general pattern seems to be that we have only a very gradual decline in our older years, and that decline can be slowed down by exercise and activity, but that eventually we reach a period of more rapid physical decline, which rarely lasts for more than about five years. Usually, the person dies at some point during the five-year period. In some old people, that decline is brought about by an accident-a fall or some similar event- which damages them physically but, more importantly, shakes their confidence and makes them feel unable to cope with life as they once did. How inevitable the decline is, once it has begun, is something nobady knows. We do know, though, that even old bodies can respond surprisingly well to exercises were found to be putting on muscle mass as a result - in other words, their muscles were responding to the exercise and becoming stronger. This finding has been repeated a number of times now, and it shows that the saying " it's never too late " may be even truer than we realize. The real danger in ageing, more than any other, seems to be the person's own beliefs about it. Someone who expects to decline and become incapable as they grow older is not likely to face their body or mind with extra challenges. Without exercise, our bodies have no incentive to grow stronger or to maintain their normal levels of strength; so they become weaker. This, to the person who expects to be weak as a result of age, is 'proof 'that they were right, and their belief in inevitable decline is confirmed. But really, it began as a self-fulfilling prophecy.



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  • sayshe
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老化 我々が見てきたように、多くの人々は標準的な定年以後、何年間も健康で、幸せで、生産的な人生を送ります。 しかし、遅かれ早かれ、問題がなければ、みんなが年をとります。 老化とは、人々が50歳あたりの年齢からどうしても坂を下る様に、機能が着実に低下することであると思われてきました。 しかし、現在、我々は、それがそうでないということを知っています。 老化のこのパターンを示した研究証拠には、それの行われ方に、重大な欠陥がありました、そして、現代の経験は老化が全く違って起こることを示しています。 一般的なパターンは、我々が高齢期には非常に緩やかな低下しかしないということ、そして、その低下は、運動と活動によって遅らせることができる、と言った事のように思われます。しかし、結局は、我々はより急速な身体的な低下の段階に達しますが、それはめったに、およそ5年以上の間は続かないのです。 通常、その人は、その5年の期間の間のどこかの時期で死にます。 一部の高齢者においては、その様な低下は事故 ― 転倒または類似した出来事 ― によってもたらされます。そして、それは身体的に彼らに損傷を与えますが、より重要なことは、彼らの自信をぐらつかせて、彼らを人生に対処することが、彼らがかつてそうしていた様には、できないと感じさることです。 いったん始まると、低下が、どれほど回避不能なものなのかは、誰にも分からないことです。 しかし、年老いた肉体でさえ驚くほどよく運動に反応しうるということを、我々は知っています、そして、運動は、結果的に、筋肉量を増やすことがわかりました-言い換えると、彼らの筋肉は運動に反応して、より強くなっていったのです。 この発見は、今では、何度も繰り返されています、そして、「遅すぎるということはない」という格言が、我々が理解している以上に、いっそう真実なのかもしれないと言うことを、それは示しています。 他の何より、老化の本当の危機は、老化について、その人自身が信じることであるようです。 年をとるにつれて、低下し、能力がなくなると予想する人は、彼らの身体や精神をさらなる挑戦に向かわせそうにありません。 運動をしないと、我々の身体には、より強くなったり、強さの正常レベルを維持する誘因がありません; それで、身体はより弱くなるのです。 年齢の結果として弱くなると思っている人にとって、これは彼らが正しかったという『証明』です、そして、回避不能な低下に対する彼らの信念は確かめられます。 しかし、本当は、それは自己達成的予言(自己遂行暗示)として始まったものなのです。 ☆ yamapさんのおかげで、結構長い、専門書を読む機会ができました。「運動しないとな~」



心理学の専門書の英文となっています・・・笑 私の担当箇所は、成人と老化の部位となっていて、 毎週その他の班の人も違う部位を訳し、発表する授業です>< もう少しお付き合いしてもらえると、うれしいです^^


  • 和訳お願い致します。

    It is refreshing to return to the often-echoed remark, that it could not have been the object of a Divine revelation to instruct mankind in physical science, man having had faculties bestowed upon him to enable him to acquire this knowledge by himself. This is in fact pretty generally admitted; but in the application of the doctrine, writers play at fast and loose with it according to circumstances. Thus an inspired writer may be permitted to allude to the phenomena of nature according to the vulgar view of such things, without impeachment of his better knowledge; but if he speaks of the same phenomena assertively, we are bound to suppose that things are as he represents them, however much our knowledge of nature may be disposed to recalcitrate. But if we find a difficulty in admitting that such misrepresentations can find a place in revelation, the difficulty lies in our having previously assumed what a Divine revelation ought to be. If God made use of imperfectly informed men to lay the foundations of that higher knowledge for which the human race was destined, is it wonderful that they should have committed themselves to assertions not in accordance with facts, although they may have believed them to be true? On what grounds has the popular notion of Divine revelation been built up? Is it not plain that the plan of Providence for the education of man is a progressive one, and as imperfect men have been used as the agents for teaching mankind, is it not to be expected that their teachings should be partial and, to some extent, erroneous? Admitted, as it is, that physical science is not what the Hebrew writers, for the most part, profess to convey, at any rate, that it is not on account of the communication of such knowledge that we attach any value to their writings, why should we hesitate to recognise their fallibility on this head?

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    The Hebrew race, their works, and their books, are great facts in the history of man; the influence of the mind of this people upon the rest of mankind has been immense and peculiar, and there can be no difficulty in recognising therein the hand of a directing Providence. But we may not make ourselves wiser than God, nor attribute to Him methods of procedure which are not His. If, then, it is plain that He has not thought it needful to communicate to the writer of the Cosmogony that knowledge which modern researches have revealed, why do we not acknowledge this, except that it conflicts with a human theory which presumes to point out how God ought to have instructed man? The treatment to which the Mosaic narrative is subjected by the theological geologists is anything but respectful. The writers of this school, as we have seen, agree in representing it as a series of elaborate equivocations -- a story which palters with us in a double sense.' But if we regard it as the speculation of some Hebrew Descartes or Newton, promulgated in all good faith as the best and most probable account that could be then given of God's universe, it resumes the dignity and value of which the writers in question have done their utmost to deprive it. It has been sometimes felt as a difficulty to taking this view of the case, that the writer asserts so solemnly and unhesitatingly that for which he must have known that he had no authority. But this arises only from our modern habits of thought, and from the modesty of assertion which the spirit of true science has taught us. Mankind has learnt caution through repeated slips in the process of tracing out the truth.

  • 英語の和訳

    1Christians believed in one God, a God whose laws were to be obeyed by the sun and stars as well as by men. 2There are a lot of Japanese who do not feel comfortable about taking time off while their fellow workers have to continue working. 3“To make the difference” is an expression that always has a positive meaning in English. If a man tells his wife, for example, that marrying her has made all the difference, he's saying that he's very happy he married her. 例えば…の例が分かりませんでした。 4In our dreams we all aspire to be, do and have great things. Yet most of us simply aren't creating the results we want. What we need to understand is that greatness exists in all of us, but it is up to us to put it out of ourselves. It is true that we all have genius. We just need to learn how to apply our genius. 1行目とWhat~が良く分かりません。

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    It should be borne in mind,' says Dr. Buckland, that the object of the account was, not to state in what manner, but by whom the world was made.' Every one must see that this is an unfounded assertion, inasmuch as the greater part of the narrative consists in a minute and orderly description of the manner in which things were made. We can know nothing as to the object of the account, except from the account itself. What the writer meant to state is just that which he has stated, for all that we can know to the contrary. Or can we seriously beleive that if appealed to by one of his Hebrew hearers or readers as to his intention, he would have replied, My only object in what I have written is to inform you that God made the world; as to the manner of His doing it, of which I have given so exact an account, I have no intention that my words should be taken in their literal meaning? We come then to this, that if we sift the Mosaic narrative of all definite meaning, and only allow it to be the expression of the most vague generalities, if we avow that it admits of no certain interpretation, of none that may not be shifted and altered as often as we see fit, and as the exigencies of geology may require, then may we reconcile it with what science teaches. This mode of dealing with the subject has been broadly advocated by a recent writer of mathematical eminence, who adopts the Bucklandian hypothesis, a passage from whose work we shall quote.

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    大学入試の過去問を解いていて、分かりにくいところがありました。 下記の英文の和訳をお願いします。片方だけでも構いません。 (1) The fundamental nature and meaning of music lie not in objects, not in musical works at all, but in action, in what people do. It is only by understanding what people do as they take part in a musical act that we can hope to understand its nature and the function it fulfills in human life. Whatever that function may be, I am certain, first, that to take part in a music act is of central importance to our very humanness, as important as taking part in the act of speech, which it so resembles, and second, that everyone is born with the gift of music no less than with the gift of speech. (2) So far as I know the word “musicking” does not appear in any English dictionary, but it is too useful a conceptual tool to lie unused.

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    Other people may make more dramatic changes in their lives-perhaps moving to start a new life in a different country, or a different town, and taking up an entirely new occupation. Making such dramatic changes sometiimes doesn't work very well, but often people report increased feelings of well-being and confidence, and more positive life experiences. As we have seen, we continue to grow and develop throughout our lives, and the mid-life crisis can be seen as away of taking control of that growth and channelling it into new directions. Insight Some researchers see the mid-life cresis as a myth, arguing that people can engage in life changes at any time in their lives. That is true, but if we look at people who have re-evaluated their lives and make dramatic changes as a result, there is a majority in their 40s and 50s. Retirement Another major transition, of course, is retirement. In earlier times, the period of retirement used to be a brief interlude before old age and death. But in modern living, it has become quite defferent. Changes in diet, lifestyle and general health mean that most people continue to live an active, productive life for a long period after they finish formal working-as long as 30 years, or if they have taken early retirement, even 40. This period is very nearly as long as many people's working life, so the idea of retirement as a'restful interlude' isn't really very practical. Instead, life span psychologists nowadays see retirement as a way of developing in new and different ways, that weren't possible under the constraints of working life.

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    Now assuredly we have here a most important issue, and as it is one the discussion of which will constitute a large element of my work, it is perhaps desirable that I should state at the outset the manner in which I propose to deal with it . The question, then, as to whether or not human intelli gence has been evolved from animal intelligence can only be dealt with scientifically by comparing the one with the other, in order to ascertain the points wherein they agree and the points wherein they differ. Now there can be no doubt that when this is done, the difference between the mental faculties of the most intelligent animal and the mental faculties of the lowest savage[savage=wild beast] is seen to be so vast, that the hypothesis of their being so nearly allied as Mr. Darwin's teaching implies, appears at first sight absurd. And, indeed, it is not until we have become convinced that the theory of Evolution can alone afford an explanation of the facts of human anatomy that we are prepared to seek for a similar explanation of the facts of human psychology. But wide as is the difference between the mind of a man and the mind of a brute, we must remember that the question is one, not as to degree, but as to kind ; and therefore that our task, as serious enquirers after truth, is calmly and honestly to examine the character of the difference which is presented, in order to determine whether it is really beyond the bounds of rational credibility that the enormous interval which now separates these two divisions of mind can ever have been bridged over, by numberless inter mediate gradations, during the untold ages of the past.

  • 和訳に困ってます><宜しくお願いします><

    和訳に困ってます><宜しくお願いします>< 英語の和訳をお願いします! 長文になりますが、宜しくお願いします! The mind is no less capable in women than in men of making this from resolve which constitutes virtue and of recognising the circumstances in which it should be practised. women can control their passions just as well as we can, and they are not more inclined to vice than to virtue. One could even tilt the balance in their favour on this issue because affecthion for children. which is incompara bly stronger in women than in men, is naturally linked with compassion which, in trun, could be called the virtue and tha bond of civil society. it is impossible to imagine that society is reasonably established for any other purpose apart from the mutual satisfaction of needs and common necessities. And if one looked closely at how passions arise in us, one would find that the way in which women treat us when we are in distress, almost like their own children, is like a natural development of their contribution to the birth and education of men. Thet the differences which can be observed in the conduct of men and women derive from their education It is all the more important to notice that the dispositions with which we are born are neither good nor evil, because otherwise one cannot avoid a rather common mistake of attributing to nature something which results only from custom

  • 和訳お願いしますす

    英語の授業で和訳の問題が出たのですが、この部分が自信ないので教えてください。 little as can be said about practice in this, as in any other filed. Should we assume that a myth as old and elementary as this has the prudish morals of the nineteenth-century outlook, and that the important point the story wants to convey to us is the embarrassment that their genitals were visible? よろしくお願いします。

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    On entering so wide a field of enquiry as that whose limits I have now indicated, it is indispensable to the continuity of advance that we should be prepared, where needful, to supple ment observation with hypothesis. It therefore seems desira ble to conclude this Introduction with a few words both to explain and to justify the method which in this matter I intend to follow. It has already been stated that the sole object of this work is that of tracing, in as scientific a manner as possible, the probable history of Mental Evolution, and therefore, ofcourse, of enquiring into the causes which hare determined it. So far as observation is available to guide us in this enquiry, I shall resort to no other assistance. Where, however, from the nature of the case, observation fails us, I shall proceed to inference. But though I shall use this method as sparingly as possible, I am aware that criticism will often find valid ground to object — ' It is all very well to map out the sup posed genesis of the various mental faculties in this way, but we require some definite experimental or historical proof that the genesis in question actually did take place in the order and manner that you infer.'