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People who take this view have been shown to be musch more likely to die in the first few years of retirement than those who take a more positive view. It seems that they find it much harder to find anything worth living for, because they feel so useless. This also helps to explain why women live loger than men (although there are other factors to be considered too). Women who are past retiring age now, grew up in a culture in which the home was considered to be a woman's primary responsibility. Even after they have retired, that responsibility still remains, so they still have something in their lives to be involved with. But men of the same age were usually brought up to believe that their primary responsibility was to work and be the breadwinner for the family. That responsibility vanishes with compulsory retirement and this can be emotionally devastating. Even people who have looked forward to retirement can find that, after the first few months, and they can become very depressed even, sometimes, to the point where they give up trying to live. This is why it is so important for retired people to make sure that they have some other interest in their life, and more than just one if at all possible. Many retired people take up another responsibility where they can still feel needed, such as voluntary work. Gardening is particularly popular, because a garden needs to be looked after-it can't be neglected or it will quickly turn wild. So gardeners know that their efforts are necessary and worthwhile. Some people develop hobbies such as travelling, or learn a new sport, such as golf or bowls. All these are ways for people to develop other sources of self-esteem, to compensant for being without paid employment.



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この見方をする人々は、より積極的な見方をする人より引退後数年で死ぬ可能性がより高そうであることが示されました。 彼らは、生きがいとする価値がある物をはるかに見つけにくいと思うようです、と言うのは、彼らがとても役に立たないと感じているからです。 これは、また、女性がなぜ男性より長生きするのかを説明する助けともなります(考えられるべき他の要素もあるのですが)。 現在、退職年齢を超えている女性は、家が女性の主たる責任の場所であると考えられていた文化で、成長しました。 彼女たちが退職した後でさえ、その責任がまだ残っているので、彼女たちは、まだ人生で、かかわるべき何かを持っているのです。 しかし、通常、同じ年令の男性は、彼らの主たる責任が働いて、家族のための稼ぎ手であることであると信じるように育てられました。 その責任は定年退職で消え失せます、そして、これは感情的に破壊的である場合がありえるのです。 引退を楽しみにしていた人々さえ、わずか数カ月後にそう思う場合があります、そして、彼らは時々生きようとするのをやめようと思うほど非常に落ち込む場合があるのです。 こういうわけで、退職した人々が、必ず、人生で何か他の関心を、もし仮にも可能であるならば、一つ以上持つことがとても重要になるのです。 多くの退職した人々が、自分達がボランティアの仕事などのように、必要であるとまだ感じることができるところで、別の責任を引き受け始めます。 ガーデニングは特に人気があります、と言うのは、庭は世話をする必要があるからです--それを無視することはできません、さもないと、庭はすぐに荒れてしまいます。 それで、ガーデニングをする人は、彼らの努力が必要であって、価値があるのがわかるのです。 旅行の様な趣味を始めたり、ゴルフやボーリングの様な新しいスポーツを習う人もあります。 これらはすべて、人々が自尊心の元となる他の物を開発し、給与をもらえる雇用がない状態を埋め合わせる方法なのです。



ありがとうございます^^ 助かっております><!!


  • 英語 和訳

    和訳お願いします (1)When people travel to other countries, they find that many things are different from the things in their own country. (2)It can be very hot in summer and very cold and snowy in winter. (3)People who come from hot countries often find that it is too cold for them in December, January, ane February. (4)It is sometimes difficult to talk to them on the street because they are always very busy and don't have much time.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    どうしても分からず教えて頂けたら助かります。 Who knows, it might even be our religion from which the world and all people learn good, and for that reason and that reason only do we have to suffer now. という文章なんですが、よろしくお願いします。

  • 和訳お願い致します。

    It is hard to imagine how customers who rush after trends, or the stores that serve them, will respond to the report’s suggestions: that people lease clothes and return them at the end of a month or a season, so the garments can be lent again to someone else — like library books — and that they buy more expensive and durable clothing that can be worn for years. Perhups surprisingly , the report highlights the benefits of synthetic fabrics they require less hot water to wash and less ironing. It suggests that consumers air-dry clothes and throw away their tumble dryers, which require huge amounts of energy.

  • 和訳 お願いします><

    Other people may make more dramatic changes in their lives-perhaps moving to start a new life in a different country, or a different town, and taking up an entirely new occupation. Making such dramatic changes sometiimes doesn't work very well, but often people report increased feelings of well-being and confidence, and more positive life experiences. As we have seen, we continue to grow and develop throughout our lives, and the mid-life crisis can be seen as away of taking control of that growth and channelling it into new directions. Insight Some researchers see the mid-life cresis as a myth, arguing that people can engage in life changes at any time in their lives. That is true, but if we look at people who have re-evaluated their lives and make dramatic changes as a result, there is a majority in their 40s and 50s. Retirement Another major transition, of course, is retirement. In earlier times, the period of retirement used to be a brief interlude before old age and death. But in modern living, it has become quite defferent. Changes in diet, lifestyle and general health mean that most people continue to live an active, productive life for a long period after they finish formal working-as long as 30 years, or if they have taken early retirement, even 40. This period is very nearly as long as many people's working life, so the idea of retirement as a'restful interlude' isn't really very practical. Instead, life span psychologists nowadays see retirement as a way of developing in new and different ways, that weren't possible under the constraints of working life.

  • 和訳困っています><

    SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY In 1975, Dowd proposed a different way of explaining this question. Dowd proposed that retirement is actually a sort of social contract that the person makes with society.They obtain increased leisure time, and an 'honourable discharge' from the idea that all responsible members of society ought to work as hard as possible - the Protestant Work Ethic-and in return, they give up their involvement in how society's affairs are run. This social exchange is seen, according to Dowd, as a fair trade, both by society and by old people. More recently, however, people are showing sings of being less prepared to accept this type of social contract. After all, we live much longer now than we did when retirement was first introdused, and we keep our health for longer, too; so it is much more practical for people to continue to take an active part in society. Among business and professional people, it is not at all uncommon for retirement to signal the beginning of a second career, and a much more independent one that allows them to use their experience, such as working as a consultant. In other groups of society, too, people are beginning to see retirement as an opportunity to do new things. Organizations like the University of the Third Age encourage retired people to develop new hobbies and pursue new interests, and are becoming more popular and successful all the time. Many psychologists now take the view that successful retirement is all about making sure that you acquire new social roles, to replace the ones that you have lost through work, and activities of this sort are exactly the way that people do that. Insight Having responsibilities and being needed seem to be the core of successful retirement. That can take many forms: some people feel needed by their gardens, and devote much of their time to taking care of them; while others take on more social responsibilities.

  • 誕生日についての文ですが、意味が理解できません。どなたか、ご協力お願いします。

    I should be able to have it where I want it and to decide who to invite. Let other people do their own birthday parties the way they wish, but they should leave mine alone. That way, we can all be happy at least one day each year. Is this too much to ask?

  • 和訳 困っています><

    SOCIAL LABELLING Dyson(1980) interviewed a large number of people about their experiences of retirement, and challenged the idea that people see it as a fair exchange. Dyson's respondents saw it as fair for old people in general, but not in their own personal cases. They felt that, for the most part, sosiety had thrown them on the junk heap too early, when they were still perfectly capable of making an active and useful contribution to society. But they did think it was probably fair for other old people, and for old people in general. Dyson's research gave some interesting hints about the emergence of a new perspective on ageing, which developed during the 1980s. This view sees the lower visibility of older people in society as a product of old people are very strong-even though most of us are personally acquainted with individuals who don't fit those stereotypes at all. But it is very difficult for an individual to berak through the social stereotyping and be regarded as an intelligent person with something useful to contribute, because too often they are seen as someone who is old, and therefore useless. Or they think this is how they will be seen, and so they don't bother trying.

  • 英文和訳

    so intimate is the relation between a language and the people who speak it that the two can scarcely be thought of apart. A language lives only so long as there are people who speak it and use it as native tongue, and its greatness is only that given to it by these people. 質問部分 最後の部分greatness is only that given to it by these people.のitがなにを示しているのかがわかりません。 ちなみに参考書の和訳にはこういった人々によって与えられる偉大さにほかならない。と書かれています。 よろしくお願いします

  • 和訳困っています><

    -Ageing- As we've seen, many people live healthy, happy and productive lives for many years after the standard retirement age. But sooner or later, barring accidents, we all become old. It used to be thought that ageing was a steady decline in functioning, with people going inevitably downhill from the age of 50 or so. But now we know that is not so. But now we know that is not so. The research evidence which suggested this pattern of ageing was seriously flawed in the way that it was done, and modern experiences show that ageing occurs quite differently. The general pattern seems to be that we have only a very gradual decline in our older years, and that decline can be slowed down by exercise and activity, but that eventually we reach a period of more rapid physical decline, which rarely lasts for more than about five years. Usually, the person dies at some point during the five-year period. In some old people, that decline is brought about by an accident-a fall or some similar event- which damages them physically but, more importantly, shakes their confidence and makes them feel unable to cope with life as they once did. How inevitable the decline is, once it has begun, is something nobady knows. We do know, though, that even old bodies can respond surprisingly well to exercises were found to be putting on muscle mass as a result - in other words, their muscles were responding to the exercise and becoming stronger. This finding has been repeated a number of times now, and it shows that the saying " it's never too late " may be even truer than we realize. The real danger in ageing, more than any other, seems to be the person's own beliefs about it. Someone who expects to decline and become incapable as they grow older is not likely to face their body or mind with extra challenges. Without exercise, our bodies have no incentive to grow stronger or to maintain their normal levels of strength; so they become weaker. This, to the person who expects to be weak as a result of age, is 'proof 'that they were right, and their belief in inevitable decline is confirmed. But really, it began as a self-fulfilling prophecy.

  • 英語が正しいかどうか教えてください。

    Many people want to be success. Many people have dreams and become happy. I also want to be success. And I have a dream. It is not easy to success. And many people have felt sad because they can’t success. I don’t think people can’t succeed that it is because of hard work. I suppose that luck is very important for succeed. I argue about exam and I was read a book. この文の英語に間違いなどあれば教えてください。 よろしくお願いします。