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SOCIAL LABELLING Dyson(1980) interviewed a large number of people about their experiences of retirement, and challenged the idea that people see it as a fair exchange. Dyson's respondents saw it as fair for old people in general, but not in their own personal cases. They felt that, for the most part, sosiety had thrown them on the junk heap too early, when they were still perfectly capable of making an active and useful contribution to society. But they did think it was probably fair for other old people, and for old people in general. Dyson's research gave some interesting hints about the emergence of a new perspective on ageing, which developed during the 1980s. This view sees the lower visibility of older people in society as a product of old people are very strong-even though most of us are personally acquainted with individuals who don't fit those stereotypes at all. But it is very difficult for an individual to berak through the social stereotyping and be regarded as an intelligent person with something useful to contribute, because too often they are seen as someone who is old, and therefore useless. Or they think this is how they will be seen, and so they don't bother trying.



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  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.3
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5904)

☆ 補足に掲載された部分の和訳です。本文には無理やり訳した部分がありますから、適当に調整して下さい。 「この見解は、社会で老人が目立たなくなることを、社会的なラベル付けの結果であると見なしています。 我々は、年齢(高齢者)差別の社会に住んでいます、たとえまったくそれらの固定観念に合わない高齢者を我々のほとんどが個人的に知っているとしても ― 高齢者に対する固定観念は、非常に強いのです。」



ご返答ありがとうございます^^! 今で大体半分くらい進みました!後半もよろしくお願いします><

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  • 回答No.2
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5904)

社会的なラベル付け ダイスン(1980)は、引退の彼らの経験について多数の人々を取材して、人々がそれを公平な交換とみなすという考えに疑問を呈しました。 ダイスンの回答者は、それを大方の高齢者にとっては公平だとみなしましたが、彼ら自身の個人的な事例ではそう見なしてはいませんでした。 彼らは、ほとんどの場合、まだ活発で役に立つ社会貢献をすることが完全にできるときに、社会があまりに早くゴミの堆積の上に彼らを放り投げたと感じました。 しかし、他の高齢者にとっては、そして、大方の高齢者にとっては多分公平なのだろうと、彼らは思いました。 ダイスンの研究は、1980年代の間に発達した、老化についての新しい見方の出現に関していくつかの面白い手がかりを提供しました。 この見解は、- たとえまったくそれらの固定観念に合わない個人を我々のほとんどが個人的に知っているとしても - 高齢者の生み出されるものとしての社会における老人の低い可視性を非常に強く見ています。 しかし、個人が社会的ステレオタイプ化を突破して、貢献するために役に立つ何かをもつ知的な人と見なされることは、非常に困難です、と言うのは、あまりにしばしば年をとっていて、したがって役に立たない人と彼らがみなされるからです。 または、彼らはこう言う風に自分たちは見られるのだと思い、それ故、彼らは試みさえしないのです。 ☆ 第3パラグラフ、第2文、 This view sees the lower visibility of older people in society as a product of old people are very strong-even though most of us are personally acquainted with individuals who don't fit those stereotypes at all. は、どこか写し間違いはないでしょうか?文法的に、しっくりしないように思います。一度チェックして、補足してもらえば、注意しています。



お待たせいたしました、完全に段落の見間違えでした。 申し訳ございません>< This view sees the lower visibility of older people in society as a product of 「social labelling. We live in an ageist society, in which stereotypes 」of old people are very strong-even though most of us are personally acquainted with individuals who don't fit those stereotypes at all. 「」の部分省いてしまっていました、申し訳ないです><

  • 回答No.1

社会的なラベル ダイソン(1980)は、彼らの引退の経験に関して多くの人々にインタビューして、人々がそれを公正な交換であるとみなすという考えに挑戦しました。 ダイソンの応答者は、高齢者には、一般に、それが公正であるとみなしましたが、それら自身の個人的な場合でみなしたというわけではありません。 彼らは、だいたいsosietyがあまりに早くぽんこつにそれらを投げたと感じました。(その時、それらは社会へのアクティブで役に立つ貢献をするのがまだ完全にできていました)。 しかし、彼らは、他の高齢者、および高齢者には、それがたぶん一般に公正であると思いました。 ダイソンの研究は1980年代の間、展開した年をとるときの新しい見解の出現に関していくつかのおもしろいヒントを与えました。 高齢者の製品がまさしくそのである、この視点が社会で、より年取った人々の下側の視度を見る、強さ、-、私たちの大部分は個人的にそれらのステレオタイプに全く合わない個人と面識があります。 しかし、個人には、それはberakに社会的に枠にはめることで非常に難しいです、そして、貢献するために使い物をもっている知的な人と見なされてください、それらが年取って、したがってだれか役に立たない人とあまりにも頻繁に考えられるので。 または、彼らは、これがそれらが見られるので、彼らがどうわざわざ試みないかということであると思います。





  • 和訳お願いします><

    The stereotypes associated with old people are particularly unpleasant. They are often regarded as sick, stupid, or even dirty. Because a minority of old people become confused, or suffer from mental disorders such as Alzhimer's disease, it is assumed that any old person is likely to become mentally incapacitated -although, in fact, the evidence is very different. Because of this, the positive contributions which older people can make to social events and processes are often overlooked, or simply ignored. Recently, a number of organizations and individuals have begun to challenge these stereotypes about ageing, and there is some indication that attitudes are beginning to change. But there is still a long way to go. Insight The negative view that we have of old people is like other stereotypes, having a small grain of truth in some cases but a lot of exceptions. Interestingly , although old people also share this negative stereotype, they almost always see themselves as one of the exceptions. So who is left to fit the stereotype? RETIREMENT AND RESPONSIBILITY Some people who reach reach retiring age, though, still hold to the old negative ideas about retirement. Sometimes they feel that society has simply thrown them away, even though they are as fit as ever. But sometimes they interpret any aches and pains as being evidence that they are becoming old and useless, so they stop doing activities which would help them to keep fit. Anyone will grow infirm if they do nothing all day but sit in the house and watch TV- muscles need exercise to keep toned, and a healthy retirement means an active one. Also, feeling socially useless is a major source of stress and helplessness. Without another source of self-esteem, such as a hobby or voluntary work, people can become extremely depressed, and appear to give up on active living.

  • 和訳困っています><

    This rather gloomy process is known as disengagement, based on the idea that there is an innate, biological tendency to disengage from society with age, rather like an animal creeping off to die by itself. It reflects a tendency of psychologists at that time to look for biological explanations for all human behavior. But there are many problems with this model. For one thing, the relative lack of social involvement of older people isn't anything like an animal creeping away to die, because the period of being 'an old person' or a pensioner is so very long. Nowadays, it isn't uncommon for people to live for 30 years or more after they have retired, and that's quite different from a couple of days of being ill and weak before dying-the normal state of affairs among wild animals. Activity theory That type of explanation also ignores the social factors involved in retirement. An alternative explanation for why older people don't seem to take as active a part in society as they might was put forward by Havinghurst, in 1964. Having hurst attributed it to the fact that older people have relatively few opportunities to play meaningful social roles in society. When someone is active and working, they play a large number of different social roles. These include various roles at work as well as roles to do with the family. In other words, as Hvinghurst put it, their role-count is high. But when someone retires from work, their role-count drops dramatically, because all the social roles that they played that were relevant to work -even ones as simple as being a commuter- vanish. All that is left are social roles to do with family and home. In other words, Havinghurst was arguing, people becomes less visible when they retire simply because they don't have as many opportunities to play a part in everyday social living. And this has personal consequences, as well as social ones, because people can easily come to feel apathetic and useless as a result. The way to counteract this, Havinghurst argued, is for people to replace their lost social roles deliberately, by adding new ones such as joining clubs and societies for older people, or working for organizations like Oxfam, which employ people over conventional retirement age. keeping up one's role-count, according to Havinghurst, is the way to ensure a positive experience of old age.

  • この英文を和訳してほしいです。

    There is some evidence that these improvements in the characteristics of elders have resulted in more positive views of aging. Tibbitts claimed that during the past 30 to 40 years, U.S. society has moved from holding negative stereotypes of old people to holding positive views in which elders are seen as being able to contribute to the quality of life for themselves, their communities, and society as a whole. Schonfield even argued that the assumption of negative attitudes toward old people is a "social myth" perpetuated by the gerontological literature. We will be examining these attitudes in derail in Chapter 2, but there does appear to be a substantial shift from negative to positive attitudes. The improvements in the physical, mental,social, and economic characteristics of elders have been so marked, and there have been so many programs and services developed for elders only, that many have begun to criticize these programs as discrimination in favor of the aged, or positive ageism. We will be discussing examples of positive ageism throughout this book; but the ones that have drawn most criticism so far are the Medicare program and some features of the Social Security System, such as the automatic cost of living increases in benefits and the tax-exemption of Social Security benefits for most elders. Perhaps these programs have been criticized the most because they involve the most money. Critics are beginning to argue that since elders are no longer deprived economically and since they are now much better off mentally, physically, and socially than they were in the past, it is no longer necessary or fair to continue the enormous expense of these special supports and programs available only to elders. Some argue that the way to reduce positive ageism is to make these supports and programs available to all ages on the basis of need. For example, they recommend that the national health insurance, which only elders now enjoy, be extended to all ages. It is clear that positive ageism is becoming an important issue and promises to become even more important as we are faced with more older people and more expensive programs for "seniors only."

  • 和訳して下さいm(_ _)m

    Yes very much, people of japan are hard working, they have their own and beautiful culture and traditions:) also as much i know, they are of helping nature too and i don't think there is any reason that one shouldn't like japan. Although good and bad people are everywhere but in fact after my country i like japan most in this world. What do you think about India? 和訳して下さいm(_ _)m

  • 和訳をお願いします

    和訳をお願いします An example of shadow clocks are the obelisks from Egypt. They are tell,thin buildings that come to apoint at the top. Cleopatra's Needles are the two most famous obelisks in the world. They are almost 3,500 years old. About the same time,people began to make sundials. Sundials have a round part to divide the day into twelve parts. Around the year 1250,someone made the first mechanical clock. It was a mechanical clock because it was a machine that ran by itself. It did not need the help of anything in nature. People began to use the hourglass clock around the year 1400. They made in from glass. It was wide at the top and bottom but narrow in the middle. They put some sand in one part. The sand ran from the top part to the bottom part of the glass in one hour. At the end of every hour people turned the glass over and began again.

  • 和訳ができなくて困っています!!助けてください。

    theorizations of technology dominated by notions of impact on social relations are useful but inadequate in that they operate so as to close-off all manner of negotiations and exercises of power which are constitutive of the "technical". っていう文なんですけど、ちょっと手に負えなくて困っています。英語に自身のあるかたお願いします。 ちなみに翻訳機でやったら意味不明でした。

  • 和訳お願いしますm(_ _)m

    suggestible=被暗示性、という心理学用語ですm(_ _)m We are suggestible,ready to take ideas from others and make them our own. Suggestbility descnbes why people believe something that never happened. They become convinced because they are told about an event. They see it in movies,and they hear about it. So they combine theae thoughts into false memories―――but not real ones. Psychologists believe that many childhood memories are created by parents for their children. They tell the child that something happened: "Remember when we went to the seaehore?' And the child collects beach and vacation ideas into a memory. Propaganda is delibetately telling people ideas that you went them to believe. Advertising is another form of suggesting to people,and people of all ages tend to believe advertising. All of us are suggestible; children are particularly so.

  • 和訳していただけませんか?

    下の文を和訳していただけませんか? If you are young, aging parents may not be your biggest concern, but they are a mojor concern for the governmental, social, and financial leaders of the world, particularly for those in japan. The parcentage of people over age 65 is increasing worldwide, from about 7 percent in 2005 to a predicted 15 percent by 2005. Japan already has one of the largest over-65 populations. According to population projections prepared by the Statistics Bureau of Japan's Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, 22.5 percent of the Japanese population was expected to be 65 or older in 2010. They expect that number ti increase to 33.2 percent by 2040, resulting in Japan having the largest percentage of over 65-year-old in the world. What effects will such an enormous number of elderly people have on society.

  • 長文 和訳

    こないだテストでだされたんですが和訳した回答を配ってくれませんでした。。。自分の訳があっているか知りたいのでだいたいで良いので和訳できる人がいたらよろしくお願いします。。。 You may wonder why Hawaiians are so eager to maintain their native language. I think the answer is that language is more than just a means of exchanging information. We see the world around us through the window of our language. It enables us to share the history and culture of our people, and so it helps us find our identity. If we lose our language, we lose something of ourselves. Imagine that English has taken the place of the Japanese language here in Japan. What happens to your culture and identity? English is useful for communication in many parts of the world, but your mother tongue is an important part of your identity. In Japan ,too,there is a minority language, just as in Hawaii. The Ainu people have lose much of their language and culture. Today, they are trying to revive their traditions. In this class we are going to study English of course, but I want you to remember that your mother tongue is the most important language in the world. Mahalo for listening. 以上なんですが長文なのでかなり長いです。。。  これでも回答してくれる方お願いいたします。

  • 和訳してほしいです。 年齢差別についてです。

    Our analysis of data from the Health Interview Survey since 1961 found that all measures of illness and disability showed decreasing disability for successive cohorts of people 65 and over relative to younger persons. Are these gains due primarily to reductions in ageism, to improved support and services for elders, or to cohort changes? They are probably due to a combination of these factors, but primarily to cohort changes. What are cohort changes? For our purposes, a cohort is a category of people born during a certain period. For example, the cohort of people born between 1920 and 1930 will be 60 to 70 years old in 1990. They are a more affluent, better educated, and healthier cohort than cohorts born before 1920. This is because the newer cohorts had more fortunate life experiences. They had more education as youth; did not suffer from loss of savings and unemployment during the Depression; and had better nutrition, sanitation, and health care throughout their lives. Thus, as the newer cohorts replace the older cohorts among those over 65. the average income, education, and health of elders improves. This is the primary explanation for the improvement in characteristics of elders.