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People in areas with a relatively cool climate think that they are free from catching malaria. However, recent changes in climate let mosquitoes move into parts of the world that used to be too cold for them to survive. For example, in Papua New Guinea, the higher mountain areas are becoming warmer, and mosquitoes may affect another two million people. As the world becomes warmer, the spread of malaria will be more and more of an urgent global concern.

  • ryr
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  • bakansky
  • ベストアンサー率48% (3502/7245)

> People in areas with a relatively cool climate think that they are free from catching malaria.  People think that they are free from catching malaria. というのが骨格です。  辞書では be free from ... を調べて下さい (free の項目に出ていると思います)。「・・・を免れている」  catch という動詞は、「捕える」 でもありますが、この場合は目的語が malaria という病気の名前なので、「感染する」 という意味。  「比較的寒冷な気候の地域に住む人々は、自分たちがマラリアに感染することなどないと思っています」 > However, recent changes in climate let mosquitoes move into parts of the world that used to be too cold for them to survive.  Recent changes in climate let mosquitoes move into parts of the world くらいが骨格の文。  let A into B という構文。辞書では let の項目をよく読むといいでしょう。「A を B に入らせる」  「でも、最近の気候の変動は、かつては蚊が生息するには気温が低すぎるとされていた地域にまで蚊を進出させています」 > For example, in Papua New Guinea, the higher mountain areas are becoming warmer, and mosquitoes may affect another two million people.  affect という動詞は 「・・・に影響する」 という意味ですが、辞書をよく見ると 「病気が冒す」 という意味でも用いられます。  in Papua New Guinea, the higher mountain areas という部分は、カンマの後ろがその前の名詞を説明している、あるいは言い換えているだけです。とりあえず後ろの部分は無視して訳しておいて、後で補ってもいいでしょう。  「たとえば、パプア・ニュー・ギニアのような高山地帯では温暖化が進んでおり、200万人もの人々にマラリアを感染させる危険があります」 > As the world becomes warmer, the spread of malaria will be more and more of an urgent global concern.  この冒頭の as は、「理由」 を表す as です。「・・・だから」 → 「世界はより暖かくなっているので」  of an urgent global concern は of の用法の1つ。will be からつながっています。A is of B. という形で、「A は B という性質を持っている」 ということを表現しています。  「地球の温暖化が進むにつれてマラリアの病原菌が拡散していくことは、世界全体にとって、より一層の関心事になっています」

  • sizu08
  • ベストアンサー率0% (0/6)

比較的涼しい地域に住む人々はマラリアに刺されることに対して無知である。しかしながら、近年の気候変動により蚊は涼しい地域に移動し、生存が可能になった。例えばパプアニューギニアでは、高山地帯はだんだんと暖かくなり、蚊は新たに200万人に感染するだろう。 世界がだんだんと暖かくなるにつれマラリアの生息範囲が広がり、近年の世界的関心が高まっていくであろう。 直訳で分かりづらいとは思いますが、参考までに(^∀^)/





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    Malaria is a disease that is spread by mosquitoes. A parasite which causes the disease is carried by some mosquitoes. It can enter the body threads a mosquito bite and infected blood cells. Symptom of malaria includ fever,headache and vomiwing. It is possible to die from malaria if one dose not receive proper treatment. Everyone year there are more than I million deaths from malaria around the world. This serious problem makes many world. Most or them are children in Africa who have no resistance to the disease. orld. This serious problem makes many Africa countries spend a lot of money on prevention and treatment. That weaken their economies.

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    Climate change is often associated with extreme weather events, melting glaciers and rising sea levels. But it could also have a major impact on human, animal and plant health by making it easier for diseases to spread. Various germs and parasites may find the coming years a time to live longer and prosper. Rising temperatures are changing environments and removing some of their natural impediments. Sonia Altizer is an associate professor at the University of Georgia’s Odum School of Ecology and lead author of the study. She said it’s a review of research done over the past 10 years to see what trends and new information on climate change have emerged. “One of the big themes that has emerged is that there’s a lot of diseases, especially in natural systems, where there as a pretty clear signal that either the prevalence or severity of those diseases has increased in response to climate change.” She said some of those natural systems where the signal is strongest are in the arctic and in warmer oceans. “So in the arctic there are parasitic worms that affect muskox and reindeer, for example, that are developing faster and becoming more prevalent and expanding their ranges. And then in tropical oceans, like Caribbean coral reefs, there’s a large amount of evidence that has mounted that shows that warming interferes with the symbiosis of corals – makes them more vulnerable to disease and at the same time increases the growth rate of some lethal bacteria,” she said. But a second theme emerged indicating that sometimes climate change may have no effect at all. “The other main point that we focused on is that knowing why different pathogens respond differently to climate change is what’s needed to help us predict and ultimately manage disease outbreaks in people and animals and plants,” she said. Some countries will be much better prepared to handle the disease threat than others, like those in Europe and North America. . “Surveillance, vector control, modern sanitation, drugs, vaccines can be deployed to prevent outbreaks of a lot of diseases, especially vector borne disease or diarrheal disease that are much more problematic in the developing world. And so these can counter the effects of climate change and make it hard to detect increases in those pathogens,” said Altizer. Controlling vectors means controlling such things as mosquitos and ticks, which can carry malaria or dengue fever. In developing countries, pathogens affecting agriculture and wildlife could adversely affect food security and the livelihoods of indigenous peoples. So how concerned should health officials be? Altizer said there’s no simple answer. “I think that the answer to it really depends on the location. So where, when and what pathogen? So I think we’re at a stage now where in the next five to ten years scientists will be able to move towards a predictive framework that will be able to answer questions about where in the world and what pathogens are responding and will continue to respond most strongly to climate change.” Altizer says the effects of climate change will unfold over decades. So it’s vital to follow long-term standardized data for many diseases and pathogens. She said crop management may be a good example to follow. It has a long history of tracking disease outbreaks, forecasting potential threats and responding to those threats early.

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    和訳お願いします。 “The act of being in front of someone while they have that screen — they know if you tip, don’t tip or go into custom screens,” he said. “People in that moment are much more likely to be generous and to tip.”

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    By using a model lizard, they measured the temperature that real lizards encountered in their environment throughout the year. They found that warmer temperatures in the spring meant that lizards had to spend more time in that season searching for shade instead of searching for food. Female lizards that cannot obtain enough food in the springtime are unable to reproduce, and the local population soon crashes. Global warming is thus apparently causing sun-basking lizards, animals that we would normally expect to welcome warmer weather, to vanish from the Earth.

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    There is some evidence that these improvements in the characteristics of elders have resulted in more positive views of aging. Tibbitts claimed that during the past 30 to 40 years, U.S. society has moved from holding negative stereotypes of old people to holding positive views in which elders are seen as being able to contribute to the quality of life for themselves, their communities, and society as a whole. Schonfield even argued that the assumption of negative attitudes toward old people is a "social myth" perpetuated by the gerontological literature. We will be examining these attitudes in derail in Chapter 2, but there does appear to be a substantial shift from negative to positive attitudes. The improvements in the physical, mental,social, and economic characteristics of elders have been so marked, and there have been so many programs and services developed for elders only, that many have begun to criticize these programs as discrimination in favor of the aged, or positive ageism. We will be discussing examples of positive ageism throughout this book; but the ones that have drawn most criticism so far are the Medicare program and some features of the Social Security System, such as the automatic cost of living increases in benefits and the tax-exemption of Social Security benefits for most elders. Perhaps these programs have been criticized the most because they involve the most money. Critics are beginning to argue that since elders are no longer deprived economically and since they are now much better off mentally, physically, and socially than they were in the past, it is no longer necessary or fair to continue the enormous expense of these special supports and programs available only to elders. Some argue that the way to reduce positive ageism is to make these supports and programs available to all ages on the basis of need. For example, they recommend that the national health insurance, which only elders now enjoy, be extended to all ages. It is clear that positive ageism is becoming an important issue and promises to become even more important as we are faced with more older people and more expensive programs for "seniors only."

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    SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY In 1975, Dowd proposed a different way of explaining this question. Dowd proposed that retirement is actually a sort of social contract that the person makes with society.They obtain increased leisure time, and an 'honourable discharge' from the idea that all responsible members of society ought to work as hard as possible - the Protestant Work Ethic-and in return, they give up their involvement in how society's affairs are run. This social exchange is seen, according to Dowd, as a fair trade, both by society and by old people. More recently, however, people are showing sings of being less prepared to accept this type of social contract. After all, we live much longer now than we did when retirement was first introdused, and we keep our health for longer, too; so it is much more practical for people to continue to take an active part in society. Among business and professional people, it is not at all uncommon for retirement to signal the beginning of a second career, and a much more independent one that allows them to use their experience, such as working as a consultant. In other groups of society, too, people are beginning to see retirement as an opportunity to do new things. Organizations like the University of the Third Age encourage retired people to develop new hobbies and pursue new interests, and are becoming more popular and successful all the time. Many psychologists now take the view that successful retirement is all about making sure that you acquire new social roles, to replace the ones that you have lost through work, and activities of this sort are exactly the way that people do that. Insight Having responsibilities and being needed seem to be the core of successful retirement. That can take many forms: some people feel needed by their gardens, and devote much of their time to taking care of them; while others take on more social responsibilities.

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    George Whitesides is a professor of chemistry at Harvard University. He and his team devote a significant amount of their research to the use of cutting-edge science to help people in developing economies. One such project is the creation of a blood/urine testing device that uses simple nanotechnology and the physics of microfluids. In this device, ordinary paper that has been treated to react with particular proteins or other markers of disease is sandwiched with layers of double-sided sticky tape. The tape protects the treated paper from reacting with anything before the test is performed. Since capillary action can be depended on to move a sample from its entry point to the treated areas of paper, no batteries or other power source are necessary for the device to work. Better yet, as paper and sticky tape are both very mature technologies, the materials needed to make these devices are inexpensive and easily obtainable. This device could be used to economically diagnose HIV, malaria, and other diseases. At some point, these devices will benefit people in the developed world as well. For example, if you could administer a simple test by yourself and send or show the result to your doctor, it would save a lot of time and money for all concerned, wouldn’t it? In any case, it is heartening to see scientists working so hard for the benefit of those who need help the most. よろしくお願いします^^;

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    Policy makers and environmentalists argue that, alongside the task of cutting carbon dioxide emissions, governments must prepare for drastic changes which will result from the inevitable rise in temperatures. "What we are seeing now are the early signs of climate change as a result of the emissions produced in the 1960s and 1970s," said Tom Burke, visiting professor at Imperial and University Colleges, London. "There is a 40 year lag between carbon entering the atmosphere and its effects starting to show." He added that the report "is a wake-up call, and what is tricky about this is that we are going to have to spend billions preparing and adapting, and that is going to compete for money to stop climate change getting worse." The draft of the European Commission's Green Paper "Adapting to Climate Change in Europe - Options for EU Action," underlines the scale of the challenge. The document warns that, unless there is advance planning, European countries will be left to respond "to increasingly frequent crises and disasters which will prove much more costly and also threaten Europe's social and economic systems and its security." It adds: "For impacts where we have enough confidence in the forecasts, adaptation must therefore start now."

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    和訳をお願いします Today, about 10 percent of the world's population does not have enough water. This number may rise to 35 percent in 2025. What is more, water which is used in cities and industrial areas is often affected by pollution. Shortage of fresh water also affects food production. People throughout the world may suffer from serious food shortages in the future. We live in a country where we can get clean water just by turning on the faucet, but we need to try to secure more stable sources of fresh water for everyone in the world.

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    下の文を和訳していただけませんか? If you are young, aging parents may not be your biggest concern, but they are a mojor concern for the governmental, social, and financial leaders of the world, particularly for those in japan. The parcentage of people over age 65 is increasing worldwide, from about 7 percent in 2005 to a predicted 15 percent by 2005. Japan already has one of the largest over-65 populations. According to population projections prepared by the Statistics Bureau of Japan's Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, 22.5 percent of the Japanese population was expected to be 65 or older in 2010. They expect that number ti increase to 33.2 percent by 2040, resulting in Japan having the largest percentage of over 65-year-old in the world. What effects will such an enormous number of elderly people have on society.