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Prepare for Drastic Changes in Response to Rising Temperatures

  • Policy makers and environmentalists argue that, alongside the task of cutting carbon dioxide emissions, governments must prepare for drastic changes which will result from the inevitable rise in temperatures.
  • According to Tom Burke, a visiting professor at Imperial and University Colleges, London, the early signs of climate change are already visible due to emissions produced in the 1960s and 1970s. He emphasizes that there is a 40-year lag between carbon entering the atmosphere and its effects becoming apparent.
  • The draft of the European Commission's Green Paper emphasizes the need for advance planning to respond to the increasing frequency of climate-related crises and disasters, which pose a threat to Europe's social and economic systems and security. It calls for immediate adaptation measures to mitigate the impacts of climate change.


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  • Nakay702
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不可避的な温度上昇に起因する劇的な変化に対する備えは、二酸化炭素排出を削減する課題に添って、政府が準備すべきである、と政策立案者や環境保護論者は主張しています。 「私たちが今見ているものは、1960年代と1970年代に産生された放射の結果と見られる気候変化の初期徴候です」と、ロンドンのインペリアル・ユニバーシティ・カレッジの客員教授トム・バークは言いました。「大気への炭素の侵入とその影響が顕現し始めるまでの間には40年の開きがあります。」 彼は次のことをつけ加えました。報告書は「いわば目覚ましコールです。そして、これに関しては扱いにくい部分があって、それは、私たちがそれに備え、適応するのには何十億(ユーロ)も費やさなければならいだろうということであり、また、悪化する気候変動を止めるのが、金銭を求める競争(金儲け合戦)になるだろう、ということです。」 「欧州委員会のグリーン・ペーパー(緑地関連文書)」が出した草案「ヨーロッパにおける気候変動への適応―EU行動の選択肢」は、挑戦の(時空的)規模を強調します。 同文書は、もし進歩的立案がなければ、ヨーロッパ諸国は「ますます頻度が増える危機と災害」に対応し損なうだろう、「それは、ますます費用が嵩むようになり、さらには、ヨーロッパの社会・経済体制およびその安全性を脅かすことになるのが、目に見えているのです」と警告しています。 それはさらに、次のようにつけ加えています。「したがって、私たちが予測に対して十分な確信を抱ける効果を求めるなら、今すぐ適応行動に取りかからなければならないのです」と。






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    Many previous studies have assumed that the impact of aircraft emissions was the same everywhere. But the new analysis reveals that aircraft emissions increased the fraction of cirrus clouds where vapour trails were most abundant, and actually decreased the cirrus fraction in several locations by increasing the temperatures in the lower atmosphere, reducing the relative humidity in such locations. If black-carbon emissions from aircraft could be reduced 20-fold, warming would be halted and a slight cooling would occur from plane-created vapour trails, Jacobson says. The team’s study is being peer reviewed and is expected to be published soon, Jacobson added. David Fahey, of the Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado ― part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ― says that studies such as Jacobson’s are important to fill the gaps in aircraft-emissions data following the nation’s previously “muddled” research course. Fahey says that how European leaders are calling for carbon taxes to be levied on each commercial airline flight, the United States is being driven to catch up on aircraft-emissions research. Some of the EU proposals suggest taxing a flight for emissions along its entire route. This is “absurd”, says Fahey. For a more realistic levy, high-quality research is needed on the actual impact of such emissions, he adds. よろしくお願いします^^;

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    Agriculture could be hit severely. The document says that climate changes will affect crop yields and livestock management, putting farm incomes at risk in some areas where agriculture could become unviable. "Food production risks could become an issue in certain parts of Europe," the report said, "as heat waves, droughts and pests are likely to increase the incidence of crop failures. "As yield variability increases, also the global food supply will be at risk which might be further aggravated by the possible increase in the demand for biomass for energy production." In addition the document predicts that climate change will affect industries like construction and tourism which will need to restructure. Transport systems will need to made "climate proof" it says, adding:" Major infrastructure such as bridges, ports and motorways have lifetimes of 80-100 years so today's investments must take full account of the conditions projected for the end of the century." "Building and other infrastructure designed to last 20-50 years will also have to withstand future climates."

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    Factoring in these emissions, Indonesia had quickly become the world’s third-leading producer of carbon emissions that scientists believe are responsible for global warming, ranked after the United States and China, according to a study released in December by researchers from Wetlands International and Delft Hydraulics, both in the Netherlands. “It was shocking and totally smashed all the good reasons we initially went into palm oil,” said Alex Kaat, a spokesman for Wetlands, a conservation group. Biofuals, long a cornerstone of the quest for greener energy, may sometimes create more harmful emissions than fossil fuels, scientific studies are finding. As a result, politicians in many countries are rethinking the billions of dollars in subsidies that have indiscriminately supported the spread of all of these supposedly eco-friendly fuels for vehicles and factories. The 2003 European Union Biofuels Directive, which demands that all member states aim to have 5.75 percent of transportation run by biofuel in 2010, is now under review.

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    By 2080, global warming could result in one-fifth of the world’s lizard species becoming extinct, a global study has found. Even under the most optimistic scenarios for curbing carbon dioxide emissions, the analysis by an international team shows that one-fifth of the globe’s lizard populations, corresponding to 6% of all lizard species, may go extinct by 2050. “We’ve committed ourselves to that,” says Barry Sinervo, an evolutionary biologist at the University of California, Santa Cruz, who led the study. He and his colleagues found that climate change has already driven 12% of the populations of Mexico’s colourful Sceloporus lizards extinct since 1975. If emissions continue at current levels, he predicts that by 2080, 39% of the world’s lizard populations will have vanished, corresponding to a 20% loss in species. The study is published in Science this week. It’s a stunning finding, says Raymond Huey, an evolutionary physiologist at the University of Washington, Seattle, who wasn’t part of the study team. “Lizards are animals that should be very tolerant of climate warming,” he says. よろしくお願いします^^;

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    Critics scoff that the scientific debate is that the consquences are uncertain-and they're right . There is natural variability and lots of uncertainty,especially about the magnitude and timing of climate change.

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    The region already faces a witches' brew of problems that environmentalists say are being worsened by climate change: coastal erosion, saltwater intrusion onto taro cropland and tourist sites, shortages of potable water, anemic economies propped up by foreign aid, disease, dependence on sugar-packed, processed food imports. And there are health problems like obesity and diabetes exacerbated by such food imports. A recent World Health Organization survey found that the South Pacific was the world's most overweight region. "We're not dealing with climate change on its own, because we have an expanding population and so greater stress on resources anyway," said Ashvini Fernando, regional climate change coordinator for the World Wildlife Fund South Pacific Program, based in Fiji. "Climate change makes those stresses so much greater." Some experts warn that, ultimately, these issues will combine to power a wave of emigrants fleeing the Pacific islands. Indeed, there are already signs of flight: according to a study by the Australian government, applications for New Zealand residency from eligible Pacific island nations shot up sharply in 2005 and 2006, compared with 2003.

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    この文を訳していただけないでしょうか? よろしくお願いします! Scientists believe that companies should work to cut greenhouse gas emissions by using other energy sources, such as wind, solar or waterpower. These types of fuel are less damaging to the environment.  You might have heard about the measures that we all can take to save energy and cut carbon dioxide in the air. But national and international energy laws are also key. As we have seen, millions of plant and animal species may have already been affected by global warming. The time to act is now.

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    "There's going to be an increased demand for migration, as people look for economic opportunities," said Benjamin Preston, an Australian government scientist in marine and atmospheric research. "And as the impact of climate change becomes more severe, that's going to add urgency into the equation." If there is a mass exodus, countries like Tuvalu - which have contingency plans and close relations with a developed country partner like New Zealand - will have an advantage. The Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, for example, could benefit from closer historical ties with the United States (both are former U.S.-administered trust territories). The biggest losers will be unskilled, poor islanders who cannot easily emigrate - especially in politically turbulent states like the Solomon Islands. Preston and others say that, aside from New Zealand, there are few signs that developed nations are taking an active approach to dealing with rising emigration from the region. That may be in part because the predicated climate change scenarios still seem too alarmist and far away to accept. Even in Tuvalu, many islanders do not see inundation as an urgent problem, said Lono Leneuoti, a Tuvaluan tourism official. "You don't really notice that much of a difference, except during the king tide months," he said. "It's hard to believe that 50 years from now the place is going to be under water."

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    People in areas with a relatively cool climate think that they are free from catching malaria. However, recent changes in climate let mosquitoes move into parts of the world that used to be too cold for them to survive. For example, in Papua New Guinea, the higher mountain areas are becoming warmer, and mosquitoes may affect another two million people. As the world becomes warmer, the spread of malaria will be more and more of an urgent global concern.

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    We pass to the account of the creation contained in the Hebrew record. And it must be observed that in reality two distinct accounts are given us in the book of Genesis, one being comprised in the first chapter and the first three verses of the second, the other commencing at the fourth verse of the second chapter and continuing till the end. This is so philologically certain that it were useless to ignore it. But even those who may be inclined to contest the fact that we have here the productions of two different writers, will admit that the account beginning at the first verse of the first chapter, and ending at the third verse of the second, is a complete whole in itself. And to this narrative, in order not to complicate the subject unnecessarily, we intend to confine ourselves. It will sufficient for our purpose to enquire, whether this account can be shown to be in accordance with our astronomical and geological knowledge. And for the right understanding of it the whole must be set out, so that the various parts may be taken in connexion with one another.