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Critics scoff that the scientific debate is that the consquences are uncertain-and they're right . There is natural variability and lots of uncertainty,especially about the magnitude and timing of climate change.


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  • 回答No.3
  • ddeana
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一部ご質問の原文と違う部分がありますので、原文に沿って訳してみました。 http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/16/opinion/16kristof.html?_r=0 1) the scientific debate is that the consquences ↓ 原文:the scientific debate is continuing, that the consequences 批評家達は、科学的論争が続いていること、その結論が不明確であると一蹴する。そして彼らは間違っていない。特に気候変動の度合いとタイミングに関しては、自然の変動性(自然のゆらぎ)と多くの不確実性が存在するのだ。


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  • 回答No.2
  • Nakay702
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以下のとおりお答えします。(なお、consquencesとあるのは、consequencesの誤植と見て訳しました。) 批評家らは、科学の議論というものは結果が不明確であるとして嘲笑しますが、それは彼らのいうとおりなのです。とりわけ気候変動の規模や時期については、自然の変化要素や多大な不確実性が存在するのですから。


  • 回答No.1
  • oignies
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化学的議論をばかにする批判者のいいぶんは、結果は不確実というものだ。そして、それはそのとおりなのである。自然には多様性があり、気候変動の時期とおおきさについてはとくにだが、不確実性にとんでいる。 です。



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    In the same way,terror experts aren't sure about the magnitude and timing of AL Qacda's next strike .But it would be myopic to shrug that because there's uncertaity about the risks,we shouldn't act vigorously to confront them-yet that's our national policy toward climate change,and it's a disgrace.

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    以下の文の和訳をお願いします。 The slowdown is a bit of a mystery to climate scientists. True, the basic theory that predicts a warming of the planet in response to human emissions does not suggest that warming should be smooth and continuous. To the contrary, in a climate system still dominated by natural variability, there is every reason to think the warming will proceed in fits and starts. But given how much is riding on the scientific forecast, the practitioners of climate science would like to understand exactly what is going on. They admit that they do not, even though some potential mechanisms of the slowdown have been suggested. The situation highlights important gaps in our knowledge of the climate system, some of which cannot be closed until we get better measurements from high in space and from deep in the ocean.

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    1. Introduction The role and exact extent of natural and anthropogenic forcing for the climate evolution has been under much debate and one of the major sources of external forcing can be through solar variability. As is well summarized by Hoyt and Schatten (1997), several meteorological phenomena, such as temperature variations, cloud coverage, frequency of lightning strikes, and droughts, seem to be responding to solar variables over a wide range of time scales such as the 27-day solar rotation period, 11-year activity cycle, 22-year polarity reversal cycle and the other longer quasi-cyclic periods. Although the most straightforward mechanism of the sun–climate connection is the direct heating of the earth by solar radiation, it is unlikely that the entire solar influence on climate can be attributed simply to the variation of TSI (Foukal et al., 2004 and Foukal et al., 2006).

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    和訳をお願いします。 man,though his body is insignificant and powerless in comparison with the great bodies of the astronomer's world,is yet able to mirror that world,is able to travel in imagination and scientific knowledge through enormous abysses of space and time.

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    It is, then, adaptive action by a living organism in cases where the inherited machinery of the nervous system does not furnish data for our prevision of what the adaptive action must necessarily be — it is only in such cases that we recognize the element of mind. In other words, ejectively con sidered, the distinctive element of mind is consciousness, the test of consciousness is the presence of choice, and the evidence of choice is the antecedent uncertainty of adjustive action between two or more alternatives. To this analysis it is, however, needful to add that, although our only criterion of mind is antecedent uncertainty of adjustive action, it does not follow that all adjustive action in which mind is con cerned should be of an antecedently uncertain character; or, which is the same thing, [it does'nt follow] that because some such action may be of an antecedently certain character, we should on this account regard it as non-mental. Many adjustive actions which we recognize as mental are, nevertheless, seen before hand to be, under the given circumstances, inevitable ; but analysis would show that such is only the case when we have in view agents whom we already, and from independent videuce, regard as mental.

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    和訳をお願いします。 And it is hard to make anything of this magnitude disappear -- including a bad reputation. 特にmake anything of~の箇所が意味を取りづらいです。 よろしくお願いいたします。

  • 英文和訳をお願いします。

    英文和訳お願いします。 Factuality fits most closely with the popular view of scientific methodology. Factuality is that “universe of facts, data, and techniques that can be verified with the observational methods and the work techniques of the time.” です。自分でやってみましたが、うまく訳できません。お願いします。

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    Policy makers and environmentalists argue that, alongside the task of cutting carbon dioxide emissions, governments must prepare for drastic changes which will result from the inevitable rise in temperatures. "What we are seeing now are the early signs of climate change as a result of the emissions produced in the 1960s and 1970s," said Tom Burke, visiting professor at Imperial and University Colleges, London. "There is a 40 year lag between carbon entering the atmosphere and its effects starting to show." He added that the report "is a wake-up call, and what is tricky about this is that we are going to have to spend billions preparing and adapting, and that is going to compete for money to stop climate change getting worse." The draft of the European Commission's Green Paper "Adapting to Climate Change in Europe - Options for EU Action," underlines the scale of the challenge. The document warns that, unless there is advance planning, European countries will be left to respond "to increasingly frequent crises and disasters which will prove much more costly and also threaten Europe's social and economic systems and its security." It adds: "For impacts where we have enough confidence in the forecasts, adaptation must therefore start now."

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    We note here, that there are no doubt numerous other ways to produce rankings lists and that it is unlikely that any one rankings list would satisfy all aspects of the ‘all-time greatest’ debate, but the rankings presented here are intuitive and come from a well-defined mathematical model.

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    The point is that, notwithstanding special difficulties in assigning this or that being to one or the other class, the psychological classification which I advocate resembles the zoological classification which I have cited ; it is a valid classification, inasmuch as it recognizes a distinction where there is certainly something to distinguish. For even if we take the most mechanical view of mental processes that is possible, and suppose that conscious intelligence plays no part whatever in determining action, there still remains the fact that such conscious intelligence exists, and that prior to certain actions it is always affected in certain ways. Therefore, even if we suppose that the state of things is, so to speak, accidental, and that the actions in question would always he performed in precisely the same way whether or not they were thus connected with consciousness, it would still remain desirable, for scientific purposes, that a marked distinction should be drawn between cases of activity that proceed without, and those that proceed with this remarkable association with consciousness. As the phenomena of subjectivity are facts at any rate no less real than those of objectivity, if it is found that some of the latter are invariably and faithfully mirrored in those of the former, such pheno mena, for this reason alone, deserve to be placed in a distinct scientific category, even though it were proved that the mirror of subjectivity might be removed without affecting any of the phenomena of objectivity.