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Note that in the twenty-nine centuries between 1000 B.C. and 1900, life expectancy increased by almost thirty years, and in the seventy years between 1900 and it increased almost another twenty-four years. These striking increases are misleading, however, because the averages reflect to a very large extent reductions in infant mortality. The figures we have been discussing-the ones in the first row of the second section-are life expectancies at birth. The second row of this table shows the life expectancies at the age of sixty-five years. It can be seen that in 1970, the average sixty-five-year-old could expect to live about fifteen more years, to the age of about eighty-nine years longer than the average life expectancy of the newborn infant. That is, when you were born you could expect to live seventy-one years, and as you grew older and survived longer, you could expect to live longer. (See P&L Close-up, Life Expectancy: How Long Is long?) お願いします。

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紀元前1000年から(紀元)1900年までの29世紀(2900年間)の間に、寿命がほぼ30才、そして、1900年から現代までの70年間で、さらに、24才、それ(寿命)が増加した点に注意してください。しかし、これらの著しい増加は誤解を招きます、なぜならば、平均(寿命)は、大いに、乳児死亡率の減少を反映しているからです。我々が検討してきた数字―第2セクションの最初の列の数字―は、出世時平均余命です。この表の2列目は、65才の平均余命を示しています。1970年には、平均的な65才の人は、生まれたばかりの幼児の平均余命より、より長いおよそ89才まで、さらに約15年生きると予想することができた、と言うことがわかります。つまり、生まれたとき、あなたは71才まで生きると期待することができました、そして、年をとって、より長生きするにつれて、あなたはもっと長生きすると期待できるのです。(P&Lクローズアップ「寿命:長いとはどれほど長くか?」を参照)

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