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The Battle of Tepe (or Tebe) on 25 August 1914 was the first skirmish between German and British forces during the Kamerun Campaign in of the First World War. The conflict took place on the border between British Nigeria and German Kamerun, ending in British victory and German withdrawal from the station. On 4 August 1914, Britain declared war on the German Empire at the beginning of the First World War. On 8 August, a mounted detachment from the West African Frontier Force embarked from Kano in northern British Nigeria towards the German colony of Kamerun. These first British forces crossed the border into German territory on 25 August. British cavalry came into contact with German forces at the border station at Tepe on the Benue River on 25 August. After sharp fighting German forces withdrew and the British occupied the station. Few casualties resulted from the battle. The British occupation of the station gave their forces the opportunity to push further east to the German stronghold at Garua. The British were defeated in their attempt to take the forts there at the First Battle of Garua only days after the conflict at Tepe. The Siege of Maubeuge took place from 24 August – 7 September 1914, at le camp retranché de Maubeuge (the Entrenched Camp of Maubeuge) the start of World War I on the Western Front. The Entrenched Camp blocked the railway from Thionville (Diedenhofen, 1871–1919) to Luxembourg, which had also been cut by the demolition of the rail bridge over the Meuse at Namur in Belgium to the north. Until Maubeuge fell, the German armies in the north could use only the single-track line from Trier to Liège, Brussels, Valenciennes and Cambrai, which could accommodate a maximum of forty trains a day. At the end of August the garrison made several sorties but the third was a costly failure, after which the French prepared to receive the German attack. The German bombardment had begun at 1:00 p.m. on 29 August, assisted by agents in the Entrenched Position who passed reports on the fall of shot, greatly increasing the accuracy of the German guns. The forts and ouvrages (infantry shelters) were wrecked by the German and Austrian super-heavy howitzers and German medium artillery proved unexpectedly effective. Parts of Maubeuge were set on fire, causing an exodus of civilians and deserters to the village of Hautmont to the south-west. From 1 to 7 September, the French were forced out into the open and infantry attacks from the east gradually overran the French defences on both sides of the Sambre, forcing the survivors back level with Maubeuge. Brigadier-General Joseph Fournier, the governor of Maubeuge, surrendered to General Hans von Zwehl on 7 September, effective at noon the next day. The Siege of Maubeuge モブージュ包囲戦

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>The Battle of Tepe (or Tebe) on 25 August 1914 was the first skirmish between German and British forces during the Kamerun Campaign in of the First World War. The conflict took place on the border between British Nigeria and German Kamerun, ending in British victory and German withdrawal from the station. On 4 August 1914, Britain declared war on the German Empire at the beginning of the First World War. On 8 August, a mounted detachment from the West African Frontier Force embarked from Kano in northern British Nigeria towards the German colony of Kamerun. ⇒1914年8月25日の「テペ(またはテベ)の戦い」は、第一次世界大戦の「カメルン野戦」中のドイツ軍と英国軍の最初の小競り合いであった。この紛争は英国領ナイジェリアとドイツ領カメルンの国境で起こり、英国軍の勝利とドイツ軍の駐屯地からの撤退で終わった。1914年8月4日、英国は第一次世界大戦の開始時にドイツ帝国との戦争を宣言した。8月8日、西アフリカ前線軍団からの騎兵隊が、英国領ナイジェリア北部のカノからドイツ軍のカメルン植民地に向けて出発した。 >These first British forces crossed the border into German territory on 25 August. British cavalry came into contact with German forces at the border station at Tepe on the Benue River on 25 August. After sharp fighting German forces withdrew and the British occupied the station. Few casualties resulted from the battle. The British occupation of the station gave their forces the opportunity to push further east to the German stronghold at Garua. The British were defeated in their attempt to take the forts there at the First Battle of Garua only days after the conflict at Tepe. ⇒これらの最初の英国軍は、8月25日に国境を越えてドイツ領内に入った。英国軍騎兵隊は、8月25日にベヌエ川沿いのテペにある国境駐屯地でドイツ軍と接触した。激しい戦闘の後、ドイツ軍は撤退し、英国軍は駐屯地を占拠した。戦闘による犠牲者はほとんどいなかった。英国軍による駐屯地の占領で彼らの軍隊はガルアのドイツ要塞軍をさらに東へ押す機会を与えられた。(しかし)英国軍は、テペでの紛争の数日後、「第1次ガルアの戦い」でそこの砦を奪う企てで敗北した。 >The Siege of Maubeuge took place from 24 August – 7 September 1914, at le camp retranché de Maubeuge (the Entrenched Camp of Maubeuge) the start of World War I on the Western Front. The Entrenched Camp blocked the railway from Thionville (Diedenhofen, 1871–1919) to Luxembourg, which had also been cut by the demolition of the rail bridge over the Meuse at Namur in Belgium to the north. Until Maubeuge fell, the German armies in the north could use only the single-track line from Trier to Liège, Brussels, Valenciennes and Cambrai, which could accommodate a maximum of forty trains a day. ⇒「モーブージュ包囲戦」は、1914年8月24日から9月7日まで、モーブージュの陣屋(モーブージュ塹壕野営地)で起こって、第一次世界大戦における西部戦線の開始となった。塹壕野営軍は、ティオンヴィル(1871-1919年では「ディーデンホーフェン」〈と呼ばれた〉)からルクセンブルクへ通じる鉄道を封鎖したが、この鉄道は、ベルギーのナミュールのミューズ川に架かる鉄道橋の破壊によっても切断された。モーブージュが陥落するまで、北部のドイツ軍はトリアーからリエージュ、ブリュッセル、バレンシエンヌ、カンブレまでの単一軌道線のみを使って1日最大40本の列車を利用できた。 >At the end of August the garrison made several sorties but the third was a costly failure, after which the French prepared to receive the German attack. The German bombardment had begun at 1:00 p.m. on 29 August, assisted by agents in the Entrenched Position who passed reports on the fall of shot, greatly increasing the accuracy of the German guns. The forts and ouvrages (infantry shelters) were wrecked by the German and Austrian super-heavy howitzers and German medium artillery proved unexpectedly effective. ⇒8月末、駐留軍は数回の出撃を行ったが、その3回目は高くついた失敗であり、その後フランス軍はドイツ軍の攻撃を迎え撃つ準備をした。ドイツの砲撃は8月29日午後1時から始まった。塹壕陣地にいる情報員が射撃の着弾について通報で支援したので、それを受けてドイツ軍の砲撃の精度が大幅に向上した。砦と架設厚壁(歩兵の避難用)は、ドイツ軍とオーストリア軍の超重榴弾砲によって破壊され、ドイツ軍の中型砲も予想外に効果的であることが判明した。 >Parts of Maubeuge were set on fire, causing an exodus of civilians and deserters to the village of Hautmont to the south-west. From 1 to 7 September, the French were forced out into the open and infantry attacks from the east gradually overran the French defences on both sides of the Sambre, forcing the survivors back level with Maubeuge. Brigadier-General Joseph Fournier, the governor of Maubeuge, surrendered to General Hans von Zwehl on 7 September, effective at noon the next day. ⇒モーブージュの各部が砲火に見舞われたことは、民間人と脱走者が南西のオーモント村に流出するきっかけとなった。9月1日から7日まで、フランス軍は野外に引き出され、東からの歩兵攻撃隊がサンブル川の両岸でフランス軍の防衛隊を徐々に蹂躙し、生存者をモーブージュと同じレベルに落とし込んだ。モーブージュの知事であるジョセフ・フルニエ准将は9月7日にハンス・フォン・ツヴェール将軍に降伏し、翌日の正午に発効した。

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  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    By 25 August 1914, British forces in Nigeria had moved into Kamerun towards Mara in the far north, towards Garua in the center and towards Nsanakang in the south. British forces moving towards Garua under the command of Colonel MacLear were ordered to push to the German border post at Tepe near Garua. The first engagement between British and German troops in the campaign took place at the Battle of Tepe, eventually resulting in German withdrawal. In the far north British forces attempted to take the German fort at Mora but failed and began a siege which lasted until the end of the campaign. British forces in the south attacked Nsanakang and were defeated and almost completely destroyed by German counter-attacks at the Battle of Nsanakong. MacLear then pushed his forces further inland towards the German stronghold of Garua, but was repulsed in the First Battle of Garua on 31 August.

  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    At the outbreak of war in Europe in early August 1914, the German colonial administration in Kamerun attempted to offer neutrality with Britain and France in accordance with Articles 10 and 11 of the Berlin Act of 1885. However this was hastily rejected by the Allies. The French were eager to regain the land ceded to Germany in the Treaty of Fez in 1911. The first Allied expeditions into the colony on 6 August 1914 were from the east conducted by French troops from French Equatorial Africa under General Joseph Gaudérique Aymerich. This region was mostly marshland, undeveloped, and was initially not heavily contested by Germans. By 25 August 1914, British forces in present-day Nigeria had moved into Kamerun from three different points. They pushed into the colony towards Mara in the far north, towards Garua in the centre, and towards Nsanakang in the south. British forces moving towards Garua under the command of Colonel MacLear were ordered to push to the German border post at Tepe near Garua. The first engagement between British and German troops in the campaign took place at the Battle of Tepe, eventually resulting in German withdrawal. In the far north British forces attempted to take the German fort at Mora but initially failed. This resulted in a long siege of German positions which would last until the end of the campaign.British forces in the south attacking Nsanakang were defeated and almost completely destroyed by German counter-attacks at the Battle of Nsanakong. MacLear then pushed his forces further inland towards the German stronghold of Garua but was repulsed in the First Battle of Garua on 31 August.

  • 次の英文を訳して下さい。

    The First Battle of Garua took place from 29 to 31 August 1914 during the Kamerun Campaign of the First World War between German and invading British forces in northern Kamerun at Garua. It was the first significant action to take place in the campaign and resulted in the German repulsion of the British force. On 25 August 1914 (three weeks after war had broken out in Europe), British cavalry from the West African Frontier Force crossed the border from Nigeria and seized Tepe, a German border post to the north of Garua. The post's occupation gave British forces a foothold in northern Kamerun, from which they could attack the many German forts that protected the region, including the ones at Garua. The Germans had constructed five modern forts at Garua, each of which were situated to give supporting fire to another if needed. The earthworks included deep trenches and dugouts with overhead protection, ringed with barbed wire and manned by three companies of African Askaris under German officers and NCO's. Artillery would be needed to cause any significant damage to the fortifications. From Tepe, British forces under the command of Colonel MacLear turned southwards towards the stronghold at Garua. They arrived on 29 August and dug entrenchments around the German forts. That night the British attacked the fortifications, charging over 400 meters of open ground. After suffering heavy casualties they successfully captured one of the five forts. The following day German forces counter-attacked, pushing the British out. Nigerian troops reportedly fled, leaving British officers alone in the trenches. As the British force fled the Germans continued their counter-attack, pushing them out of Kamerun completely and pursuing them into Nigeria for days afterwards. The majority of the officers of the British units were killed, including the commanding officer, Colonel MacLear. Forty percent of the native Nigerian troops were lost. The Germans suffered relatively minor losses in comparison. The action at Garua, as well as battles in other areas along Kamerun's north-western border with Nigeria, turned out to be relatively successful for the Germans. They were able to repulse each British thrust that came at them during the opening days of the conflict, and even put themselves in position to threaten Calabar, the main port in eastern Nigeria. The victory at Garua enhanced the morale of German Askaris significantly and stalled Allied advances into northern Kamerun until mid-1915, when the Second Battle of Garua resulted in British victory. Garua  ガルナ

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