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The Fao Landing occurred from November 6, 1914 to November 8, 1914 with British forces attacking the Ottoman stronghold of Fao and its fortress. The landing was met with little resistance from the Turkish defenders who fled after intense shelling. It was the first military operation of the Mesopotamian Campaign of World War I which was carried out to protect the British Empire's oil supplies in the Persian Gulf. When the Ottoman Empire entered into World War I, the British feared for the safety of the Persian Gulf oil facilities. To protect their facilities, the British decided to capture the Ottoman-controlled section of the Persian Gulf coast. The Fortress of Fao was the main Ottoman fortress on the Persian Gulf coast and to Anglo commanders seemed like the logical jumping off point for any Ottoman attack on British oil facilities. The British assigned Indian Expeditionary Force D (IEF D) which consisted of the 6th (Poona) Division led by Lieutenant General Arthur Barrett, with Sir Percy Cox as Political Officer. The initial landing force was a contingent of Royal Marines from the HMS Ocean and British Indian troops of the 16th (Poona) Brigade under Brigadier General W.S. Delamain. The British sloop HMS Odin shelled the Turkish positions near the old fortress of Fao, silencing the enemy batteries and clearing the way for the landing force. A six-hundred strong force came ashore in the shallow, muddy waters with two mountain guns in tow and faced little resistance. The combined British and Indian force captured the poorly prepared Ottoman positions swiftly, seizing a large amount of largely undamaged material including several artillery guns, many of them still in position and loaded. Evidently, the weak Ottoman garrison was abandoned by its soldiers when the fort commander known as the "Bimbashi of Fao Fort" was killed by a shell. The landing and capture of Fao was a strategic blunder for the Ottomans from which they would never truly recover as evidenced by the subsequent string of defeats suffered by the Empire at the hands of the British in the following year. The Ottomans also no longer controlled a key access point to the Persian Gulf, and the British facilities were largely safe. However, the British felt that their facilities would not be truly safe until they managed to capture Baghdad. This led to several campaigns against Baghdad that would result in the capture of that city by the British in 1917. The Fao landing and the subsequent battle for the fortress were prominently featured in video game Battlefield I. The Fao Landing occurredアル=ファオ上陸戦

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>The Fao Landing occurred from November 6, 1914 to November 8, 1914 with British forces attacking the Ottoman stronghold of Fao and its fortress. The landing was met with little resistance from the Turkish defenders who fled after intense shelling. It was the first military operation of the Mesopotamian Campaign of World War I which was carried out to protect the British Empire's oil supplies in the Persian Gulf. When the Ottoman Empire entered into World War I, the British feared for the safety of the Persian Gulf oil facilities. ⇒「アル=ファオ上陸戦」は、1914年11月6日から1914年11月8日にかけて起こった戦いで、英国軍がオスマン軍のファオ本拠地とその要塞を攻撃した。上陸隊は、トルコの守備隊から少しばかりの抵抗には会ったが、激しい砲撃の後に彼ら(抵抗隊)は逃走した。これは、第一次世界大戦の「メソポタミア野戦」の最初の軍事作戦で、ペルシャ湾における大英帝国の石油供給を保護するために行われた。オスマン帝国が第一次世界大戦に参入したとき、英国はペルシャ湾の石油施設の安全性を恐れたのである。 >To protect their facilities, the British decided to capture the Ottoman-controlled section of the Persian Gulf coast. The Fortress of Fao was the main Ottoman fortress on the Persian Gulf coast and to Anglo commanders seemed like the logical jumping off point for any Ottoman attack on British oil facilities. The British assigned Indian Expeditionary Force D (IEF D) which consisted of the 6th (Poona) Division led by Lieutenant General Arthur Barrett, with Sir Percy Cox as Political Officer. ⇒その施設を保護するため、英国軍はペルシャ湾岸におけるオスマン帝国の支配地域を攻略することを決定した。ファオの要塞は、ペルシャ湾沿岸のオスマン帝国の要塞であり、英連邦軍の司令官にとっては、英国の石油施設に対するいかなるオスマン帝国軍攻撃も、論理的出発点のように思えた。英国軍は、パーシー・コックス卿を政治的責任者とし、アーサー・バレット中将が率いる第6(プーナ)師団から構成されるインド遠征軍D隊(IEF D)を任命した。 >The initial landing force was a contingent of Royal Marines from the HMS Ocean and British Indian troops of the 16th (Poona) Brigade under Brigadier General W.S. Delamain. The British sloop HMS Odin shelled the Turkish positions near the old fortress of Fao, silencing the enemy batteries and clearing the way for the landing force. A six-hundred strong force came ashore in the shallow, muddy waters with two mountain guns in tow and faced little resistance. ⇒最初の上陸部隊は、英国大洋海軍から派遣された王立海兵隊とW.S.デラマイン麾下の英領インド軍第16(プーナ)旅団の艦隊であった。英国海軍のスループ(1本マスト)型帆船HMSオーディン号は、ファオの旧要塞近くのトルコ軍陣地を砲撃し、敵の砲兵隊を黙らせ、上陸軍団のための道を空けた。600人の軍団が、曳航される2つの山砲を伴って浅い泥だらけの海岸でほとんど抵抗に直面せずに上陸した。 ※この段落は誤訳が含まれるかも知れませんが、その節はどうぞ悪しからず。 >The combined British and Indian force captured the poorly prepared Ottoman positions swiftly, seizing a large amount of largely undamaged material including several artillery guns, many of them still in position and loaded. Evidently, the weak Ottoman garrison was abandoned by its soldiers when the fort commander known as the "Bimbashi of Fao Fort" was killed by a shell. The landing and capture of Fao was a strategic blunder for the Ottomans from which they would never truly recover as evidenced by the subsequent string of defeats suffered by the Empire at the hands of the British in the following year. ⇒英国・インドの合同軍は、準備不十分なオスマン軍の陣地を迅速に捉え、数門の銃砲を含め、損傷を受けていない大量の物資を略奪したが、その多くは玉を込めて砲台に据え付けられたままであった。明らかに、「ファオ要塞のビンバシ」として知られる要塞司令官が砲弾で殺されたとき、弱いオスマン帝国の駐屯地はその兵士らによって放棄されていたのである。ファオの上陸と攻略は、オスマン軍にとっては戦略的な過ちだった。翌年に英国軍の手に渡ったことでオスマン帝国の受けた一連の敗北が明らかとなったことからして、彼らが真に回復することはまずないだろう。 >The Ottomans also no longer controlled a key access point to the Persian Gulf, and the British facilities were largely safe. However, the British felt that their facilities would not be truly safe until they managed to capture Baghdad. This led to several campaigns against Baghdad that would result in the capture of that city by the British in 1917. The Fao landing and the subsequent battle for the fortress were prominently featured in video game Battlefield I. ⇒また、オスマン軍はもはやペルシャ湾への主要な接近地点を管理しておらず、ゆえに英国軍の施設は大部分安全であった。しかし、英国軍は、バグダッドを攻略するまではその施設が真に安全とまではいかない、と感じていた。このことがバグダッドに対する数回の野戦につながり、1917年に英国軍がその都市を攻略することに至った要因であろう。画面ゲーム「第I野戦」では、ファオの上陸とそれに続く要塞をめぐる戦いが際立って注目された。

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