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The Ottoman forces nearly overran the strategic Wolf's Gate (Azerbaijani: Qurd qapısı) west of Baku, from which the whole battlefield could be seen. However, their advance was halted by a counterattack. The fighting continued for the rest of the day, and the situation eventually became hopeless. By the night of 14 September, the remnants of the Baku Army and Dunsterforce evacuated the city for Anzali.
On 30 October, The Armistice of Mudros was signed by the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman forces left the city.
Atrocities
March days
Main article: March days
On 9 March 1918, the arrest of General Talyshinski, the commander of the Azerbaijani division, and some of its officers all of whom arrived in Baku increased the anti-Soviet feelings among the city's Azeri population. On 30 March, based on the unfounded report that the Azerbaijani (Muslim) crew of the ship Evelina was armed and ready to revolt against the Soviet, the Soviet disarmed the crew who tried to resist The three days of inter-ethnic warfare referred to as the March Days, which resulted in the massacre of up to 12,000 Azerbaijanis by the Bolsheviks and armed Armenian units in the city of Baku and other locations in the Baku Governorate. The March events, beyond the violent three-day period, touched off a series of massacres all over Azerbaijan.
September days
Main article: September Days
In September 1918, a terrible panic in Baku ensued when the Ottoman Islamic Army of the Caucasus began to enter the city. Armenians crowded the harbour in a frantic effort to escape. Regular Ottoman troops were not allowed to enter the city for two days, so that the locally recruited soldiers could massacre non-Muslims. This was permitted as revenge for a massacre of Azeris in March 1918. It was the last major massacre of World War I.
Aftermath


Memorial to the British soldiers in Baku.
The British losses in the battle totaled about 200 men and officers killed, missing or wounded. Mürsel Bey admitted Ottoman losses of around 2,000. Among the civilians the casualties of Baku's 80,000 person Armenian community were between 9,000 and 10,000, roughly equal to the number of Azeris massacred by Armenians and Bolsheviks during the March Days. Altogether up to 20,000 Armenians were killed or deported.
The capital of the Azerbaijan was finally moved from Ganja to Baku. However, after the Armistice of Mudros between the United Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire on October 30, Turkish troops were substituted by the Triple Entente.

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>The Ottoman forces nearly overran the strategic Wolf's Gate (Azerbaijani: Qurd qapısı) west of Baku, from which the whole battlefield could be seen. However, their advance was halted by a counterattack. The fighting continued for the rest of the day, and the situation eventually became hopeless. By the night of 14 September, the remnants of the Baku Army and Dunsterforce evacuated the city for Anzali.
 On 30 October, The Armistice of Mudros was signed by the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman forces left the city.
⇒オスマン軍団は、バクーの西にある戦略陣地ウルフス・ゲート(オオカミ門、アゼルバイジャン語:Qurd qapısı)を蹂躙したので、そこから戦場全体を見渡すことができた。しかし、彼らの進軍は反撃によって食い止められた。その日の残りの間戦いは続き、状況は最終的には絶望的となった。9月14日の夜、バクー方面軍とダンスター軍団の残党はその街を放棄してアンザリに避難した。
 10月30日、「ムドロスの停戦」がオスマン帝国によって調印された。オスマン軍団は街を去った。

>Atrocities March days
 Main article: March days On 9 March 1918, the arrest of General Talyshinski, the commander of the Azerbaijani division, and some of its officers all of whom arrived in Baku increased the anti-Soviet feelings among the city's Azeri population. On 30 March, based on the unfounded report that the Azerbaijani (Muslim) crew of the ship Evelina was armed and ready to revolt against the Soviet, the Soviet disarmed the crew who tried to resist. The three days of inter-ethnic warfare referred to as the March Days, which resulted in the massacre of up to 12,000 Azerbaijanis by the Bolsheviks and armed Armenian units in the city of Baku and other locations in the Baku Governorate. The March events, beyond the violent three-day period, touched off a series of massacres all over Azerbaijan.
⇒残虐行為 3月の日々
 主要記事:3月の日々
 1918年3月9日、アゼルバイジャン軍師団の指揮官であったタリシンスキー将軍とその師団のうちバクーに到着した将校数名の全員がアゼルバイジャン市民の反ソビエト感情を高めた。3月30日、船舶エベリナ号乗組員のアゼルバイジャン人(イスラム教徒)が武装してソビエトに対する反乱の準備を整えているという根拠のない報告に基づいて、ソビエト軍は抵抗しようとした乗組員を武装解除した。「3月の日々」と呼ばれる民族内戦の3日間に、バクー市およびバクー行政区地域内の他の場所でボルシェヴィキと武装アルメニア部隊による最大12,000人ものアゼルバイジャン人虐殺が起こった。暴力的な3日間を越えてからの3月の出来事によって、アゼルバイジャン全土で一連の虐殺が誘発された。

>September days
 Main article: September Days
 In September 1918, a terrible panic in Baku ensued when the Ottoman Islamic Army of the Caucasus began to enter the city. Armenians crowded the harbour in a frantic effort to escape. Regular Ottoman troops were not allowed to enter the city for two days, so that the locally recruited soldiers could massacre non-Muslims. This was permitted as revenge for a massacre of Azeris in March 1918. It was the last major massacre of World War I.
⇒9月の日々
 主要記事:9月の日々
 1918年9月、コーカサスのオスマン帝国軍が市内に入り始めると、バクーで恐ろしいパニックが起こった。アルメニア人は港に詰めかけて、血なまこで逃避しようとあがいた。オスマン軍隊の正規軍は2日間市内に入ることができなかったため、地元で募った兵士が非イスラム教徒を虐殺する可能性があった。これは1918年3月のアゼリスの虐殺に対する復讐として認められた。それは第一次世界大戦の最後の大虐殺であった。

>Aftermath
 Memorial to the British soldiers in Baku.
 The British losses in the battle totaled about 200 men and officers killed, missing or wounded. Mürsel Bey admitted Ottoman losses of around 2,000. Among the civilians the casualties of Baku's 80,000 person Armenian community were between 9,000 and 10,000, roughly equal to the number of Azeris massacred by Armenians and Bolsheviks during the March Days. Altogether up to 20,000 Armenians were killed or deported.
 The capital of the Azerbaijan was finally moved from Ganja to Baku. However, after the Armistice of Mudros between the United Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire on October 30, Turkish troops were substituted by the Triple Entente.
⇒余波
 英国兵士のためのバクー記念碑。
 この戦闘での英国軍の損失として、約200人の兵士と将校が死亡、行方不明または負傷した。ミュルセル・ベイは、約2,000人のオスマン軍の損失を認めた。民間人の間では、バクーでのアルメニア人共同体8万人のうちの死傷者は9,000人~10,000人であったが、これは「3月の日々」にアルメニア軍とボルシェヴィキによって虐殺されたアゼルバイジャン人の数にほぼ等しい。合計2万人のアルメニア人が死亡または追放された。
 アゼルバイジャンの首都はついにガンジャからバクーに移った。しかし、10月30日に大英帝国とオスマン帝国の間の「ムドロスの停戦」後、トルコ軍隊は三国協商国軍にとって代わられた。
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iwano_aoi

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投稿日時 - 2018-08-17 14:00:35
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