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お願いします (8) The plebs still complained that there were no written laws. And a poor-but-free man whoowed money could still be forced into slavery if he couldn't pay his debts. So the plebs left the city again about 450 BCE. This protest finally convinced the Senate to create a written set of laws: the Twelve Tables. These laws set down, in writing, the accepted practices of the day. They didn't get to the root of the trouble between patricians and the discontented poor. The poor were still not treated as equals to the landowning rich. But the Twelve Tables were, at least, a start. (9) The twelve Tables were completed in 450 BCE. At some point─no one knows exactly when─they were inscribed on 12 bronze tables that were set up in the Forum for everyone to see. About a third of these early laws have survived because they were copied down by later writers. The others have been lost. The laws that we know about cover all sorts of crimes and conditions. Table 7, for example, decreed that if a road was not in good condition, a man could legally drive his oxen across someone else's fields. Table 8 dealt with a more serious question: whether a homeowner had the right to kill a burglar who broke into his house. According to Roman law, he did─but only if the burglar came at night or if a daytime burglar was armed and tried to defend himself. (10) Many of the laws make sense. For example, a property owner could be forced to trim his trees so that his neighbors would get sunlight. And if someone stole money, he could not be forced to repay more than three times the amount that he stole. But others seem incredibly harsh: for example,capital punishment for a person who sang an insulting song or lied in court. But all Roman citizens had the right to appeal to the Assembly to reverse a death sentence.

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(8) 平民は、成文法がないとまだ不満を述べました。そして、お金を借りている貧しいが自由な人は、彼が負債を支払うことができなければ、まだ、奴隷の身分にさせられる可能性がありました。それで、平民は、紀元前450年ごろに再び街を去りました。この抗議は、ようやく元老院を納得させ、一連の成文法:「十二法」を作らせました。これらの法律は、当時受け入れられていた慣習を文字にしたものでした。それらは、貴族と不満を持つ貧しい者の間の揉め事の根本原因には至っていませんでした。 貧しい者は、まだ、土地を所有している金持ちと同等の者としては扱われませんでした。しかし、「十二法」は、少なくとも、スタートでした。 (9) 「十二法」は、紀元前450年に完成しました。ある時点で、― 正確な時期は、誰も知りませんが ― それらは、みんなが見ることが出来る様に広場に設置された12の青銅板に刻まれました。これらの初期の法律のおよそ3分の1は、それらが後の書き手によって写しとられたので、存続し続けました。他の法律は失われました。 我々が知っている法律は、いろいろな犯罪や状況を扱っています。例えば、法7は、道がよい状態でないならば、人は、合法的に他の誰かの畑を横切って彼の雄牛を駆り立てることができると、定めました。法8は、より深刻な問題を扱いました:家の所有者には彼の家に押し入った泥棒を殺す権利があるかどうかと言う問題です。ローマ法によれば、彼には殺す権利がありました ─ しかし、泥棒が夜に侵入した、あるいは、昼間泥棒が武装していて、自分の身を守ろうとした場合に限られていました。 (10) 法律の多くは、理にかなっています。たとえば、資産の所有者は、彼の隣人が日光を得られるように、彼の木の手入れをすることを強制される可能性がありました。そして、誰かがお金を盗んだ場合、彼は盗んだ金額の3倍以上を返すことを強制されることはありませんでした。しかし、他の法律は、信じられないほど厳しいように思われます:たとえば、侮辱的な歌を歌ったり、裁判所で嘘をついた人に対しては死刑でした。しかし、すべてのローマ市民には、死刑宣告を覆すために議会に上訴する権利がありました。

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