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お願いします (8) The plebs still complained that there were no written laws. And a poor-but-free man whoowed money could still be forced into slavery if he couldn't pay his debts. So the plebs left the city again about 450 BCE. This protest finally convinced the Senate to create a written set of laws: the Twelve Tables. These laws set down, in writing, the accepted practices of the day. They didn't get to the root of the trouble between patricians and the discontented poor. The poor were still not treated as equals to the landowning rich. But the Twelve Tables were, at least, a start. (9) The twelve Tables were completed in 450 BCE. At some point─no one knows exactly when─they were inscribed on 12 bronze tables that were set up in the Forum for everyone to see. About a third of these early laws have survived because they were copied down by later writers. The others have been lost. The laws that we know about cover all sorts of crimes and conditions. Table 7, for example, decreed that if a road was not in good condition, a man could legally drive his oxen across someone else's fields. Table 8 dealt with a more serious question: whether a homeowner had the right to kill a burglar who broke into his house. According to Roman law, he did─but only if the burglar came at night or if a daytime burglar was armed and tried to defend himself. (10) Many of the laws make sense. For example, a property owner could be forced to trim his trees so that his neighbors would get sunlight. And if someone stole money, he could not be forced to repay more than three times the amount that he stole. But others seem incredibly harsh: for example,capital punishment for a person who sang an insulting song or lied in court. But all Roman citizens had the right to appeal to the Assembly to reverse a death sentence.


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(8) 平民は、成文法がないとまだ不満を述べました。そして、お金を借りている貧しいが自由な人は、彼が負債を支払うことができなければ、まだ、奴隷の身分にさせられる可能性がありました。それで、平民は、紀元前450年ごろに再び街を去りました。この抗議は、ようやく元老院を納得させ、一連の成文法:「十二法」を作らせました。これらの法律は、当時受け入れられていた慣習を文字にしたものでした。それらは、貴族と不満を持つ貧しい者の間の揉め事の根本原因には至っていませんでした。 貧しい者は、まだ、土地を所有している金持ちと同等の者としては扱われませんでした。しかし、「十二法」は、少なくとも、スタートでした。 (9) 「十二法」は、紀元前450年に完成しました。ある時点で、― 正確な時期は、誰も知りませんが ― それらは、みんなが見ることが出来る様に広場に設置された12の青銅板に刻まれました。これらの初期の法律のおよそ3分の1は、それらが後の書き手によって写しとられたので、存続し続けました。他の法律は失われました。 我々が知っている法律は、いろいろな犯罪や状況を扱っています。例えば、法7は、道がよい状態でないならば、人は、合法的に他の誰かの畑を横切って彼の雄牛を駆り立てることができると、定めました。法8は、より深刻な問題を扱いました:家の所有者には彼の家に押し入った泥棒を殺す権利があるかどうかと言う問題です。ローマ法によれば、彼には殺す権利がありました ─ しかし、泥棒が夜に侵入した、あるいは、昼間泥棒が武装していて、自分の身を守ろうとした場合に限られていました。 (10) 法律の多くは、理にかなっています。たとえば、資産の所有者は、彼の隣人が日光を得られるように、彼の木の手入れをすることを強制される可能性がありました。そして、誰かがお金を盗んだ場合、彼は盗んだ金額の3倍以上を返すことを強制されることはありませんでした。しかし、他の法律は、信じられないほど厳しいように思われます:たとえば、侮辱的な歌を歌ったり、裁判所で嘘をついた人に対しては死刑でした。しかし、すべてのローマ市民には、死刑宣告を覆すために議会に上訴する権利がありました。





  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (19) In a small side room, along with the jars that held King Tut's internal organs, Carter found two tiny coffins holding two tiny mummified fetuses. They were the mummies of the children Tut would never have―his wife's miscarriages. The professor cracked open the skull of ome. The embalmers had removed the brain and stuffed the hollow with linen. The professor found a wire that had been used to push the linen up into the skull, the only embalming tool ever found inside a body―and the professor threw it away. (20) If a mummy is discovered today, a team of scientists is sent to he scene. Botanists could have told Carter in what month King Tut died by studying the funeral wreath―cornflowers bloom in March in Egypt. Radiologists could have told Carter that King Tut did not die from tuberculosis as many had guessed, but may have been murdered by a blow to the back of he head. Or he may have fallen and hit the back of his head on the ground. King Tut's eye sockets were fractured in way that is caused by the brain snapping forward when the head hits the ground in a backwards fall (or is clubbed from behind). Neurologists could have told Carter that the vertebrae in King Tut's neck were fused. When Tut turned his head, he had to turn his whole torso, too. Fibreoptic tubes with miniature cameras could have been inserted under the linen to take pictures and samples without ever having to unwrap Tut. Today scientists use DNA to reconstruct family trees. Computers re-create faces. And if we can learn that much more in the time since Carter discovered King Tut, imagine how much we will be able to learn in the future. The dead do tell tales. It's up to us to listen.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(7)

    お願いします。  Today when archaeologists dig up the bodies of pyramid builders it is clear that many survived serious injuries thanks to Imhotep and his long list of cures. But many did not. And, during the Old Kingdom, life everlasting was not for the common man. He could only hope to play his part in the cycle of life and death by building a tribute to his king and in doing so add to the grandeur of Egypt.

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    お願いします (16) What happened next depends on whom you believe. Ramesses claimed the Hittite king begged for a truce by saying, "O victorious king, peace is better than war, Give us breath." The Hittite king claimed it was Ramesses who buckled under. The fact that Qadesh remained under Hittite control makes the Hittite king's version of the story more believable. (17) It took 16 years, but in Year 21 of Ramesses II's reign the two nations negotiated peace. The treaty is the earliest recorded document of its type preserved in its entirety. Inscribed on two matching silver tablets are the pledges of the king of Egypt and the king of Hatti to one another. "If a foreign enemy marches against the country of Hatti and if the king of Hatti sends me this message:‘Come to my help'...the king of the Egyptian country has to send his troops and his chariots to kill this enemy...." The Hittite king made a similar vow to defend Egypt. The treaty also pledged support if the enemy were to come from within. The Hittite king swore that if Ramesses should "rise in anger against his citizens after they have committed a wrong against him...the king of the country of Hatti, my brother, has to send his troops and his chariots...." Ramesses promised to stand by the Hittite king in the same circumstances. The treaty was honored until the fall of the Hittite Empire. Even when tested, Ramesses stood by his ally, announcing to the world, "Today there is a fraternity between the Great King of Egypt and the king of Hatti."

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    お願いします (5) Brutus kept his promise. He and Lucretia's husband won the loyalty of the army and drove out Sextus's father, the tyrant Tarquin the Proud―Rome's third Etruscan king. They condemned him and his whole family to life in exile, never again to see Rome. And that was the end of kingship in Rome. From this point on, kingship became so unpopular that rex (king) became a term of hatred and dishonor. The arrogant king Tarquin had always been unpopular. But the Romans prized high morals above all, and his son's attack on a woman's honor was the last straw. (6) The story of Lucretia is one explanation for how kingship ended in Rome. But how had it begun? The Romans believed that Romulus became Rome's first king when he founded the city in 753 BCE. They believed that six more kings ruled Rome until Brutus forced Tarquin the Proud from his throne in 509 BCE. According to tradition, the first three kings who followed Romulus to the throne were Romans. But Roman kingship was not passed down in a royal family, as it is in Great Britain, for example. Instead, when a Roman king died, the Senate―a group of wealthy men who owned land―elected the next ruler. Even a foreigner could rule if he could gather enough support among the senators. And that's exactly what happened when the Senate elected an Etruscan, as the fifth king of Rome. Tarquinius Priscus, later known as Tarquinius the Elder, ruled well and brought Etruscan engineering and artistry to Rome. But his grandson Lucius Tarquinius, also called Tarquin the Proud, was another story. He was the tyrant who ruled as Rome's seventh and last king.

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    Joffre had accepted claims by Castelnau, that up to 6.2–7.5 mi (10–12 km) of ground could be gained in twenty-four hours and rejected a methodical battle, which ... would entail a month of combat, with a maximum expenditure of ammunition; at what point would we be able to declare ourselves ready for attack? — Joseph Joffre Ammunition necessary for a methodical battle did not exist and the opportunity to attack the Germans, when so many divisions had been moved to the eastern front, could not be wasted. The offensive had been fought with unprecedented refinements of tactics and supply. Amendments to Note 5779 were suggested, to cover items like the use of 23,000 hand grenades in two days by the 53rd Division and the importance of attention to detail; Pétain of XXXIII Corps had ensured accurate preparatory bombardments and the tactical reflections written by Pétain were added to the thinking in Note 5779. The ideal characteristics of a network of jumping-off trenches and the time and labour necessary to build it were laid down, so that troops could advance simultaneously and reserve troops could be protected as they moved forward. Pétain wrote the plan for the Groupe d'armées du Centre, for the offensive of 25 September and his views were circulated through the French and British armies. The autumn offensive was fought as a breakthrough attempt, with changes to avoid the mistakes made in Artois in May and had significant tactical success but did not achieve a breakthrough, which led to the adoption of limited attacks in 1916. Krause wrote that the formulation Note 5779 showed that the French command system, was staffed by men who tried to improve the performance of the army and contradicts claims by Gudmundsson, that the Allied armies were too centralised to adapt. Lessons had been collected, analysed and distributed in a manner which combined top-down and bottom-up processes. A flaw in Note 5779, was persistence with a concept of rapid breakthrough, even after many soldiers considered that the war had become a siege and that none of the French offensives of 1915, had been intended to return to mobile warfare. Changes made to the plan for the Second Battle of Artois, had been intended to secure the capture Vimy Ridge as a jumping-off point, rather than to achieve a breakthrough and return to mobile warfare. In the autumn offensive which began on 25 September, with the Third Battle of Artois, Battle of Loos and the Second Battle of Champagne, the strategy was intended to make the Noyon salient untenable and regain a large portion of the occupied territories. Tactics used in the battles of May and June were revised and the creeping barrage became a standard method in all the Western Front armies.

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    お願いします。  Prince Ashoka Maurya had two kinds of heroes.The first were the deities of the Vedic scriptures and the prince and princesses who served them in sacred texts such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.These religious heroes taught him the satisfaction of living with honor and justice(dharma),the excitement of money and succesr(artha),and the contentment of enjoying the world's beauties and pleasures(kama).They taught him that if he filled his life with these qualities of honor,excellence,and beauty,he would reach moksha,when the cycle of life,death,and rebirth would end.   That all sounded good to Prince Ashoka.But so did the adventures of his second kind of hero-the warrior heroes like his father,King Bindusara,and his grandfather,Chandragupta.Ashoka loved fighting,and he was good at it.He may well have gone to a military academy like the one in Taxila.Brahmins and Kshatriya came there from all over the subcontinent to learn military science,including the use of the eight major eapoms.Brahmins shot bows,the Kshatriya were swordsmen,the Vaishya used the lance,and the Shudra wielded the mace-a heavy,spiked,hammerlike weapon.The teacher was skilled in all those weapons plus the disk(chakra),the spear,and fighting with his bare hands.Brahmin and Kshatriya students were also trained to command a war elephant.  Military academies like the one in Taxila show how important war was to the people of Ashoka's time.Each town had its own central armory,a strong building for storing weapons,run by a superintendet.The government kept such tight control over its weapons that all soldiers had to return their arms to the armory after they practiced each morning.No one could carry a weapon unless he had special permit.

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    In 1990, world-famous physicist Stephen Hawking read papers of his colleagues proposing their version of a time machine, but he was immediately, skeptical. His intuition told him that time travel was not possible because there are no tourists from the future. Hawking also raised a challenge to the world of physics. There ought to be a law, he proclaimed, making time travel impossible. The embarrassing thing, however, was that no matter how hard physicists tried, they could not find a law to prevent time travel. Apparently, time travel seems to be consistent with the known laws of physics. Unable to find any physical law that makes time travel impossible, Hawking has recently changed his mind. He made headlines in the British papers when he said, “Time travel may be possible, but it is not practical.”

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    The experience of the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) in 1916, showed that single-engined fighters with superior performance could operate in pairs but where the aircraft were of inferior performance, formation flying was essential, even though fighting in the air split formations. By flying in formations made up of permanent sub-units of from 2–3 aircraft, British squadrons gained the benefit of concentration and a measure of flexibility, the formations being made up of three units; extra formations could be added to be mutually supporting. Tactics were left to individual discretion but freelancing became less common. By the end of the Somme battle, it had become common for reconnaissance aircraft to operate in formation with escorts and for bomber formations to have a close escort of six F.E.2bs and a distant escort of six single-seater fighters.

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    It was considered that the Somme front, the area between Arras and Lille, the Aisne front, Lorraine and Flanders were particularly threatened. Prisoner interrogation, postal analysis, espionage and air reconnaissance were used to identify the probable sites of Anglo-French offensives. March was considered the earliest that the Anglo-French could attack, with a possible delay if a Russian offensive was also planned. The Chief of Staff of the Rupprecht army group, Generalleutnant Hermann von Kuhl issued a survey of offensive possibilities on 15 January. A German breakthrough attempt was rejected for lack of means and the consequences of failure. Limited-objective attacks at Loos, Arras, the Somme and the Aisne were considered but the manpower and equipment shortage meant that even smaller attacks risked using up reserves needed for defence against the expected Anglo-French spring offensives. Local attacks like those at Bouchavesnes and La Maisonette on the Somme in late 1916, which could be mounted without reinforcements, were all that could be considered.

  • 日本語訳を!c11-2

    お願いします!続き Imagine a 12-year-old boy named Kumar who was getting ready to study the Vedas.On a typical day,Kumar awoke to the sounds of his mother getting breakfast ready and his older sister sweeping the kitchen in preparation for the morning rituals.The kitchen would have been located in an open courtyard in the northeastern part of the house,the purest and most holy part of the home.The sun hit this area first,warming the mud-plastered walls and bringing light to the courtyard.On cold mornings,Kumar might well have wished that he had been born a girl.His sister got to stay at home and help their mother in he warm kitchen,but he had to bathe in the ice-cold river in the fog before his morning worship of the sun deity Surya. One of the first things Kumar learned as a child was that there were four different varna,or classes of people.In reality,society was a lot more complex,with many different communities.The Vedas taught that the four varna came from the body of Purusha,the cosmic being whose sacrifice resulted in the creation of the universe.The Brahmins,the class of priests,came from the head of Purusha.The Kshatriyas,the warriors and kings,came from his arms,while the Vaishyas,or merchants,came from his thighs,and the Shudras,or peasants,from his feet. The peoples of the late Vedic period believed that people were born into the varna they deserved.If people lived good lives,they would be reborn into a higher class.When people kived such good lives that they became perfect,they united with the cosmic being.