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The Battle of Komarow (known in Russia as the Battle of Tomaszów) was a battle on the Eastern Front during World War I. It would prove a victory for the Austro-Hungarian forces, but one they would not be able to reproduce in the coming months of the war. The prewar planning for a joint Austro-German war with Russia entailed an immediate offensive. Helmuth von Moltke and Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf had planned on striking into the bulge presented by the incorporation of Poland into the Russian lines by von Hötzendorf's forces advancing into Southern Poland while two German armies advanced on Warsaw from Silesia in the direction of Warsaw. However, in Moltke's reworking of the Schlieffen Plan he poached the two armies designated for this attack in an effort to strengthen his defences in Alsace-Lorraine. In a huge gamble, Moltke pleaded with Hötzendorf to carry out the planned offensive despite the lack of German help. The numbers were not in Conrad's favor, but he had little choice, if he did not act the Russians would likely move into Silesia and the War would be lost. The Austro-Hungarian First Army under Viktor Dankl had started off the operation well with the Battle of Kraśnik and the momentum passed to the IV Army on his right. The Austro-Hungarian IV army was one of the formations designated for Conrad's offensive. It was commanded by Moritz von Auffenberg. Despite his short wartime career, he would later be considered a very skilled tactician. He was 62 years old at the time of the battle and would at first gain praise for his actions only to become a scapegoat for the Battle of Rawa Russka. His superior, the afore mentioned von Hötzendorf, was a skilled general who would serve in high positions throughout the war. Despite brilliant strategic plans, often adopted by the Germans for joint operations, his lack of tactical adaptation, particularly in 1914, would decimate the ranks of the Empire's most dependable soldiers and officers early in the war. He was stubborn and the resulting casualties in Galicia in 1914, and 1915 would label him a typical Great War butcher general, putting him with the likes of Sir Douglas Haig and Field Marshal Luigi Cadorna in the bowels of history. The Russian Fifth Army opposing Auffenberg was commanded by Pavel von Plehve. Plehve was one of many nobles of German origin living in Tsarist Russia. He proved his loyalty in Galicia with timely reactions and a general offensive attitude. He was later transferred north where he was involved with the not so successful Battle of Łódź and the actions around the Masurian Lakes. Von Auffenberg's forces included 12 Infantry Divisions, three of which were commanded by the skilled Svetozar Boroevic von Bojna, and 3 Cavalry Divisions. The Battle of Komarow コマルフの戦い


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>The Battle of Komarow ~ entailed an immediate offensive. ⇒「コマロフの戦い」(ロシアでは「トマゾフの戦い」として知られる)は、第一次世界大戦中の東部戦線での戦いだった。それは、オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の勝利と判明するが、その後数か月にわたる大戦中に二度と再現することができないような勝利であった。オーストリア‐ドイツ軍が共同してロシアと戦う計画で、即時即座の攻勢に入っていった。 >Helmuth von Moltke and ~ defences in Alsace-Lorraine. ⇒ヘルムート・フォン・モルトケとフランツ・グラフ・コンラッド・フォン・ヘッツェンドルフは、ドイツ軍の2個方面軍がシレジアからワルシャワに進軍してヘッツェンドルフの軍団を南部ポーランドに侵入させる間に、ロシア軍がポーランドをロシア軍戦線に組み入れたことで実現した突出部に対して、それを攻撃することを計画していた。しかし、モルトケは、シュリーフェン計画の修正を求めて、この攻撃用に指定されていた2個方面軍をアルザス‐ロレーヌ防御の強化のために侵害して手に入れた。 >In a huge gamble, Moltke ~ designated for Conrad's offensive. ⇒モルトケは、巨大な賭けの中で、ヘッツェンドルフにドイツ軍の援助なしでも計画された攻撃を実行するように懇願した。コンラッドにとっては数字上の有利はなかった。しかし彼が行動しなければロシア軍がシレジアに移動し、彼はこの戦いを失う可能性があるので、彼としてはほとんど選択肢を持たなかった。ビクトル・ダンクルの下のオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の第1方面軍は、「クラズニクの戦い」でうまく活動を開始し、勢いは右翼の第IV方面軍に渡った。オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍第IV方面軍は、コンラッドの攻勢のために指定された編成隊の1つであった。 >It was commanded by Moritz ~ high positions throughout the war. ⇒それ(編成隊)はモルツ・フォン・アウフェンベルクが指揮をとっていた。彼の短い戦争経歴にもかかわらず、後に彼は非常に熟練した戦術家とみなされることになる。この戦いの時彼は62歳で、最初に賞賛を得たのは「ラファ・ルスカの戦い」のスケープゴート(身代り)になるためだけの行動であった。彼の上司、前述のフォン・ヘッツェンドルフは、戦争中を通じて高い地位で役務する熟練した将軍であった。 >Despite brilliant strategic plans, ~ in the bowels of history. ⇒共同作戦行動のためにしばしばドイツ軍が採用した華麗な戦略的計画にもかかわらず、彼には戦術的適応性が欠けていたので、特に1914年の戦争の初期に帝国の最も頼りになる兵士と将校の階級を衰退させてしまうことになる。彼は頑固で、1914年にガリツィアで死傷者を出し、1915年には典型的な第一次世界大戦の屠殺屋将軍と名付けられ、ダグラス・ヘイグ卿やルイージ・カドルナ元帥の仲間たちと一緒に歴史の中心部に入った。 >The Russian Fifth Army ~ and 3 Cavalry Divisions. ⇒アウフェンベルクに対抗するロシア第5方面軍は、パフェル・フォン・プレフェによって指揮されていた。プレフェは帝政ロシアに住む多くのドイツ起源の貴族の一人であった。彼はガリツィア(の戦い)で時宜を得た反抗と(敵への)総体的な攻撃態度をもって忠誠心を証明した。彼は後に北へ移り、そこで「ウッチの戦い」とマスリアン湖周辺での戦闘行動に関わったが、あまり成功しなかった。フォン・アウフェンベルクの部隊には歩兵12個師団と騎兵3個師団が含まれていたが、12個の歩兵師団のうち3個は熟練したスベトサール・ボロエビッチ・フォン・ボイナが指揮していた。





  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    Early in 1915, with the Ottoman defeats at the Battle of Sarikamish and in the First Suez Offensive, German Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn tried to convince the Austro-Hungarian Chief of Staff, Conrad von Hötzendorf, of the importance of conquering Serbia. If Serbia were taken, then the Germans would have a rail link from Germany, through Austria-Hungary and down to Istanbul (and beyond). This would allow the Germans to send military supplies and even troops to help the Ottoman Empire. While this was hardly in Austria-Hungary's interests, the Austro-Hungarians did want to defeat Serbia. However, Russia was the more dangerous enemy, and furthermore, with the entry of Italy into the war on the Allied side, the Austro-Hungarians had their hands full (see Italian Front (World War I)).

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    The geographic location of the routes of advance was conducive to the original plan which called for an advance from Trent to Venice, isolating the Italian 2nd and 3rd Armies who were fighting on the Isonzo and the Italian 4th Army who was defending the Belluno region and the eastern Trentino. The preparations for the battle began in December 1915, when Conrad von Hötzendorf proposed to his German opposite number, General Erich von Falkenhayn, shifting divisions from the Eastern Front in Galicia to the Tyrol, substituting them with German divisions. His request was denied because Germany was not yet at war with Italy (which would declare war on Germany three months later), and because redeploying German units on the Italian Front would have diminished German offensive capability against Russia. After having received a negative reply from the Germans, who refused the proposed replacement and actively tried to discourage the Austro-Hungarian proposed attack, Conrad von Hötzendorf decided to operate autonomously. The 11th Austro-Hungarian Army, under the command of Count Viktor Dankl, would carry out the offensive followed by the 3rd Army under Hermann Kövess. It was not so easy, however, because the Italians had deployed in the area about 250,000 troops (General Brusati's First Army and part of the Fourth Army). Italian intelligence had been gathering information about an impending enemy offensive in Trentino — and a big one — for about a month, but Cadorna dismissed those reports, persuaded as he was that nothing could happen in that region.

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    While Austrian generals wanted to preserve their troops (having to fight on two fronts), which gave them fewer men to defend their border with Italy. In all, this was a strategically important victory for the Italians despite the outcome of the battle. The Sixth Battle of the Isonzo also known as the Battle of Gorizia was the most successful Italian offensive along the Soča (Isonzo) River during World War I.Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf had reduced the Austro-Hungarian forces along the Soča (Isonzo) front to reinforce his Trentino Offensive.

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    The Battle of Wadi Musa was a battle fought between the Arab Army and the Ottoman Empire during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. The battle began when General Djemal Pasha ordered his forces to secure the Hejaz Railway by "any and all means". The Ottoman Army at Ma'an was sent to deal with the North Arab Army. The Ottomans were ambushed by 700 Arab troops, inflicting heavy casualties and capturing 300 men. The remaining Ottoman forces retreated, leaving the railway uncaptured. The Battle of Caporetto in 1917 (also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers), took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in north-western Slovenia, then part of the Austrian Littoral), on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was named after the Italian name of the town (also known as Karfreit in German). Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German units, were able to break into the Italian front line and rout the Italian forces opposing them. The battle was a demonstration of the effectiveness of the use of stormtroopers and the infiltration tactics developed in part by Oskar von Hutier. The use of poison gas by the Germans also played a key role in the collapse of the Italian Second Army. In August 1917 Paul von Hindenburg decided that to keep the Austro-Hungarians in the war, the Germans had to help them defeat the Italian army. Erich Ludendorff was opposed to this but was overruled. In September three experts from the Imperial General Staff, led by the chemist Otto Hahn, went to the Isonzo front to find a site suitable for a gas attack. They proposed attacking the quiet Caporetto sector, where a good road ran west through a mountain valley to the Venetian plain. The Austro-Hungarian Army Group Boroević, commanded by Svetozar Boroević, was prepared for the offensive. In addition, a new 14th Army was formed with nine Austrian and six German divisions, commanded by the German Otto von Below. The Italians inadvertently helped by providing weather information over their radio.[8]Foul weather delayed the attack for two days but on 24 October there was no wind and the front was misted over. The Battle of Caporetto  カポレットの戦い

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    The memoirs of General of Artillery Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein were published in 2001 in German language in Tbilisi, Georgia - Editor Dr. David Paitschadse, publishing house Samschoblo, ISBN 99928-26-62-2, online version can be found here The Second Battle of the Piave River, fought between 15 and 23 June 1918, was a decisive victory for the Italian Army against the Austro-Hungarian Empire during World War I. Though the battle proved to be a decisive blow to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and by extension the Central Powers, its full significance was not initially appreciated in Italy. Yet Erich Ludendorff, on hearing the news, is reported to have said he 'had the sensation of defeat for the first time'. It would later become clear that the battle was in fact the beginning of the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. With the exit of Russia from the war in 1917, Austria-Hungary was now able to devote significant forces to the Italian Front and to receive reinforcements from their German allies. The Austro-Hungarian emperor Karl had reached an agreement with the Germans to undertake a new offensive against Italy, a move supported by both the chief of the general staff Arthur Arz von Straußenburg and the commander of the South Tyrolean Army Group Conrad von Hötzendorf. In the autumn of 1917, the Germans and Austrians had defeated the Italians at the Battle of Caporetto. After Caporetto, the Italians fell back to the Piave and were reinforced by six French infantry divisions and five British infantry divisions as well as sizeable air contingents.Italy's defeat at Caporetto led to General Luigi Cadorna's dismissal and General Armando Diaz replaced him as Chief of staff of the Italian Army. Diaz set up a strong defense line along the Piave. Up until this point in the war, the Italian army had been fighting alone against the Central Powers; with the defeat at Caporetto, France and Britain sent small reinforcements on the Italian front. These, besides accounting for less than a tenth of the Italian forces in theater, had however to be redirected for the major part to the Western Front as soon as the German Spring Offensive began in March 1918.The Austro-Hungarian Army had also recently undergone a change in command, and the new Austrian Chief of Staff, Arthur Arz von Straußenburg, wished to finish off the Italians. After Caporetto, the Austro-Hungarian offensive had put many Italian cities, including Venice and Verona, under the threat of the Central Powers. The Second Battle of the Piave River 第二次ピアーヴェ川の戦い

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    On August 22, Alexeyev issued orders to his Fourth and Fifth Armies in an attempt to improve their position in the crash course they were now headed, aimed at a larger, flanking pair of armies. While these orders probably saved the Russian Fourth Army from a possible much worse defeat, it failed to change the nearly pre-ordained outcome of the battle. The battle raged for the following few days. The fighting was not characteristic of the trench warfare that would define the Western Front, and to a lesser extent the Eastern Front. Long term positions were never constructed since neither army could take the time to dig in. Instead, the battle was more fluid and involved a great deal of cavalry fighting since both sides had five and a half divisions of horsemen. Once routed, the Russians began a retreat towards Lublin with the also defeated Fifth Russian Army which had lost at Komarów. The victorious Austro-Hungarian forces followed, inflicting further losses on the Russians. Prit Buttar estimates 15,000 Austro-Hungarian casualties and 25,000 Russian, including 6,000 taken prisoner. Dankl would in 1917 be honoured with the highly prestigious Commanders' Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa, which automatically conferred a barony upon him as Freiherr von Dankl; in 1918 he was further advanced to the title of count and took the title of Graf Dankl von Kraśnik. His performance handed the Austro-Hungarian Empire its first victory in World War I. However his time as a national hero would be short-lived; Dankl would later be pressured to withdraw toward Kraków. Later in the war he would be stationed on the Italian front where he would serve with much less distinction. The battle of Kraśnik had set off a chain reaction of engagements along the extensive Galicia front, including the action at Lemberg, in what would be referred to as the Battle of Galicia. Unlike the success enjoyed at Kraśnik, the Austro-Hungarians would eventually cave to Russian forces in a series of defeats. By September 11 they were forced to vacate this corner of their empire for a more secure position further south and west, beyond the San River. On a more individual level, the battle was not only a key moment in the career of Dankl but in that of an up-and-coming cavalry officer of Finnish aristocratic descent, Carl Gustaf Mannerheim. Mannherheim led the Separate Cavalry Brigade of the Guard, a unit attached to Salza's Russian Fourth Army. He was awarded with the Sword of St. George for his role at Kraśnik and would later go on to be involved with the various other engagements in the Battle of Galicia.

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    The Battle of Asiago (Battle of the Plateaux) or the Trentino Offensive (in Italian: Battaglia degli Altipiani), nicknamed Strafexpedition ("Punitive expedition") by the Austrians, was a counteroffensive launched by the Austro-Hungarians on the Italian Front on May 15, 1916, during World War I. It was an unexpected attack that took place near Asiago in the province of Vicenza (now in northeast Italy, then on the Italian side of the border between the Kingdom of Italy and Austria-Hungary) after the Fifth Battle of the Isonzo (March 1916). Commemorating this battle and the soldiers killed in World War I is the Asiago War Memorial.

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    Alfred von Schlieffen, Chief of the Imperial German General Staff (Oberste Heeresleitung OHL) from 1891–1906 devised a number of plans that called for winning a decisive battle against the French army in Germany, Belgium or France as the war-situation required. Aufmarsch I West was a contingency plan for a Franco-German war, in which France (due to fewer numbers) would be on the defensive and Germany would attack by invading Belgium between Antwerp and Namur and then advancing south to breach the Verdun–Marne–Paris defensive area. German forces would then hold there until rail-supply could be restored and sufficient stocks of ammunition and food built up, in preparation for a second offensive operation. Helmuth von Moltke the Younger succeeded Schlieffen in 1906 and became convinced that an isolated Franco-German war was impossible and that Italian and Austro-Hungarian forces would not be available to defend the Franco-German border as originally planned. Under Moltke, Aufmarsch I was retired but in 1914 he attempted to apply the offensive strategy of Aufmarsch I to the deployment plan Aufmarsch II and the two-front war it anticipated,

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    The advance did little to settle von Hötzendorf's armies into a fluid front. It would be the insecurity of Auffenberg's right flank, positioned in the Pinsk Marshes that would prove a disaster for Conrad. The Second Army he had designated for the invasion of Serbia, thinking Moltke would have three, not one, army on the Eastern Front, was rerouted to the marshes but it arrived too late, presenting an excellent opportunity to the Russians. The gap left open resulted, before the Battle of Komarów was over, in the lost Battle of Gnila Lipa, further in the lost Battle of Rawa and eventually the fall of the important railhead at Lemberg. 1914 would be a disastrous year for Austria-Hungary. The Battle of Gnila Lipa took place early in the World War I on 29–30 August 1914, when the Imperial Russian Army invaded Galicia and engaged the defending Austro-Hungarian Army. It was part of a larger series of battles known collectively as the Battle of Galicia. The battle ended in a defeat of the Austro-Hungarian forces. The battle is named after a river in Western Ukraine, an historical region of Galicia. It is a tributary of Dniester, and is also called the Hnyla Lypa (Polish: Gnila Lipa). The initial Austro-Hungarian offensive against the invaders in the north of Galicia was a success, gaining victories in the Battles of Kraśnik and Battle of Komarów, in part because the Russian Army had expected the main assault to come further the south near Lemberg and had concentrated their forces there. However, when the Austro-Hungarian Third Army under Rudolf von Brudermann advanced on August 26 with its three Army Corps (XII, III and XI), it encountered a large Russian army consisting of the eight Corps of the Third and Eighth Armies. Fighting on the Zlota Lipa River, the outnumbered Austrians were soundly defeated, and by the end of the day they were in headlong retreat. Army group Kövess also suffered a defeat near Brzezny, though it managed to escape despite being nearly surrounded by the Eighth Army of Aleksei Brusilov. Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf ordered a new line of defence to be established on the Gnila Lipa River. The Russians required two days to regroup their troops, which gave the retreating Austrians time enough to recover. Hötzendorf still hoped he could maintain the initiative, and he ordered the Austrian 3rd Corps to attack the Russians near Peremyshliany. Unfortunately for him, the Russian forces there now numbered 292 battalions with 1,304 artillery pieces, against the Austrian 3rd Corps' 115 battalions and just 376 field guns. The Austrian attack was easily turned back, and a massive Russian counterattack shattered the Austrian lines. Kövess also failed to stop a superior Russian force near Rohatyn. The Austrian forces retreated to Lemberg (Lvov), having suffered 20,000 casualties and lost 70 of their cannons.

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    The Flămânda Offensive (or Flămânda Maneuver, which took place between 29 September and 5 October 1916, was an offensive across the Danube mounted by the Romanian 2nd Army during World War I. The battle represented a consistent effort by the Romanian Army to stop the Central Powers south offensive led by August von Mackensen. The battle ended as a tactical victory for the Central Powers.