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The Battle of Komarow (known in Russia as the Battle of Tomaszów) was a battle on the Eastern Front during World War I. It would prove a victory for the Austro-Hungarian forces, but one they would not be able to reproduce in the coming months of the war. The prewar planning for a joint Austro-German war with Russia entailed an immediate offensive. Helmuth von Moltke and Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf had planned on striking into the bulge presented by the incorporation of Poland into the Russian lines by von Hötzendorf's forces advancing into Southern Poland while two German armies advanced on Warsaw from Silesia in the direction of Warsaw. However, in Moltke's reworking of the Schlieffen Plan he poached the two armies designated for this attack in an effort to strengthen his defences in Alsace-Lorraine. In a huge gamble, Moltke pleaded with Hötzendorf to carry out the planned offensive despite the lack of German help. The numbers were not in Conrad's favor, but he had little choice, if he did not act the Russians would likely move into Silesia and the War would be lost. The Austro-Hungarian First Army under Viktor Dankl had started off the operation well with the Battle of Kraśnik and the momentum passed to the IV Army on his right. The Austro-Hungarian IV army was one of the formations designated for Conrad's offensive. It was commanded by Moritz von Auffenberg. Despite his short wartime career, he would later be considered a very skilled tactician. He was 62 years old at the time of the battle and would at first gain praise for his actions only to become a scapegoat for the Battle of Rawa Russka. His superior, the afore mentioned von Hötzendorf, was a skilled general who would serve in high positions throughout the war. Despite brilliant strategic plans, often adopted by the Germans for joint operations, his lack of tactical adaptation, particularly in 1914, would decimate the ranks of the Empire's most dependable soldiers and officers early in the war. He was stubborn and the resulting casualties in Galicia in 1914, and 1915 would label him a typical Great War butcher general, putting him with the likes of Sir Douglas Haig and Field Marshal Luigi Cadorna in the bowels of history. The Russian Fifth Army opposing Auffenberg was commanded by Pavel von Plehve. Plehve was one of many nobles of German origin living in Tsarist Russia. He proved his loyalty in Galicia with timely reactions and a general offensive attitude. He was later transferred north where he was involved with the not so successful Battle of Łódź and the actions around the Masurian Lakes. Von Auffenberg's forces included 12 Infantry Divisions, three of which were commanded by the skilled Svetozar Boroevic von Bojna, and 3 Cavalry Divisions. The Battle of Komarow コマルフの戦い

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>The Battle of Komarow ~ entailed an immediate offensive. ⇒「コマロフの戦い」(ロシアでは「トマゾフの戦い」として知られる)は、第一次世界大戦中の東部戦線での戦いだった。それは、オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の勝利と判明するが、その後数か月にわたる大戦中に二度と再現することができないような勝利であった。オーストリア‐ドイツ軍が共同してロシアと戦う計画で、即時即座の攻勢に入っていった。 >Helmuth von Moltke and ~ defences in Alsace-Lorraine. ⇒ヘルムート・フォン・モルトケとフランツ・グラフ・コンラッド・フォン・ヘッツェンドルフは、ドイツ軍の2個方面軍がシレジアからワルシャワに進軍してヘッツェンドルフの軍団を南部ポーランドに侵入させる間に、ロシア軍がポーランドをロシア軍戦線に組み入れたことで実現した突出部に対して、それを攻撃することを計画していた。しかし、モルトケは、シュリーフェン計画の修正を求めて、この攻撃用に指定されていた2個方面軍をアルザス‐ロレーヌ防御の強化のために侵害して手に入れた。 >In a huge gamble, Moltke ~ designated for Conrad's offensive. ⇒モルトケは、巨大な賭けの中で、ヘッツェンドルフにドイツ軍の援助なしでも計画された攻撃を実行するように懇願した。コンラッドにとっては数字上の有利はなかった。しかし彼が行動しなければロシア軍がシレジアに移動し、彼はこの戦いを失う可能性があるので、彼としてはほとんど選択肢を持たなかった。ビクトル・ダンクルの下のオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の第1方面軍は、「クラズニクの戦い」でうまく活動を開始し、勢いは右翼の第IV方面軍に渡った。オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍第IV方面軍は、コンラッドの攻勢のために指定された編成隊の1つであった。 >It was commanded by Moritz ~ high positions throughout the war. ⇒それ(編成隊)はモルツ・フォン・アウフェンベルクが指揮をとっていた。彼の短い戦争経歴にもかかわらず、後に彼は非常に熟練した戦術家とみなされることになる。この戦いの時彼は62歳で、最初に賞賛を得たのは「ラファ・ルスカの戦い」のスケープゴート(身代り)になるためだけの行動であった。彼の上司、前述のフォン・ヘッツェンドルフは、戦争中を通じて高い地位で役務する熟練した将軍であった。 >Despite brilliant strategic plans, ~ in the bowels of history. ⇒共同作戦行動のためにしばしばドイツ軍が採用した華麗な戦略的計画にもかかわらず、彼には戦術的適応性が欠けていたので、特に1914年の戦争の初期に帝国の最も頼りになる兵士と将校の階級を衰退させてしまうことになる。彼は頑固で、1914年にガリツィアで死傷者を出し、1915年には典型的な第一次世界大戦の屠殺屋将軍と名付けられ、ダグラス・ヘイグ卿やルイージ・カドルナ元帥の仲間たちと一緒に歴史の中心部に入った。 >The Russian Fifth Army ~ and 3 Cavalry Divisions. ⇒アウフェンベルクに対抗するロシア第5方面軍は、パフェル・フォン・プレフェによって指揮されていた。プレフェは帝政ロシアに住む多くのドイツ起源の貴族の一人であった。彼はガリツィア(の戦い)で時宜を得た反抗と(敵への)総体的な攻撃態度をもって忠誠心を証明した。彼は後に北へ移り、そこで「ウッチの戦い」とマスリアン湖周辺での戦闘行動に関わったが、あまり成功しなかった。フォン・アウフェンベルクの部隊には歩兵12個師団と騎兵3個師団が含まれていたが、12個の歩兵師団のうち3個は熟練したスベトサール・ボロエビッチ・フォン・ボイナが指揮していた。

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