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The Second Battle of the Isonzo was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Italy and of Austria-Hungary in the Italian Front in World War I, between 18 July and 3 August 1915.After the failure of the First Battle of the Isonzo, two weeks earlier, Luigi Cadorna, commander-in-chief of the Italian forces, decided for a new thrust against the Austro-Hungarian lines with heavier artillery support. The overall plans of the Italian offensive were barely changed by the outcomes of the previous fight, besides the role of general Frugoni's Second Army, which this time had, on paper, to carry out only demonstrative attacks all over his front. The major role, assigned to the Duke of Aosta's Third Army, was to conquer Mount San Michele and Mount Cosich, cutting the enemy line and opening the way to Gorizia. General Cadorna's tactics were as simple as they were harsh: after a heavy artillery bombardment his troops were to advance in a frontal assault against the Austro-Hungarian line, overcome the enemy's barbed-wire fences, and take the trenches. The insufficiency of war materiel – from rifles, to artillery shells, to shears to cut barbed wire – nullified the Italians' numerical superiority.The Karst Plateau was the site of an exhausting series of hand-to-hand fights involving the Italian Second and Third Armies, with severe casualties on both sides. Bayonets, swords, knives, and various scrap metal and debris were all used in the terrifying melee. The Austro-Hungarian 20th division lost two-thirds of its effective strength and was routed due to a combination of the successive Italian Army attacks and the unfavorable terrain. On 25 July the Italians occupied the Cappuccio Wood, a position south of Mount San Michele, which was not very steep but dominated quite a large area including the Austro-Hungarian bridgehead of Gorizia from the South. Mount San Michele was briefly held by Italian forces, but was recaptured during a desperate counterattack by Colonel Richter, who commanded a group of elite regiments. In the northern section of the front, the Julian Alps, the Italians managed to overrun Mount Batognica over Kobarid (Caporetto), which would have an important strategic value in future battles. The battle wore down when both sides ran out of ammunition. The total casualties during the three week battle were about 91,000 men, of which 43,000 Italians and 48,000 Austro-Hungarians. The Second Battle of the Isonzo 第二次イゾンツォの戦い

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>The Second Battle of the Isonzo was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Italy and of Austria-Hungary in the Italian Front in World War I, between 18 July and 3 August 1915. After the failure of the First Battle of the Isonzo, two weeks earlier, Luigi Cadorna, commander-in-chief of the Italian forces, decided for a new thrust against the Austro-Hungarian lines with heavier artillery support. ⇒「第二次イゾンツォの戦い」は、1915年7月18日から8月3日の間に、第一次世界大戦のイタリア戦線でイタリア王国とオーストリア-ハンガリーの軍隊間で戦われた。「第一次イゾンツォの戦い」の失敗後、イタリア軍の最高司令官ルイジ・カドルナは(第一次より)強力な砲兵の支援を得て、2週間前からオーストリア-ハンガリー戦線に対する新たな突撃を決定した。 >The overall plans of the Italian offensive were barely changed by the outcomes of the previous fight, besides the role of general Frugoni's Second Army, which this time had, on paper, to carry out only demonstrative attacks all over his front. The major role, assigned to the Duke of Aosta's Third Army, was to conquer Mount San Michele and Mount Cosich, cutting the enemy line and opening the way to Gorizia. ⇒イタリア軍攻勢の全体的計画は、今回はフルゴニの第2方面軍の役割として、紙面上、全面的にデモ攻撃のみを実行すること以外は、前回の戦闘結果とほとんど変更されなかった。アオスタ公の第3方面軍に割り当てられた主な役割は、サン・ミケーレ山とコシッチ山を征服し、敵の戦線を切断し、ゴリツィアへの道を開くことであった。 >General Cadorna's tactics were as simple as they were harsh: after a heavy artillery bombardment his troops were to advance in a frontal assault against the Austro-Hungarian line, overcome the enemy's barbed-wire fences, and take the trenches. The insufficiency of war materiel – from rifles, to artillery shells, to shears to cut barbed wire – nullified the Italians' numerical superiority. ⇒カドルナ将軍の戦術は厳しくかつ単純であった。すなわち、重砲による砲撃の後、彼の部隊がオーストリア-ハンガリー戦線に対して正面攻撃を行い、敵の有刺鉄線の防御柵を乗り越え、塹壕を奪取することになっていた。戦争資材 ―ライフルから砲撃用の砲弾、有刺鉄線を切断するための鋏に至るまで― は不十分で、それはせっかくのイタリア軍の数的優位性を無効にした。 >The Karst Plateau was the site of an exhausting series of hand-to-hand fights involving the Italian Second and Third Armies, with severe casualties on both sides. Bayonets, swords, knives, and various scrap metal and debris were all used in the terrifying melee. The Austro-Hungarian 20th division lost two-thirds of its effective strength and was routed due to a combination of the successive Italian Army attacks and the unfavorable terrain. ⇒カルスト台地は、イタリア軍の第2、第3方面軍を巻き込んだ肉弾戦で、疲労困憊の場となり、両軍ともに重傷を負った。銃剣、刀剣、ナイフ、そしてさまざまな金属の破片が、すべて恐るべき接近戦で使用された。オーストリア-ハンガリー軍の第20師団は、有効な戦力の3分の2を失い、連続したイタリア軍の攻撃と不利な地形の組み合わせの相乗によって敗北を喫した。 >On 25 July the Italians occupied the Cappuccio Wood, a position south of Mount San Michele, which was not very steep but dominated quite a large area including the Austro-Hungarian bridgehead of Gorizia from the South. Mount San Michele was briefly held by Italian forces, but was recaptured during a desperate counterattack by Colonel Richter, who commanded a group of elite regiments. ⇒7月25日、イタリア軍はサン・ミケーレ山の南にあるカプッチョ森を占領した。それはさほどの(見晴らしの効く)斜面ではなかったが、南からゴリツィアのオーストリア-ハンガリー軍の橋頭を含むかなり広い地域に睨みを利かせていた。イタリア軍によってサン・ミケーレ山が一時的に拘束されたが、精鋭連隊グループを指揮したリヒター大佐による決死の反撃の間に奪還された。 >In the northern section of the front, the Julian Alps, the Italians managed to overrun Mount Batognica over Kobarid (Caporetto), which would have an important strategic value in future battles.  The battle wore down when both sides ran out of ammunition. The total casualties during the three week battle were about 91,000 men, of which 43,000 Italians and 48,000 Austro-Hungarians. ⇒北部のジュリアン・アルプス前線では、イタリア軍がコバリード(カポレット)を越えてバトニカ山を制圧した。これは、今後の戦闘で重要な戦略的価値を持つこととなった。  双方が弾薬を使い果たしたとき、戦いは冷えていった。3週間の戦闘中の死傷者総数は約91,000人で、そのうち43,000人がイタリア軍、48,000人がオーストリア-ハンガリー軍の負ったものであった。

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