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On August 22, Alexeyev issued orders to his Fourth and Fifth Armies in an attempt to improve their position in the crash course they were now headed, aimed at a larger, flanking pair of armies. While these orders probably saved the Russian Fourth Army from a possible much worse defeat, it failed to change the nearly pre-ordained outcome of the battle. The battle raged for the following few days. The fighting was not characteristic of the trench warfare that would define the Western Front, and to a lesser extent the Eastern Front. Long term positions were never constructed since neither army could take the time to dig in. Instead, the battle was more fluid and involved a great deal of cavalry fighting since both sides had five and a half divisions of horsemen. Once routed, the Russians began a retreat towards Lublin with the also defeated Fifth Russian Army which had lost at Komarów. The victorious Austro-Hungarian forces followed, inflicting further losses on the Russians. Prit Buttar estimates 15,000 Austro-Hungarian casualties and 25,000 Russian, including 6,000 taken prisoner. Dankl would in 1917 be honoured with the highly prestigious Commanders' Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa, which automatically conferred a barony upon him as Freiherr von Dankl; in 1918 he was further advanced to the title of count and took the title of Graf Dankl von Kraśnik. His performance handed the Austro-Hungarian Empire its first victory in World War I. However his time as a national hero would be short-lived; Dankl would later be pressured to withdraw toward Kraków. Later in the war he would be stationed on the Italian front where he would serve with much less distinction. The battle of Kraśnik had set off a chain reaction of engagements along the extensive Galicia front, including the action at Lemberg, in what would be referred to as the Battle of Galicia. Unlike the success enjoyed at Kraśnik, the Austro-Hungarians would eventually cave to Russian forces in a series of defeats. By September 11 they were forced to vacate this corner of their empire for a more secure position further south and west, beyond the San River. On a more individual level, the battle was not only a key moment in the career of Dankl but in that of an up-and-coming cavalry officer of Finnish aristocratic descent, Carl Gustaf Mannerheim. Mannherheim led the Separate Cavalry Brigade of the Guard, a unit attached to Salza's Russian Fourth Army. He was awarded with the Sword of St. George for his role at Kraśnik and would later go on to be involved with the various other engagements in the Battle of Galicia.

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>On August 22, Alexeyev issued orders to his Fourth and Fifth Armies in an attempt to improve their position in the crash course they were now headed, aimed at a larger, flanking pair of armies. While these orders probably saved the Russian Fourth Army from a possible much worse defeat, it failed to change the nearly pre-ordained outcome of the battle. The battle raged for the following few days. The fighting was not characteristic of the trench warfare that would define the Western Front, and to a lesser extent the Eastern Front.* ⇒8月22日に、アレクセイエフは第4、第5方面軍に命令を出し、現在衝突が進行中の陣地を改善するために、一対をなすより大きな側面隊としての方面軍を目指した。これらの命令は、ロシア第4方面軍をより劣悪な敗北から救ったかもしれないが、あらかじめ行方の定められた(敗戦が予測された)戦闘結果を変えることには失敗した。次の数日間、戦いは激しさを増した。戦闘は、西部戦線を特徴づけた塹壕戦ではなく、東部戦線はそれほどの広がりもなかった。* *この文、意味がよく分かりません。誤訳の節はどうぞ悪しからず。 >Long term positions were never constructed since neither army could take the time to dig in. Instead, the battle was more fluid and involved a great deal of cavalry fighting since both sides had five and a half divisions of horsemen. Once routed, the Russians began a retreat towards Lublin with the also defeated Fifth Russian Army which had lost at Komarów. The victorious Austro-Hungarian forces followed, inflicting further losses on the Russians. Prit Buttar estimates 15,000 Austro-Hungarian casualties and 25,000 Russian, including 6,000 taken prisoner. ⇒どちらの軍も塹壕掘削のための時間が取れないため、長期的な陣地は建設されなかった。その代わりに、両陣営ともに5個半ずつの騎兵隊師団を擁していたので、多くの騎兵が戦いに関与して戦闘がより流動的であった。一旦敗北を喫すると、ロシア軍はコマロフで負けた第5ロシア方面軍ともどもルブリンに向かって退却を始めた。勝利したオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍が後を追って、ロシア軍にさらなる損害を与えた。オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の死傷者は15,000人で、ロシア軍では捕虜6,000人を含んで25,000人であった、とプリット・バターは推定している。 >Dankl would in 1917 be honoured with the highly prestigious Commanders' Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa, which automatically conferred a barony upon him as Freiherr von Dankl; in 1918 he was further advanced to the title of count and took the title of Graf Dankl von Kraśnik. His performance handed the Austro-Hungarian Empire its first victory in World War I. However his time as a national hero would be short-lived; Dankl would later be pressured to withdraw toward Kraków. ⇒1917年、ダンクルは非常に権威のあるマリア・テレジアの軍隊司令官として十字章を授与され、フライヘル(男爵)・フォン・ダンクルとして自動的に男爵領を授かった。1918年、彼はさらに伯爵に昇進し、グラフ(伯爵)・ダンクル・フォン・クラシニクの称号を獲得した。彼の活躍によって、オーストリア‐ハンガリー帝国に第一次世界大戦での最初の勝利がもたらされたのである。しかし、国民的英雄としての(崇められた)時間は短命であった。ダンクルは後にクラコフに撤退するよう圧力をかけられることになる。 >Later in the war he would be stationed on the Italian front where he would serve with much less distinction. The battle of Kraśnik had set off a chain reaction of engagements along the extensive Galicia front, including the action at Lemberg, in what would be referred to as the Battle of Galicia. Unlike the success enjoyed at Kraśnik, the Austro-Hungarians would eventually cave to Russian forces in a series of defeats. By September 11 they were forced to vacate this corner of their empire for a more secure position further south and west, beyond the San River. ⇒戦争の後期に、彼はイタリア軍の前線に駐留することになったが、軍役で目立ったことはほとんどなかった。クラシニクの戦いは、レンベルクでの戦闘行動を含み、広範囲のガリツィア戦線に沿った一連の交戦応報を引き起こしたので、それは「ガリツィアの戦い」と呼ばれた。クラシニクでの成功とは異なり、オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍は最終的に一連の敗北を喫して、ロシア軍に屈服した。彼らは9月11日ごろにサン川を越えてさらに南と西に入った帝国の一角をより安全な陣地のために空けるように強制された。 >On a more individual level, the battle was not only a key moment in the career of Dankl but in that of an up-and-coming cavalry officer of Finnish aristocratic descent, Carl Gustaf Mannerheim. Mannherheim led the Separate Cavalry Brigade of the Guard, a unit attached to Salza's Russian Fourth Army. He was awarded with the Sword of St. George for his role at Kraśnik and would later go on to be involved with the various other engagements in the Battle of Galicia. ⇒より個人的なレベルでは、この戦いはダンクルの戦歴における重要な瞬間であるだけでなく、フィンランド貴族の末裔にして有望な騎兵将校、カール・グスタフ・マンネルハイムの戦いでもあった。マンネルハイムは、ザルツのロシア第4方面軍に所属する部隊の独立騎兵旅団を率いた。彼はクラウニクでの役割に対して「聖ジョージの剣」を授与され、後に「ガリツィアの戦い」における他のさまざまな交戦に関与することになる。

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    The Battle of Wadi Musa was a battle fought between the Arab Army and the Ottoman Empire during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. The battle began when General Djemal Pasha ordered his forces to secure the Hejaz Railway by "any and all means". The Ottoman Army at Ma'an was sent to deal with the North Arab Army. The Ottomans were ambushed by 700 Arab troops, inflicting heavy casualties and capturing 300 men. The remaining Ottoman forces retreated, leaving the railway uncaptured. The Battle of Caporetto in 1917 (also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers), took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in north-western Slovenia, then part of the Austrian Littoral), on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was named after the Italian name of the town (also known as Karfreit in German). Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German units, were able to break into the Italian front line and rout the Italian forces opposing them. The battle was a demonstration of the effectiveness of the use of stormtroopers and the infiltration tactics developed in part by Oskar von Hutier. The use of poison gas by the Germans also played a key role in the collapse of the Italian Second Army. In August 1917 Paul von Hindenburg decided that to keep the Austro-Hungarians in the war, the Germans had to help them defeat the Italian army. Erich Ludendorff was opposed to this but was overruled. In September three experts from the Imperial General Staff, led by the chemist Otto Hahn, went to the Isonzo front to find a site suitable for a gas attack. They proposed attacking the quiet Caporetto sector, where a good road ran west through a mountain valley to the Venetian plain. The Austro-Hungarian Army Group Boroević, commanded by Svetozar Boroević, was prepared for the offensive. In addition, a new 14th Army was formed with nine Austrian and six German divisions, commanded by the German Otto von Below. The Italians inadvertently helped by providing weather information over their radio.[8]Foul weather delayed the attack for two days but on 24 October there was no wind and the front was misted over. The Battle of Caporetto  カポレットの戦い

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    Meanwhile, the 3rd Reserve Division had engaged the Russians' XXII Corps even further south, and after a fierce battle forced them to fall back southeastward; its commander wired Rennenkampf he had been attacked and defeated near Lyck, and could do nothing but withdraw. Rennenkampf ordered a counteroffensive in the north to buy time to reform his lines, managing to push the German XX Corps back a number of miles. However, the Germans did not stop to reform their lines but instead continued their advances in the south and north. This left the victorious Russian troops isolated but still able to retreat to new lines being set up in the east. Now the battle turned decisively in the Germans' favor. By 11 September the Russians had been pushed back to a line running from Insterburg to Angerburg in the north, with a huge flanking maneuver developing to the south. It was at this point that the threat of encirclement appeared possible. Rennenkampf ordered a general retreat toward the Russian border, which happened rapidly under the protection of a strong rear guard. It was this speed that enabled the retreating Russian troops to escape the trap Hindenburg had planned for them. The German commander had ordered his wings to quicken their march as much as possible, but a trivial accident—a rumor of a Russian counterattack—cost the Germans half a day's march, allowing the Russians to escape to the east. These reached Gumbinnen the next day, and Stallupönen on the 13th. The remains of the First Army retreated to the safety of their own border forts. Likewise, the Tenth Army was forced back into Russia. German casualties were about 40,000, Russian 100,000. This was a strategically significant victory for The Eighth Army, completely destroying the Second Army, mauling the First, and ejecting all Russian troops from German soil. Meanwhile, new German corps (under von der Goltz) were able to use this movement to safely move into position to harass the scattered remains of the Second Army, while far to the southwest the new German Ninth was forming up. It would not be long before they were able to face the Russians in a position of numerical superiority. However, this advantage was bought at a cost: the newly arrived corps had been sent from the Western front and their absence would be felt in the upcoming Battle of the Marne. Much of the territory taken by the Germans would later be lost to a Russian counterattack during 25–28 September. Around the same time far south on the Eastern Front, Russian forces routed the Austro-Hungarian army. It took another year before the German and Austro-Hungarian forces were finally able to reverse the Russian advances, pushing them out of Galicia and then Russian Poland.