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The advance did little to settle von Hötzendorf's armies into a fluid front. It would be the insecurity of Auffenberg's right flank, positioned in the Pinsk Marshes that would prove a disaster for Conrad. The Second Army he had designated for the invasion of Serbia, thinking Moltke would have three, not one, army on the Eastern Front, was rerouted to the marshes but it arrived too late, presenting an excellent opportunity to the Russians. The gap left open resulted, before the Battle of Komarów was over, in the lost Battle of Gnila Lipa, further in the lost Battle of Rawa and eventually the fall of the important railhead at Lemberg. 1914 would be a disastrous year for Austria-Hungary. The Battle of Gnila Lipa took place early in the World War I on 29–30 August 1914, when the Imperial Russian Army invaded Galicia and engaged the defending Austro-Hungarian Army. It was part of a larger series of battles known collectively as the Battle of Galicia. The battle ended in a defeat of the Austro-Hungarian forces. The battle is named after a river in Western Ukraine, an historical region of Galicia. It is a tributary of Dniester, and is also called the Hnyla Lypa (Polish: Gnila Lipa). The initial Austro-Hungarian offensive against the invaders in the north of Galicia was a success, gaining victories in the Battles of Kraśnik and Battle of Komarów, in part because the Russian Army had expected the main assault to come further the south near Lemberg and had concentrated their forces there. However, when the Austro-Hungarian Third Army under Rudolf von Brudermann advanced on August 26 with its three Army Corps (XII, III and XI), it encountered a large Russian army consisting of the eight Corps of the Third and Eighth Armies. Fighting on the Zlota Lipa River, the outnumbered Austrians were soundly defeated, and by the end of the day they were in headlong retreat. Army group Kövess also suffered a defeat near Brzezny, though it managed to escape despite being nearly surrounded by the Eighth Army of Aleksei Brusilov. Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf ordered a new line of defence to be established on the Gnila Lipa River. The Russians required two days to regroup their troops, which gave the retreating Austrians time enough to recover. Hötzendorf still hoped he could maintain the initiative, and he ordered the Austrian 3rd Corps to attack the Russians near Peremyshliany. Unfortunately for him, the Russian forces there now numbered 292 battalions with 1,304 artillery pieces, against the Austrian 3rd Corps' 115 battalions and just 376 field guns. The Austrian attack was easily turned back, and a massive Russian counterattack shattered the Austrian lines. Kövess also failed to stop a superior Russian force near Rohatyn. The Austrian forces retreated to Lemberg (Lvov), having suffered 20,000 casualties and lost 70 of their cannons.


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>The advance did little ~ disastrous year for Austria-Hungary. ⇒水気の多い前線での設営は、ほとんどフォン・ヘッツェンドルフ軍隊の前進のためにならなかった。ピンスク湿地に陣を張ったオーフェンベルクの右側面隊にとってそれは不安材料であり、コンラッドにとっては一大災厄になることが必須と思われた。モルトケが東部戦線に1個ならぬ3個方面軍を擁するものと考えて、コンラッドがセルビアへの侵略に割り当てた第2方面軍は、湿地に迂回させられて遅れたため、ロシア軍に格好の機会を提示してしまった。「コマロフの戦い」が終わる前に失った「ニラ・リパの戦い」と、さらにもう1つ失った「ラファの戦い」のせいで、そして結局レンベルクの重要な鉄道兵站駅の崩壊のせいで、(戦線の)間隙が開いたままになった。1914年はオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍にとって悲惨な年になりそうであった。 >The Battle of Gnila Lipa ~ had concentrated their forces there. ⇒第一次世界大戦初期の1914年8月29日-30日、「ニラ・リパの戦い」が起こって、ロシア軍がガリツィアに侵攻し、防御するオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍と会戦した。それは、まとめて「ガリツィアの戦い」として知られる一連の大規模な戦いの一部であった。戦いはオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の敗北で終わった。この戦いは、ガリツィアの歴史的な地域である西ウクライナの川(の名)にちなんで命名された。それはドニエストル川の支流であり、フニラ・リパ(ポーランド語:グニラ・リパ)とも呼ばれる。ガリツィア北部の侵略者(ロシア軍)に対する最初のオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍の攻撃は成功し、「クラシニクの戦い」と「コマロフの戦い」で勝利を得た。ロシア軍は、(オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍による)主要攻撃はもっと南のレンベルクの近くに来ると予想して、彼らの軍団をそこに集中させていたため、というのが一つの理由であった。 >However, when the Austro-Hungarian ~ Eighth Army of Aleksei Brusilov. ⇒しかしながら、8月26日にルドルフ・フォン・ブルダーマン麾下のオーストリア‐ハンガリー第3方面軍がその3個軍団(第XII、第III、および第XI)をもって進軍したとき、彼らは、第3方面軍と第8方面軍の8個軍団から成る大規模なロシア軍に遭遇したのである。数的劣勢のままズロタ・リパ川で戦ったオーストリア軍はすんなりと敗北し、その日の終わりまでに大急ぎで後退した。ケフェス方面軍グループもブルゼズニーの近くで敗北したが、しかしこちらは、アレクセイ・ブルシロフの第8方面軍にほぼ囲まれていたにもかかわらず、逃走することができた。 >Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf ~ and lost 70 of their cannons. ⇒フランツ・コンラッド・フォン・ヘッツェンドルフは、ニラ・リパ川に新たな防衛線の設置を命じた。ロシア軍は、自らの軍隊を再編成するのに2日を必要としたので、それは後退しているオーストリア軍が回復するのに十分な時間を与えた。ヘッツェンドルフは、まだ主導権を維持できることを望んで、オーストリア第3軍団にペレミシリアニー近くのロシア軍を攻撃するよう命令した。(しかし)その彼にとっては不幸にも、オーストリア第3軍団の115個の大隊とわずか376門の野戦砲に対して、ロシア軍は1,304門の大砲を擁する292個の大隊を配置したのである。オーストリア軍の攻撃隊は簡単に押し返され、ロシア軍の大規模な反撃がオーストリア軍の攻撃を打ち砕いた。ケフェスも、ロハチンの近くで優勢なロシア軍を止めることに失敗した。オーストリア軍はレンベルク(ルフォフ)に退却し、20,000人の死傷者を被り、70門の大砲を失った。





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    The Battle of Kraśnik started on August 23, 1914 in the province of Galicia and the adjacent areas across the border in the Russian Empire, in northern Austria (in present-day Poland), and ended two days later. The Austro-Hungarian First Army defeated the Russian Fourth Army. It was the first victory by Austria-Hungary in World War I. As a result, the First Army's commander, General Viktor Dankl, was (briefly) lauded as a national hero for his success. The battle was also the first of a series of engagements between Austria-Hungary and Russia all along the Galicia front. The battle took place soon after the commencement of hostilities on the Eastern Front. In the East, late August and early September 1914 were characterized by a series of small-scale engagements between the Central Powers, Austria-Hungary and Germany, and the Allies, Serbia and Russia. Both sides rushed to mobilize their armies and thrust them headlong toward their frontiers in order to secure their borders and advance upon enemy territory as early as possible. Most of the early clashes tended to result in Russian and Serbian victories. By August 23, Russian forces penetrated fifty miles into Prussia. Austria-Hungary had made minimal advances into Russian Poland by occupying Miechów, unopposed, on August 20. During this early period the First Army was given orders issued by Austro-Hungarian Chief of Staff, Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, to head toward Lublin and Brest-Litovsk in Russian Poland in order to make contact with the enemy and reach the strategic Warsaw-Kiev railroad. The First Army moved along the eastern bank of Vistula River and was to cross the San River, in the far northwest corner of Austro-Hungarian Empire. The First Army was accompanied by the Austro-Hungarian Fourth Army on its eastern flank. At the same time Russian commander Nikolai Ivanov had ordered the Russian Fourth and Fifth Armies to strike Austria-Hungary in the north. Dankl's First Army would make contact with Salza's Fourth Army at Kraśnik while the Austro-Hungarian Fourth Army met the Russian Fifth in the Battle of Komarów. These maneuvers were to become part of a broader battle, the Battle of Galicia. Going into the battle of Kraśnik, the Austro-Hungarian forces enjoyed two key advantages over their Russian opponents: superior numbers and a better strategic position. Dankl's First Army enjoyed a numerical advantage of ten and a half infantry and two cavalry divisions to Baron Salza's six and a half infantry and three and a half cavalry divisions. Chief of Staff Conrad's orders for the First Army further compounded Austro-Hungarian superiority by placing a larger than expected concentration of force further west than Ivanov and Russian Chief of Staff, General Alexeyev, had expected. The Battle of Kraśnik  クラシニクの戦い

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    The Battle of Kostiuchnówka was a World War I battle that took place July 4–6, 1916, near the village of Kostiuchnówka (Kostyukhnivka) and the Styr River in the Volhynia region of modern Ukraine, then part of the Russian Empire. It was a major clash between the Russian Army and the Polish Legions (part of the Austro-Hungarian Army) during the opening phase of the Brusilov Offensive. Polish forces, numbering 5,500–7,300, faced Russian forces numbering over half of the 46th Corps of 26,000. The Polish forces were eventually forced to retreat, but delayed the Russians long enough for the other Austro-Hungarian units in the area to retreat in an organized manner. Polish casualties were approximately 2,000 fatalities and wounded. The battle is considered one of the largest and most vicious of those involving the Polish Legions in World War I.

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    Russian Southwestern Front, Commander-in-chief – Nikolai Ivanov 3rd Army. Commander Radko Dimitriev XI. Corps General Vladimir Sacharow (11. 32. Division) IX. Corps General Dmitry Shcherbachev (5., 42. Division) X. Corps General Zerpitzki (9., 31. Division) XXI. Corps General Shkinski (33., 44. Division) 8th Army. Commander Alexei Brusilov VIII. Corps General Dragomirow (14., 15. Division) XXIV. Corps General Zurikow (48., 49. Division) VII. Corps General Eck (13., 34. Division) Austro-Hungarian Forces[edit] Commander-in-chief – Conrad von Hötzendorf 4th Army. Commander - Archduke Joseph Ferdinand XI. Corps FML Ljubicic (11.,15., 30. Division) XIV. Corps FML. Joseph Roth (3., 8. and 13. Division) German 47. Reserve Division (General Alfred Besser) VI. Corps FML Arz von Straußenburg (39., 45. Division) Cavalry-Corps Herberstein (6., 10., 11. Cavalry-Division) 3rd Army. Commander - General of Infantry Svetozar Boroevic 38. Honved-Division General Sandor Szurmay IX. Corps General Rudolf Kralicek (10., 26. Division) III. Corps General Emil Colerus von Geldern (6., 22., 28. Division) VII. Corps Archduke Joseph of Austria (17., 20. Division) The Russian threat to Krakow was eliminated and the Russians were pushed back across the Carpathians. The Austrian-Hungary forces claimed the battle as a victory. The Battle of Kolubara (Serbian Cyrillic: Колубарска битка, German: Schlacht an der Kolubara) was a campaign fought between Austria-Hungary and Serbia in November and December 1914, during the Serbian Campaign of World War I. It commenced on 16 November, when the Austro-Hungarians under the command of Oskar Potiorek reached the Kolubara River during their third invasion of Serbia that year, having captured the strategic town of Valjevo and forced the Serbian Army to undertake a series of retreats. The Serbs withdrew from Belgrade on 29–30 November, and the city soon fell under Austro-Hungarian control. On 2 December, the Serbian Army launched a surprise counter-attack all along the front. Valjevo and Užice were retaken by the Serbs on 8 December and the Austro-Hungarians retreated to Belgrade, which 5th Army commander Liborius Ritter von Frank deemed to be untenable. The Austro-Hungarians abandoned the city between 14 and 15 December and retreated back into Austria-Hungary, allowing the Serbs to retake their capital the following day. Both the Austro-Hungarians and the Serbs suffered heavy casualties, with more than 20,000 dead on each side. The defeat humiliated Austria-Hungary, which had hoped to occupy Serbia by the end of 1914. On 22 December, Potiorek and von Frank were relieved of their respective commands, and the 5th and 6th armies were merged into a single 5th Army of 95,000 men. The Battle of Kolubara コルバラの戦い

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    Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July and on 1 August military operations began on the Polish border. Libau was bombarded by a German cruiser on 2 August and on 5 August Montenegro declared war on Austria-Hungary. On 6 August Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia and Serbia declared war on Germany; war began between Montenegro and Germany on 8 August. The Battle of Stallupönen (17 August) caused a minor check to the Russian invasion of East Prussia and on 12 August Britain and France declared war on Austria-Hungary, as Austrian forces crossed the Save and seized Shabatz. Next day Austrian forces crossed the Drina and began the first invasion of Serbia. The Battle of Cer (Battle of the Jadar, 17–21 August) began and the Battle of Gumbinnen in East Prussia took place from 19–20 August. On 21 August Austro-Hungarian forces withdrew from Serbia. The Battle of Tannenberg (26–30 August) began in East Prussia and then the Battle of Galicia (23 August – 11 September) the First Battle of Kraśnik was fought in Poland from 23–25 August. Shabatz was retaken by Serbian forces and the last Austrian troops retired across the Drina, ending the First Austrian Invasion of Serbia. The First Battle of Lemberg (26–30 August) began in Galicia and the Battle of Komarów (26 August – 2 September) and the Battle of Gnila Lipa (26–30 August) began in Poland. A naval action took place off the Aaland Islands and a German cruiser SMS Magdeburg ran aground and was intercepted by a Russian squadron.

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    The Battle of Komarow (known in Russia as the Battle of Tomaszów) was a battle on the Eastern Front during World War I. It would prove a victory for the Austro-Hungarian forces, but one they would not be able to reproduce in the coming months of the war. The prewar planning for a joint Austro-German war with Russia entailed an immediate offensive. Helmuth von Moltke and Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf had planned on striking into the bulge presented by the incorporation of Poland into the Russian lines by von Hötzendorf's forces advancing into Southern Poland while two German armies advanced on Warsaw from Silesia in the direction of Warsaw. However, in Moltke's reworking of the Schlieffen Plan he poached the two armies designated for this attack in an effort to strengthen his defences in Alsace-Lorraine. In a huge gamble, Moltke pleaded with Hötzendorf to carry out the planned offensive despite the lack of German help. The numbers were not in Conrad's favor, but he had little choice, if he did not act the Russians would likely move into Silesia and the War would be lost. The Austro-Hungarian First Army under Viktor Dankl had started off the operation well with the Battle of Kraśnik and the momentum passed to the IV Army on his right. The Austro-Hungarian IV army was one of the formations designated for Conrad's offensive. It was commanded by Moritz von Auffenberg. Despite his short wartime career, he would later be considered a very skilled tactician. He was 62 years old at the time of the battle and would at first gain praise for his actions only to become a scapegoat for the Battle of Rawa Russka. His superior, the afore mentioned von Hötzendorf, was a skilled general who would serve in high positions throughout the war. Despite brilliant strategic plans, often adopted by the Germans for joint operations, his lack of tactical adaptation, particularly in 1914, would decimate the ranks of the Empire's most dependable soldiers and officers early in the war. He was stubborn and the resulting casualties in Galicia in 1914, and 1915 would label him a typical Great War butcher general, putting him with the likes of Sir Douglas Haig and Field Marshal Luigi Cadorna in the bowels of history. The Russian Fifth Army opposing Auffenberg was commanded by Pavel von Plehve. Plehve was one of many nobles of German origin living in Tsarist Russia. He proved his loyalty in Galicia with timely reactions and a general offensive attitude. He was later transferred north where he was involved with the not so successful Battle of Łódź and the actions around the Masurian Lakes. Von Auffenberg's forces included 12 Infantry Divisions, three of which were commanded by the skilled Svetozar Boroevic von Bojna, and 3 Cavalry Divisions. The Battle of Komarow コマルフの戦い

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    The Battle of the Vistula River, also known as the Battle of Warsaw, was a Russian victory against the German Empire and Austria-Hungary on the Eastern Front during the First World War. By mid-September 1914 the Russians were driving the Austro-Hungarian Army deep into Galicia, threatening Krakow, and the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia was floundering. The armies that the Russian commander Grand Duke Nicholas was assembling in Poland were still enlarging, including the arrival of crack troops from Siberia, freed by the Japanese declaration of war against Germany on 23 August . Stavka (Russian supreme headquarters) intended for the forces assembled south of Warsaw—500,000 men and 2,400 guns—to march west to invade the German industrial area of Upper Silesia, which was almost undefended. On their Eastern Front the Germans had only one army, the Eighth, which was in East Prussia. It already had mauled two Russian armies at Tannenberg and at the First Battle of the Masurian Lakes. To support the reeling Austro-Hungarian Armies, OHL (Oberste Heeresleitung, German supreme headquarters) formed a new German Ninth Army in Silesia, to be commanded by General Richard von Schubert, with Erich Ludendorff, transferred from Eighth army, as chief of staff. Ludendorff quickly evaluated the situation in Silesia and convinced the new commander at OHL, Erich von Falkenhayn, to strengthen the Ninth army and also to make Paul von Hindenburg commander of both German armies in the east. Ninth army, with headquarters in Breslau, consisted of the XVII, XX, XI, Guard Reserve and Landwehr Corps, as well as a mixed Landwehr Division from Silesia and the Saxon 8th Cavalry Division. In early October, the Army was reinforced by the 35th Reserve Division from East Prussia. Thus, Hindenburg had at his disposal 12 Infantry and one cavalry divisions. On 17 September papers from a dead German officer disclosed to the Russians that four German Corps, which they believed to be in East Prussia, were now in Silesia. To face the threat from Silesia, the Russians withdrew men from East Prussia and from the front facing the Austro-Hungarians The geographical barrier that separated the bulk of the opposing armies was the Vistula River. The Russian corps marching north to fill the gap moved along the east bank of the Vistula, which protected their left flanks. The troop movements involved both the Southwest Front commanded by Nikolay Iudovich Ivanov and the Northwest Front under Nikolai Ruzsky. Their movements were poorly coordinated. The Battle of the Vistula River ヴィスワ川の戦い

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    1 mountain brigade – the 8th Austro-Hungarian brigade reinforced with 2 battalions from the 71st Austro-Hungarian infantry division 1 cavalry brigade 2 infantry divisions In reserve: The 7th Austro-Hungarian cavalry division. The ratio of forces was as follows: Force categories     2nd Romanian Army     Gerok Group     Ratio of forces   Infantry battalions 56 28 2/1 Cavalry squadrons 14 36 1/2.6 Artillery pieces 228 142 1.6/1 In the summer of 1917, one of the largest concentrations of forces in the First World War was located in Romania: 9 armies, 80 infantry and 19 cavalry divisions, totalling 974 battalions, 550 squadrons and 923 artillery batteries. 800,000 combatants and 1,000,000 reservists were present.When the operation began the situation on the Mărăşti-Nămoloasa front was as follows: the 2nd Romanian Army was positioned between Arşiţa Mocanului hill and the commune of Răcoasa. The 9th Russian Army was on its right flank and the 7th Russian Army on its left flank. Each of the three divisions from the first-order vanguard of the 2nd Army covered some 12 km of the front. Facing the Romanians was the right flank of the First Austro-Hungarian Army; more specifically, these were elements of the Gerok Group. The main Austro-Hungarian forces were placed between Momâia hill and Arșița Mocanului hill. Again, each division covered 12 km of the front.The Romanian order for battle provided for the principal offensive to unfold in three phases. The first phase envisioned breaking through the enemy defenses between Încărcătoarea clearing and the village of Mărăşti with the aim of taking Teiuş hill. The 3rd Infantry Division and right-flank forces of the 6th Infantry Division were selected to break through, after which they were to hold the Încărcătoarea clearing–Câmpurile–Vizantea Mânăstirească–Găurile line.

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    On August 22, Alexeyev issued orders to his Fourth and Fifth Armies in an attempt to improve their position in the crash course they were now headed, aimed at a larger, flanking pair of armies. While these orders probably saved the Russian Fourth Army from a possible much worse defeat, it failed to change the nearly pre-ordained outcome of the battle. The battle raged for the following few days. The fighting was not characteristic of the trench warfare that would define the Western Front, and to a lesser extent the Eastern Front. Long term positions were never constructed since neither army could take the time to dig in. Instead, the battle was more fluid and involved a great deal of cavalry fighting since both sides had five and a half divisions of horsemen. Once routed, the Russians began a retreat towards Lublin with the also defeated Fifth Russian Army which had lost at Komarów. The victorious Austro-Hungarian forces followed, inflicting further losses on the Russians. Prit Buttar estimates 15,000 Austro-Hungarian casualties and 25,000 Russian, including 6,000 taken prisoner. Dankl would in 1917 be honoured with the highly prestigious Commanders' Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa, which automatically conferred a barony upon him as Freiherr von Dankl; in 1918 he was further advanced to the title of count and took the title of Graf Dankl von Kraśnik. His performance handed the Austro-Hungarian Empire its first victory in World War I. However his time as a national hero would be short-lived; Dankl would later be pressured to withdraw toward Kraków. Later in the war he would be stationed on the Italian front where he would serve with much less distinction. The battle of Kraśnik had set off a chain reaction of engagements along the extensive Galicia front, including the action at Lemberg, in what would be referred to as the Battle of Galicia. Unlike the success enjoyed at Kraśnik, the Austro-Hungarians would eventually cave to Russian forces in a series of defeats. By September 11 they were forced to vacate this corner of their empire for a more secure position further south and west, beyond the San River. On a more individual level, the battle was not only a key moment in the career of Dankl but in that of an up-and-coming cavalry officer of Finnish aristocratic descent, Carl Gustaf Mannerheim. Mannherheim led the Separate Cavalry Brigade of the Guard, a unit attached to Salza's Russian Fourth Army. He was awarded with the Sword of St. George for his role at Kraśnik and would later go on to be involved with the various other engagements in the Battle of Galicia.

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    The Battle of Wadi Musa was a battle fought between the Arab Army and the Ottoman Empire during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. The battle began when General Djemal Pasha ordered his forces to secure the Hejaz Railway by "any and all means". The Ottoman Army at Ma'an was sent to deal with the North Arab Army. The Ottomans were ambushed by 700 Arab troops, inflicting heavy casualties and capturing 300 men. The remaining Ottoman forces retreated, leaving the railway uncaptured. The Battle of Caporetto in 1917 (also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers), took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in north-western Slovenia, then part of the Austrian Littoral), on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was named after the Italian name of the town (also known as Karfreit in German). Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German units, were able to break into the Italian front line and rout the Italian forces opposing them. The battle was a demonstration of the effectiveness of the use of stormtroopers and the infiltration tactics developed in part by Oskar von Hutier. The use of poison gas by the Germans also played a key role in the collapse of the Italian Second Army. In August 1917 Paul von Hindenburg decided that to keep the Austro-Hungarians in the war, the Germans had to help them defeat the Italian army. Erich Ludendorff was opposed to this but was overruled. In September three experts from the Imperial General Staff, led by the chemist Otto Hahn, went to the Isonzo front to find a site suitable for a gas attack. They proposed attacking the quiet Caporetto sector, where a good road ran west through a mountain valley to the Venetian plain. The Austro-Hungarian Army Group Boroević, commanded by Svetozar Boroević, was prepared for the offensive. In addition, a new 14th Army was formed with nine Austrian and six German divisions, commanded by the German Otto von Below. The Italians inadvertently helped by providing weather information over their radio.[8]Foul weather delayed the attack for two days but on 24 October there was no wind and the front was misted over. The Battle of Caporetto  カポレットの戦い

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    The memoirs of General of Artillery Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein were published in 2001 in German language in Tbilisi, Georgia - Editor Dr. David Paitschadse, publishing house Samschoblo, ISBN 99928-26-62-2, online version can be found here The Second Battle of the Piave River, fought between 15 and 23 June 1918, was a decisive victory for the Italian Army against the Austro-Hungarian Empire during World War I. Though the battle proved to be a decisive blow to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and by extension the Central Powers, its full significance was not initially appreciated in Italy. Yet Erich Ludendorff, on hearing the news, is reported to have said he 'had the sensation of defeat for the first time'. It would later become clear that the battle was in fact the beginning of the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. With the exit of Russia from the war in 1917, Austria-Hungary was now able to devote significant forces to the Italian Front and to receive reinforcements from their German allies. The Austro-Hungarian emperor Karl had reached an agreement with the Germans to undertake a new offensive against Italy, a move supported by both the chief of the general staff Arthur Arz von Straußenburg and the commander of the South Tyrolean Army Group Conrad von Hötzendorf. In the autumn of 1917, the Germans and Austrians had defeated the Italians at the Battle of Caporetto. After Caporetto, the Italians fell back to the Piave and were reinforced by six French infantry divisions and five British infantry divisions as well as sizeable air contingents.Italy's defeat at Caporetto led to General Luigi Cadorna's dismissal and General Armando Diaz replaced him as Chief of staff of the Italian Army. Diaz set up a strong defense line along the Piave. Up until this point in the war, the Italian army had been fighting alone against the Central Powers; with the defeat at Caporetto, France and Britain sent small reinforcements on the Italian front. These, besides accounting for less than a tenth of the Italian forces in theater, had however to be redirected for the major part to the Western Front as soon as the German Spring Offensive began in March 1918.The Austro-Hungarian Army had also recently undergone a change in command, and the new Austrian Chief of Staff, Arthur Arz von Straußenburg, wished to finish off the Italians. After Caporetto, the Austro-Hungarian offensive had put many Italian cities, including Venice and Verona, under the threat of the Central Powers. The Second Battle of the Piave River 第二次ピアーヴェ川の戦い